A MULTI-ALGORITHMIC FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

A Research Paper Report submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Degree of B.Sc. (H) Computer Science

Submitted by:SAKSHI KAPOOR Roll number: 6010239 NAINI GUPTA Roll number: 6010229

KESHAV MAHAVIDYALAYA (UNIVERSITY OF DELHI) PITAMPURA, DELHI – 34 E-mail: admin@keshavmv.org Ph : 27018805, Fax : 27018806

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the paper entitled “FACE RECOGNITION” is the research work studied by SAKSHI KAPOOR and NAINI GUPTA at KESHAV MAHAVIDYALAYA for the partial fulfillment of B.Sc. (H) Computer Science Degree. This report has not been submitted to any other organization for the award & any other Degree/ Diploma.

SAKSHI KAPOOR (6010239) NAINI GUPTA (6010229) Dr. Ajay Arora (Acting Principal)

Mr. RAVI KUMAR YADAV (Supervisor)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It our proud privilege to acknowledge the keen interest and valuable guidance rendered to us by Mr.Sc. Sakshi Kapoor (6010239) B. It is because of his guidance and constant encouragement that we have been able to accomplish the task of studying the research paper titled “A Multi-Algorithmic Face Recognition System” and submit the report on it.(H) Comp Sc. (VIth sem) Keshav Mahavidyalaya . Ravi Kumar Yadav.Sc. (VIth sem) Keshav Mahavidyalaya Naini Gupta(6010229) B.(H) Comp Sc.

INTRODUCTION 4. APPROACHES OF FACE RECOGNITION 5. METHODS OF FACE RECOGNITION 7. REFERENCE . USES OF FACE RECOGNITION 9.CONTENTS 1. RESULT 10. ABSTRACT 2. MULTI-ALGOROTHMIC APPROACH 8. HISTORY OF FACE RECOGNITION 3. TYPES OF FACE RECOGNITION 6.

ABSTRACT In this paper we have studied the research paper entitled ‘A MultiAlgorithmic Face recognition System’. Development of biometric system for personal identification fulfils the requirements for access control of secured areas and other applications like identity validation for social welfare. The present circumstances around us demand increased level of security and so its importance is growing in the present scenario of global security concern. These may be based on characteristics like finger print. iris etc. computer security etc. ATM access. Biometrics is used to establish personal authenticity and to detect impostors. . gait etc. power consumption and cost become critical issues. There are several biometric techniques. or on traits like voice dynamics. As face recognition algorithms move from research labs to the real world. these requirements are felt to be the need of the day. crime detection. Face Recognition is an important part of today’s emerging biometrics.

In the past. leading to a high rate of failure. This created quite a problem. facial expression. with little variance of light or facial expression from the image in the database. yet computers only recently have shown the same ability. scientists began work on using the computer to recognize human faces. To be effective and accurate. . This resulted in the development of successful algorithms in the field of face recognition. In most instances the images were not taken in a controlled environment. location. the image captured needed to be of a face that was looking almost directly at the camera. There has been a significant increase in the research activity. Face identification from a single image is a challenging task because of variable factors like alterations in scale. so they couldn't be matched to any face in the database. Since then. lighting condition and overall appearance of the face. pose.HISTORY Humans have always had the innate ability to recognize and distinguish between faces. facial recognition software has come a long way. Even the smallest changes in light or orientation could reduce the effectiveness of the system. facial recognition software has relied on a 2D image to compare or identify another 2D image from the database. In the mid 1960s.

Face recognition takes different approaches. keys or passwords. Biometric signatures can not be stolen.INTRODUCTION In present scenario of global security concern. Face Recognition is the ability to recognize people by their facial characteristics. each of which has its own advantages and challenges. forgotten. Biometric techniques can be based on physiological characteristics like finger prints etc or behavioral traits like voice dynamics etc. mobile devices. The goal of face recognition is to determine the identity of an individual based on a still image or video sequence. Choosing a particular biometric depends on the suitability in a particular situation. Using the technique of facial recognition users can be granted secure access to their computer. We selected the face based approach. biometrics is used to establish the identity of a person. But this is possible in the case of authentication employing cards. lost or communicated to another. simply by looking into their web camera. The possible approaches to face recognition can be:• Face recognition from still images • Face recognition from video .

