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Unit 5

Computer Aided Design

Associate Professor/EEE
Advantages of
Computer Aided Design
 The modern practice is computer aided design of
electrical apparatus.
 This method has the advantages of flexibility,
speed and accuracy.
 Graphical display of the machine as well as its
view from different angles is possible.
 Modification of design can be done very quickly.
 Vast quantities of data can be handled and large
number of logical steps can be executed
accurately within short time.
Computer Aided Design
 Conventional design involves cumbersome hand
 Computer Aided Design involves computer
 Data is given to computer and computer gives all
values of design solution.
 If data is modified, the corresponding design
solution is obtained in a fraction of a second.
 Thus design work is made easy, fast and flexible.
Objectives of
Machine Design
1. Lower Cost
2. Smaller Size
3. Wider temperature limits of operatability
4. Lower Weight
with judicious use of materials at the
Computers in design

1. Once a program has been developed and fully

implemented on a computer, all future designs are
nothing but routine computations largely
independent of designer's skill.

2. Highly trained designers are thus relieved of routine

tasks and may be utilised for developmental work.

3. A computer can only work on exact information.

Though it can reduce empiricism and handle non-
linearities, it has neither the 'feel' nor the intuition of
a designer. Feeding exact information to the computer
means formulation of mathematical relationships
between various functional variables, keeping in mind
their relative importance in the design.

4. Thus, for successful use of computer in design it is

essential that the design principles are thoroughly
understood. Again, computer can be effectively used
as a means of this understanding, so that the
mathematical relationships between the variables
could be more correct.

5. The designer breaks down the complete design

process into several parts, assigns routine tasks to
the computer to obtain a series of intermediate
results. He uses his skill and judgment for the
decisions which are dependent upon experience and
human ability to detect trends, based on which
he feeds further information to the computer to arrive
at a final solution.
Thus it combines skill and judgment of the
designer with the fast computing power of the

6. Computer's ability to furnish optimum design by sorting

through a large number of different combinations. is a
good feature However, optimisation through
total computerisation is often difficult specially with
electrical machines due to a large number of available
frame sizes, magnetic materials, and wire gauges.
Such approach involves so much logic that
formulation is difficult. and often requires storing of
relatively large amount of data. Moreover, it is very
difficult to let a number of designers to agree with one
formulation of logic as the best one.
On the contrary, optimisation through continuous
interaction between the designer and the computer
has been more effective specially for electrical
machines, though it is costlier in terms of operation
Major Divisions of Design
1. Design of electric circuit
2. Mechanical design
3. Design of magnetic circuit
4. Thermal design
with performance analysis.
For computer-aided design, the above problems are often treated
separately, even broken down into simple elements and
considered as individual problem.
The results are then combined.
1. Given specification consists of performance
requirements as defined by customer's need and
Indian Standard Specifications.

2. Based on given specification, the designer chooses

materials-magnetic, conducting and insulating, for
electrical design and other materials for frame,
bearing, etc. For this, the designer must be
conversant with the characteristics, availability and
cost of materials needed as to feed the computer with
relevant information.
3. Assumption of basic design parameters such as, flux-
density (Specific magnetic loading), ampere-conductor
per meter (Specific electric loading), space factor,
stacking factor, etc. is then made and fed to the

4. Design process consist of analysis calculations to

determine the various dimensions of magnetic and
electric circuits, thermal and mechanical designs.

5. Predetermination of performance of the machine is then

made based on the calculated dimensions. This means
calculation of machine parameters from mechanical
dimensions obtained through the design process
followed by calculation of performance under no-load and
load conditions, determination of temperature-rise, cost etc.

6. The next procedure is the comparison between the

calculated performance and customer's requirement. If not
satisfactory (which is generally the case at the first
instance), the designer has to modify the basic
assumptions so as to bring the final design closer tt the
objective. Such modification is not generally a simple task
for there are many input parameters can bechanged an
and needs skill and intuition of a designer.
Numerical Methods
 The deficiency in analytical methods has
been largely eliminated in numerical
methods such as the
1. Finite Difference Method
2. Finite Element Method
Finite Difference Model
 The finite difference model of a problem
gives point wise approximation to the
governing equation.
 In the finite difference model, a solution
region is envisaged as an array of grid
Finite Element Model
 A finite element model gives piecewise approximation to the
governing- equation.
 In the finite element model, the solution region can be
analytically modeled or approximated by replacing it with an
assemblage of discrete elements.
 The advantage is that these elements can be used to
represent exceedingly complex shapes since they can be put
together in a variety of ways.
 Thus, for problems with irregular solution region or unusual
specification of boundary conditions, finite element method is
particularly well-suited requiring fewer nodes.
Finite Element Method
1. Defining the elements
2. Selection of Interpolation function
3. Matrix Equation for elements
4. Assembly of elements
5. Numerical solutions of equations
formed in above steps