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“Leadership is leading.


—Geraldine Bednash

Leadership

Leadership

The need to develop


nursing leadership skills   A vital component of change (Bednash, 2003)
has never been greater   The process of persuasion and example by which
than it is today. What an individual (or leadership team) induces a group
contemporary factors to pursue objectives held by the leader or shared
are driving this need for by the leader and his or her followers (Gardner,
nursing leadership 1990)
skills?   The art of getting work done through others
willingly

Leadership Requires:
A job title alone does not make a person a leader.
Only a person’s behavior determines if he or she
occupies a leadership position.
Getting very clear about your
values,
taking risks, and having a
willingness to seek partners and
collaborators who will commit to
the common good.

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Leadership Skills
Leadership Roles

  Coach •  Skills in personal behavior


  Decision maker   Counselor
  Communicator   Teacher > sensitivity to the feelings of others,
  Evaluator Forecaster
Facilitator
 
> identification with the needs of the group,
    Visionary
  Risk-taker   Influencer > acceptance of other people's suggestion
  Energizer Creative Problem Solver
  Mentor
 
  Change Agent
rather than criticizing or ridiculing them and
  Critical Thinker   Diplomat > helping others feel important and needed.
  Buffer   Role Model
  Advocate

Leadership Skills Leadership Skills

•  Communication skills •  Organization skills


 ability to listen attentively to the opinions of > willingness to assist the group in making
others short and long range plans and objectives
 establish positive communication within group > to share responsibilities and opportunities
and make sure everyone understands what are > to implement plans, follow-up and evaluate
expected of them results > to participate in problem-solving.
 getting feedback from followers
 recognizing that everyone may have important
contributions to make

Leadership Skills Essential Qualities of Nurse Leaders

The nurse leader should have


•  Skills in self analysis   intellectual, technical, and administrative
skills;
 awareness of personal motivations of own   integrity, honesty, ability to work with others;
strengths and weaknesses   tact and emotional stability;
  willingness to improve   ability to win the support and loyalty of fellow-
 assisting the group in recognizing and utilizing workers; and
the Filipino values essential to caring for their   good human relationships with co-workers.
patients.

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Great Man Trait Theories

Theories in Leadership The Great Man theory, from


Aristotelian philosophy, asserts
that some people are born to lead
whereas others are born to be
led. It also suggests that great
leaders will arise when the
situation demands it.

Trait theories Classification of Trait Theory

  Assume that some people have certain   Physical characteristics – age, built, height, weight,
bearing
characteristics or personality traits that make
  Background information – education, social status,
them better leaders than others. experience.
  Trait theory is based on the belief that leaders   Intelligence – knowledge, judgment, ability
are born with certain qualities that properly   Personality – decisiveness, authority, extroversion,
develop to enable them to be successful alertness, aggressiveness, enthusiasm, independence,
leaders self-confidence.
  Task-oriented characteristics – persistence,
responsibility, achievement, initiative
  Social characteristics – supervisory, activity, popularity,
prestige, tact, diplomacy.

Behavioral Theories The Autocratic Leader

  Kurt Lewin, Ralph K. White and


Characteristic behaviors:
Ronald Lippit ( 1960) isolated the • Strong control is maintained over
common leadership styles such as the work group.
authoritarian, democratic, and laissez- • Others are motivated by coercion.
• Others are directed with
fair leadership. For some time, theorist commands.
believed that leaders had a • Communication flows downward.
• Decision making does not involve
predominant leadership style and used others.
it consistently. • Emphasis is on difference in status
("I" and "you").
• Criticism is punitive.