FACE RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO FACE RECOGNITION FROM STILL IMAGE .

Block diagrams showing the above two approaches to face recognition Still image Video Image FACE & FEATURE DETECTION & TRACKING FACE DETECTION FEATURE LOCALIZATION FEATURE NORMALIZATION FEATURE NORMALIZATION FACE IMAGE IN NORMALIZED FRAME FACE IMAGE IN NORMALIZED FRAME FACE CLASSIFICATION FACE CLASSIFICATION RECOGNITION RESULT RECOGNITION RESULT FACE RECOGNITION FROM STILL IMAGE FACE RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO .

The computer can distinguish the same person with different appearances. change of hair style and seasonal skin color changes. for example. .Facial Recognition System is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. with or without glasses.

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Most common by far is 2D face recognition. 2D face recognition is easier and less expensive compared to other approaches. Research has also been carried out using 3D images resulting in reduced sensitivity to factors such as makeup and changes in illumination but with the disadvantage that the scanners are more expensive and the 3D images are not backwards-compatible with existing photo databases. using images captured by a standard camera. is used as though it refers to a single type of technology but in fact it constitutes a heterogeneous group of technologies which all work with the face but use different scanning techniques. . An alternative approach is to use infra-red (IR) radiation to scan facial heat patterns though this is not a prime area of research. face recognition. but the technical challenges are greater (systems cope badly with variations in face orientation and lighting conditions) leading to lower accuracy rates.DIFFERENT TYPES OF FACE RECOGNITION The term.

surprise. then the incoming 3D image is directly passed to the neutral expression face recognition system. fear. According to different expressions a matching face recognition system is then applied.3D IMAGING TECHNOLOGY A newly-emerging trend in facial recognition software uses a 3D model. more and more attention ahs been directed to 3D face recognition. to get the closest match.to identify the subject. such as the curves of the eye socket. This uses the feature of the image to directly match those of the gallery images. Capturing a real-time 3D image of a person's facial surface. sadness. If the expression found is not neutral. disgust and neutral expression. The incoming 3D range image is processed by an expression recognition system to find the most appropriate expression label for it. These areas are all unique and don't change over time.where rigid tissue and bone is most apparent. These are happiness. 3D facial recognition can even be used in darkness and has the ability to recognize a subject at different view angles With the development of 3D imaging technology. which claims to provide more accuracy. The expression labels include the six expressions of the face. which are all neutral. then for each of the six expressions. . anger. 3D facial recognition uses distinctive features of the face -. If the expression is recognized as neutral. nose and chin -. The system finds the right face through modeling the variations of the face features between the neutral face and the face with expression. a separate face recognition subsystem is used.

an algorithm (a step-by-step . When a 3D image is taken. Alignment Once it detects a face. The subject has the potential to be recognized up to 90 degrees. Representation The system translates the template into a unique code. the outside of the eye. Matching If the image is 3D and the database contains 3D images. For example. Measurement The system then measures the curves of the face on a sub-millimeter (or microwave) scale and creates a template. Once those measurements are in place. New technology is addressing this challenge. 3D provides a live. there is a challenge currently facing databases that are still in 2D images. stable image. the inside of the eye and the tip of the nose will be pulled out and measured. the system goes through a series of steps to verify the identity of an individual. while with 2D. different points (usually three) are identified. size and pose.Using the 3D software. moving variable subject being compared to a flat. However. then matching will take place without any changes being made to the image. This coding gives each template a set of numbers to represent the features on a subject's face. Detection Acquiring an image can be accomplished by digitally scanning an existing photograph (2D) or by using a video image to acquire a live picture of a subject (3D). the head must be turned at least 35 degrees toward the camera. the system determines the head's position.

If identification is the goal. you may take an image and compare it to a database of mug shots to identify who the subject is. Verification or Identification In verification. For example. the software will then compare the image with the 2D images in the database to find a potential match. In this instance. . an image taken of a subject may be matched to an image in the Department of Motor Vehicles database to verify the subject is who he says he is. an image is matched to only one image in the database (1:1). After conversion.procedure) will be applied to the image to convert it to a 2D image. then the image is compared to all images in the database resulting in a score for each potential match (1: N).

