…Shaping the world atom by atom
PAPER PRESENTED BY 1. K.Girish Kumar Reddy Ph:08623249196,9290006736 E mail Id: firstname.lastname@example.org 2.D.Siva Reddy Ph:9908022523 E mail Id: email@example.com
OF III / IV -B.TECH ECE
GOKULA KRISHNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
SULLURPETA –524121, NELLORE (Dist) A.P
“Nano” – derived from an ancient Greek word “Nanos” meaning DWARF Nanotechnology is the process by which objects smaller than 100 nanometers are built using one atom or molecule at a time. Its ultimate goal is to create a Universal Assembler that takes in raw atoms in one side and delivers finished products out the other. This technology was first recognized on broad scale in 1959. Nanotechnology is expected to touch almost every aspect of our lives, right down to the water we drink and the air we breathe. This report focuses on the Introduction History Visual Images in Nanotechnology Fields involving Nanotechnology Applications of Nanotechnoloy Computer Science Medicine Smart Medicine Telecommunications Recent developments in Nanotechnology Replacing copper wires by nanotubes Transistor technology CDs written in one inch square chip Latest Developments
GKCE Smart Clothing Problems and Risks of developing Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is defined as fabrication of devices with atomic or molecular scale precision. Devices with minimum feature size less than 100 nanometers (nm) (A nanometer is one billionth of a meter) are considered to be products of nanotechnology. Because of this, nanotechnology is also referred to as molecular manufacturing. The basis of nanotechnology is the fact that atoms make up all things in our physical world. These atoms can be manipulated to produce almost everything. Nanotechnology marks a drastically different approach to manufacture that previous technologies have taken. Instead of scaling materials down to create something, nanotechnology produces things by building them up piece by piece on a molecular level. This process will allow us to feasibly create a variety of complex molecular machines capable of performing a broad scope of functions. Many recent advances in nanofabrication have fuelled the hope that electronic devices can be shrunk from the current micrometer-length scale all the way down to the single-atom or molecule scale.
GKCE The length scale reached by technology has dropped steadily from the millimeter scale of the early 1950s to the present-day atomic scale. The representative devices, from left to right, are: the first transistor, a quantum-dot turnstile, a copper 'quantum corral', a carbon-nanotube transistor, and the latest — a one-atom point contact.
HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
The origins of nanotechnology are rooted in a lecture given in 1959 by Richard P. Feyman.. John Foster of IBM Almaden labs was able to spell “IBM” with 35 xenon atoms on a nickel surface using an STM to manipulate the individual atoms. This ability to manipulate individual atoms into a desired structure was a first step in opening the vast field of nanotechnology The history of nano technology is as follows……………………. 1959 1981 1981 1986 1991 1991 Nanotechnology was first inspired by Richard P. Feynman's Famous Speech at Caltech who first proposed that it was possible to move things atom by atom. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) is invented allowing scientists to manipulate atoms with electrically conductive inorganic materials. First scientific paper on Nanotechnology written by Eric Drexler. He publishes a book five years later with theories that also revolutionize nanotechnology. The Foresight institute is established to aid in the development and promotion of nanotechnologies, holding many conferences on nanotechnology. Sumio Iijima discovers Tubular Buckminster Fullerenes or Carbon Nanotubes. Institute for Molecular Manufacturing founded to develop nanotechnology and to promote guidelines for research and development practices that would minimize risk from accidental 1993 1996 1997 1997 1999 2000 2000 misuse or abuse of nanotechnology. Mixture of natural Nanotubes achieved. Richard Smalley developed a method of producing Nanotubes of uniform diameters. First molecular nanotechnology company, Zyvex, founded. DNA based nanomechanical device invented by NYU's Ned Seeman. Scientists Mark Reed and James M. Tour create Molecular-Scale Computer Switch in a Single Molecule. Researchers at Rice University develop methods to form nanotubes into rigid multipart structures. President Clinton gives $ 497 million for National Nanotechnology Initiative.