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The Democratic Leader The Laissez-Faire Leader

Characteristic behaviors: Characteristic behaviors:


• Less control is maintained. • Is permissive, with little or no
• Economic and ego awards are used control.
to motivate. • Motivates by support when requested
• Others are directed through by the group or individuals.
suggestions and guidance. • Provides little or no direction.
• Communication flows up and • Uses upward and downward
down. communication between members of
• Decision making involves others. the group
• Emphasis is on "we" rather than "I" • Disperses decision making
and "you." throughout the group.
• Criticism is constructive. • Places emphasis on the group.
• Does not criticize,

Situational Leadership Theories Situational Leadership Theories

  The leader behaves according to a given There are five kinds of leaders under this theory
situation which may vary from one setting to 1.  The natural leader who becomes a leader inspite of

the other himself or herself. He or she does not seek the role
but tie group thrusts the leadership upon him/her by
  It considers a person’s qualities and the tide of events.
motivations, the role expectations of the 2.  The charismatic leader who is an authentic hero in
group, and the social forces at work such as the eyes of his followers. To them he/she can do no
the external factors that bring forth the wrong. He/ She inspire people to make sacrifices for
leadership potential the cause they represent.

Situational Leadership Theories


Situational Leadership

3.  The rational leader who is consistent and   Hersey and Blanchard (1977) also
persistent in what he/she thinks is right. developed a situational approach to
4.  The consensus leader who is perceived to leadership.
be acceptable to all. He/ She rises in the   Leadership style is most appropriate in each
absence of the above three. situation based on the level of the followers'
5.  The coercive leader who dominates by maturity.
force and fear.   As people mature, leadership style becomes
less task focused and more relationship
oriented.

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Contingency Leadership Theories
Situational Leadership

  Knight Fiedler's (1967) contingency


  Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) built on the work
of Lewin and White, suggesting that managers need approach reinforced these findings,
varying mixtures of autocratic and democratic suggesting that no one leadership style is
leadership behavior. ideal for every situation.
  Fiedler felt that the interrelationships between
  They believed that the primary determinants of the group's leader and its members were
leadership style should include the nature of the most influenced by the manager's ability to be
situation, the skills of the manager, and the
a good leader.
abilities of the group members.

Interactional Leadership Theories Interactional Leadership Theories

  The basic premise of interactional   According to Hollander, a leadership exchange


involves three basic elements:
theory is that leadership behavior is
  The leader, including his or her personality,
generally determined by the relationship perceptions, and abilities
between the leader's personality and   The followers, with their personalities, perceptions,
the specific situation. and abilities
  The situation within which the leader and the
followers function, including formal and informal
group norms, size, and density

Interactional Leadership Theories Interactional Leadership Theories

  Brandt's (1994) interactive leadership model   Wolf, Boland, and Aukerman (1994) also
suggests that leaders develop a work emphasized an interactive leadership model
environment that fosters autonomy and in their creation of a collaborative practice
creativity through valuing and empowering matrix.
followers.
  This leadership "affirms the uniqueness of   This matrix highlights the framework for the
each individual," motivating them to development and ongoing support of
"contribute their unique talents to a common relationships between and among
goal." professionals working together.

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Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership

  Focuses on   Identifies common


management tasks values
  Is a caretaker   Is committed
  Uses trade-offs to meet   Inspires others with
goals vision
  Does not identify shared   Has long-term vision
values   Looks at effects
  Examines causes   Empowers others
  Uses contingency
reward

Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership

  Bass  (1985)  has  described  transforma7onal  leaders  in     Warren  Bennis  and  Burt  Nanus  (1985)  indicate  that  leaders  
terms  of     do  the  right  things  ,  whereas  managers  do  things  right.  
Leaders  focus  on  effec7veness,  managers  deal  with  
  Charisma   efficiency  
       Inspira7onal  leadership     Bennis  and  Nanus  iden7fy  four  strategies  for  taking  
charge:  
       Individualized  considera7on  
1.  aKen7on  through  vision  
       Intellectual  s7mula7on  
2.  meaning  through  communica7on  
3.  trust  through  posi7oning  
4.  deployment  of  self  

Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership

  James  Kouzes  and  Barry  Posner  (  1987,  1990)  iden7fy  five  basic     Bernard  Bass  and  Bruce  Avolio  (1993)  indicate  that  
prac7ces    and  10  specific    behavior    that  leadership  involves  
transforma7onal  leaders  change  the  organiza7on’s    
1.  challenging  the  process  by  searching  for  opportuni7es  and  
experimen7ng  and  taking  risks   culture  with  new  vision  and  revision  of  assump7ons,  
2.  inspiring  a  shared  vision  by  envisioning  the  future  and  enlis7ng   values  and  norms  
others     They  iden7fy  four    components  that  characterize  
3.  enabling  others  to  act  by  fostering  collabora7on  and   transforma7onal  leaders:  
strengthening  others  
1.  idealized  influence  
4.  modeling  the  way  by  seVng  example  and  planning  small  wins  
5.  encouraging  the  heart  by  recognizing  individual  contribu7ons  
2.  inspira7onal  mo7va7on  
and  celebra7ng  accomplishments   3.  intellectual  s7mula7on  
4.  individualized  considera7on  

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Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership

  William  HiK  (1993)    defines  leadership  as  affec7ng  people     He  also  iden7fies  six  core  func7ons  of  leaders  
so  that  they  will  strive  willingly  toward  group  goals  
1.  valuing  
  He  iden7fies  five    types  of  knowledge    needed  by  a  leader:  
1.  knowing  self  
2.  visioning  
2.  knowing  the  job   3.  coaching  
3.  knowing  the  organiza7on   4.  empowering  
4.  knowing  the  business  and  func7ons  of  leaders   5.  team-­‐building  
6.  promo7ng  quality  

Managers and Leaders PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

  Have  a  dream  that  will  leave  this  world  a  be1er  place  


Managers  
Leaders   •  "is  there  anything  worse  then  being  blind?  Yes  The  most  pathe7c  
  Are  always  assigned  a  
  Oaen  do  not  have   person  in  the  whole  world  is  someone  who  has  sight  but  has  no  
delegated  authority,  but   posi7on  within  an   vision."  so  said  Helm    Keller.  
obtain  their  power   organiza7on.   •  Leadership  is  simply  the  ability  to  turn  a  dream  or  a  vision  of  a  
through  other  means.     Have    a  legi7mate  source  of   desired  future  state  into  a  reality  with  and  through  the  
  Have  a  wider  variety  of   power  due  to  the  delegated   coopera7on  other  people.  To  throw  your  life  into  something  
roles  than  managers.   worthwhile,  your  dream  must  be  worth  dying  for.  
authority  that  accompanies  
  Are  frequently  not  part  of   their  posi7on.  
the  formal  organiza7on.     Are  expected  to  carry  out  
  Focus  on  group  process,   specific  func7ons.  
informa7on  gathering,     Emphasize  control,  decision  
feedback,  and   making,  decision  analysis,  
empowering  others.  
and  results.  

PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

  Know  what  your  strengths  are     Strive  for  excellence  


•  We  need  to  surround  ourselves  with  people  to  fill  in  our  gaps.   •  The  people  you  want  to  influence  will  not  rise  to  a  higher  
Seventy-­‐nine  year-­‐old  muriel  tower,  an  experienced   standard  of  excellence  than  what  they  observe  in  you    
entrepreneur,  said.  "you  get  things  done  through  other  people.   •  The  authors  of  megatrends  for  women  write.,  "male  or  female.  
Number  one  in  business  is  get  the  best  person  for  the  job.   the  effec7ve  leader  wins  commitment  by  seVng  an  example  of  
Number  two,  delegate.  Number  three,  supervise-­‐go  back  and  see   excellence  “  
that  they  did  it.“   •  We  wanted  to  influence  leaders  and  we  had  to  do  things  right,  not  
•  In  order  to  be  effec7ve,  you  need  a  team  to  work  with.  We  lead   only  do  the  right  things.  Leaders  must  strive  for  excellence  
on  the  basis  of  our  strengths;  we  gather  our  team  on  the  basis  of   •  Strive  for  excellence  and  you  will  mo7vate  others  to  do  the  same    
their  strengths.  
     