3D FACE RECOGNITION .

FACE RECOGNITION METHODS With the efforts of researchers. Prominent approaches among these are • Principal Component Analysis (PCA) • Local Feature Analysis (LFA) • Template Matching • Neural Network • Partitioned Iterated Function System (PIFS) • Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT) . various frameworks have evolved for solving the problem of face recognition.

A set of weightages is obtained for projecting a facial image on the face space. It proved to be unsuitable when the final decision on granting access is required to be in an automated way. . Recognition is based on the distance of set of weightages of the projected query face from the distances of set of weightages of the projected reference faces. (a) Sample registration image gallery (b) the corresponding eigenfaces from database. The PCA based face recognition software was unable to extract the correct match to be the best match in few cases.PCA-based Approach Face detection is carried out from the captured images and then eigenface are computed.

Discrete cosine transform of face image is computed. DCT-based face recognition software was unable to extract the correct face to be the best match in few cases. nose. comprising of eyes. This template is stored in the reference database. is selected. DCT implementation alone was unsuitable for access control application. Thus. First the facial image is grabbed and its location is detected and normalized. mouth. After this a facial template. DCT codes are also extracted from the facial images and stored in the database.DCT-based Approach Face detection is carried out from a given image. Query image is grabbed and then it is normalized . PCA analysis is then carried out of the facial image to compute the eigenvectors. from which set of weightages are calculated and stored. The recognition is based on the distance of the DCT code of the query face from the reference DCT codes in the database. Sample face The corresponding DCT plot from database Multi-algorithmic approach Multi-algorithmic approach based on PCA followed by template matching and DCT followed by template matching was tried.

t.r.w. USES OF RECOGNITION SYSTEMS . matching is carried out. Using these signatures. The PCA and DCT signatures are extracted. size and illumination.

The U. When a foreign traveler receives his visa. surveillance. . those same fingerprints and photographs will be used to verify that the person who received the visa is the same person attempting to gain entry. They are now compatible with cameras and computers that are already in use by banks and airports.S.In the past. These used the system to capture random faces in crowds. When the traveler arrives in the United States at the port of entry. Face recognition has wide potential applications and it meets the security needs of today’s world. Face based biometric systems have the potential to fulfill the requirements for access control of secured areas. aimed at foreign travelers gaining entry to the United States. Some government agencies have also been using the systems for security and to eliminate voter fraud. social welfare. As the systems become less expensive. there are now many more situations where the software is becoming popular. he will submit fingerprints and have his photograph taken. The fingerprints and photograph are checked against a database of known criminals and suspected terrorists. law enforcement etc. making their use more widespread. government has recently begun a program called US-VISIT. However. the primary users of facial recognition have been law enforcement agencies.

the ATM or check-cashing kiosk captures a digital image of him. After a customer consents. CONCLUSIONS . The facial recognition software is able to quickly verify a customer's face.Other potential applications include ATM and check-cashing security.

Various approaches for facial recognition were analyzed by calculating the ratio of cases where best match is correct match to the total attempts. It was observed that combining two facial recognition techniques improved the recognition rate. When PCA (followed by correlation technique) and DCT (followed by correlation technique) methods are combined. the recognition rate improved to 89%. REFERENCES .

Flinchbaugh.K. B. 3. H. Vinod. Hayes III. joshi. chadda and Apurva Bajpai.00.2542. “A DSP-based approach for the implementation of Face Recognition algorithms”. 2003. 2006.htm/printable .com/facial-recognition. Armando Barreto. Dilip G. 4.asp 5. “A Multi-Algorithmic Face Recognition system”. M.com/encyclopedia_term/0. A.pcmag. Swati Hiremath. “A Integrated 3D Face-expression Recognition approach”. 2. http://www.howstuffworks. 2006. Chao Li. E. http://computer.t=face+recognition &i=42969. Soumitra Kar.1. Batur. U.

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