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PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

  Be  persistent     Be  willing  to  stand  alone  


•  Mother  Teresa  was  a  determined  woman  Margaret  thatcher  was   •  If  you  have  a  passion,  a  dream  or  a  mission,  set  measurable  goals  
a  determined  woman  The  key  to  being  a  good  leader  is   and  work  toward  accomplishing  them  You  will  find  that  many  
endurance-­‐being  a  non-­‐quiKer  and  be  encouraged  to  quit  by   7mes  you  may  have  to  work  Alone  You  will  probably  be  lonely.  
those  who  are  friends  and  enemies.  Be  willing  to  throw  in  the   •  People  are  looking  for  leaders  who  are  willing  to  give  it  all  they  
towel.  Be  determined.   have,  and  they  will  follow-­‐for  a  while  However,  when  the  going  
•   In  order  to  leave  this  world  a  different  place,  you  have  to  be   gets  tough.  when  pleasure  and  comfort  compete  with  
persistent.  Leaders  don't  grow  in  a  comfort  zone.  Leaders  are  not   responsibility  and  long  hours,  followers  will  drop  away.  That  is  
people  with  excep7onal  talent;  they  are  people  who  have  learned   when  you  have  to  be  sure  that  what  you  are  doing  is  right,  so  that  
from  their  mistakes  and  get  up  and  try  again.   you  will  keep  going  
•  Persistence  is  a  key  to  effec7ve  leadership     •  James  Cook  said,  "A  person  who  wants  to  lead  the  orchestra  must  
turn  his  back  on  the  crowd."  

PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

   BE  READY  FOR  RESISTANCE     Set  an  example  for  your  staff  
•  One  of  the  facts  of  life  is  that  when  you  are  in  leadership,  you   •  "Work  hard  and  become  a  leader:  be  lazy  and  never  succeed."  
have  to  solve  problems.   •  I  am  amazed  at  how  oaen  people  want  a  posi7on.  Nit  not  the  
•  Pastor  Lloyd  Ogilvie,  for  many  years  the  senior  pastor  at  First   responsibility.  It  is  natural  to  want  to  escape  responsibility;  we  all  
Presbyterian  Church  of  Hollywood,  California  and  now  Chaplain  of   do  it.  However.  being  a  leader  means  working  long  hours  It  means  
the  U.S.  Senate,  once  observed  that  "Everyone  has  problems;  if   being  available  to  solve  problems  or  give  direc7on  whenever  
you  don't  have  any  now,  you  will  have  problems:  wherever  you   necessary  Being  a  leader  means  being  a  servant,  whether  you  are  
work  or  live,  you'll  have  problems,  or  you  just  might  be  someone   in  your  home  or  at  work  You  are  always  on  call  
else's  problem."   •  A  Leader  Works  Hard    

PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

Good Luck!
  Let  God  be  your  guide  
Be a leader and a manager
•  Elizabeth  Dole,  President  of  the  American  Red  Cross,  stated  in  an   in
interview  "To  me  it's  very  important  to  know  I  have  a  source  of  
strength  beyond  my  own  When  I'm  undertaking  a  difficult  assignment  
or  making  a  tough  decision  I'm  glad  I  don't  have  to  rely  on  my  own  
energy,  wisdom,  and  judgement  "  
•  Twenty-­‐four  years  ago.  I  realized  I  needed  a  source  of  strength  
beyond  myself.  The  goals  I  had  set  for  myself  were  not  sa7sfying  and  
your own good ways.
even  rela7onships  did  not  fill  my  deepest  need.  At  the  age  of  thirty  
two,  I  gave  the  control  of  my  life  to  God.  He  is  that  source  of  strength  
Start today!
I  needed.  I  simply  prayed,  “I  want  you  to  be  my  guide  from  now  un7l  I  
die.”  He  heard  me.