GKCE 2001 Researchers at IBM develop a method to grow Nanotubes.
VISUAL IMAGES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY:
There are frequent requests for visual images that illustrate the concepts of molecular nanotechnology. This is a brief guide to some of the available images.
Fine-Motion Controller for Molecular Assembly http://www.imm.org/Parts/Parts2.html Simple Pump Selective for Neon http://www.imm.org/Parts/Parts1.html Molecular Differential Gear http://www.imm.org/Parts/Parts3.html
Planetary Gear, newer version http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/visuals.html
Planetary Gear, original version http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/visuals.html
Diamondoid Bearing http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/visuals.html
FIELDS INVOLVED IN NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to bring about mature nanotechnology. Focusing on the nanoscale of fields such as physics, biology, engineering, chemistry, computers science and more, nano science is rapidly expanding.. This diagram of three intersecting circles portrays the overlap of three fields of research: biosciences, electronics and materials. This diagram could have included other circles of technology or science - like chemistry, engineering, information technology or physics - but for simplification, it has been limited to three.
In the diagram above, the intersection of biosciences and electronics represents new classes of computer and electronic circuits that are smarter devices for surgery and other medical solutions. The intersection of electronics and materials represents new classes of computer and electronic circuits. The intersection of materials and biosciences represents a new class of chemicals and manmade pharmaceuticals that improve our lives. And, finally, the intersection of all three is nanotechnology: research into self-assembling, smart materials with myriad applications and far greater performance potential than existing materials and devices.
APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Nanotechnology has the potential for a nearly limitless number of applications in a wide range of fields. Computer Science: One such field is computer science, in which nanotechnology presents a new challenge. Computer chips are shrinking by a factor of four every there years, and because of this it is possible that the SIA’s (Semiconductor Industry Association) predicted shrinking of computer chips is not the most economical method for the future. Computing using DNA has a distinct advantage over traditional computing in that the molecular computing is extremely parallel. Each DNA molecule can act as an individual processor, greatly improving the speed of computation for complicated problems. Medicine: Another field in which nanotechnology has a wide reach of potential effects is medicine. This stands to reason as every living thing are composed of molecules. A device could be created consisting of a small computer, a supply of a substance used to kill the cells identified as dangerous. Another application in the field of medicine involves tissue damage due to less blood flow.. Molecular machines could be produced to go so far as to stop a cell from functioning to prevent further damage, repair the damage, and then restore cellular function. Smart Medicines: With nanotechnology, it is possible to guard human body against harmful diseases. Consider tiny nanomachines embedded in our body performing their duties as disciplined soldiers with clock work precision.
NANOROBOTS OPERATING ON ERYTHROCYTES AND BLOODVEINS
GKCE The machines or ‘nanorobots’ would have onboard sensors and computers. Before being sent into the body on their search and destroy mission, they would programmed with a set of characteristics that sets them clearly distinguish their targets from everything else. Telecommunications: Telecommunications is another field in which nanotechnology will yield advances. For example, it will be incredibly easy to connect to networks. Nanotechnology will allow a telephone or computer to connect to the global data network using inexpensive string or tape. Through molecular manufacturing, these materials can be created to connect when rubbed together. The core of the material can configure itself as a good-quality optical fiber. Also, the material would be able to create the parts needed to go around corners and provide the hardware necessary for the network to operate, such as amplifiers, nanocomputers, and switching nodes.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Scientists are working not just on the materials of the future, but also the tools that will allow us to use these ingredients to create products.
Replacing COPPER conductors with NANOTUBES:
Extremely tiny carbon ‘nanotubes’ can be used instead of copper conductors to interconnect parts within integrated circuits (ICs). While the work is going on carbon nanotubes based chips for long term needs, we are indirectly helping industry to keep silicon-based computer chips in use as long as possible. One advantage of using carbon nanotube interconnects within ICs is that is these interconnects have the ability to conduct more than a million amperes of current in a one sq.cm area without any deterioration which seems to a problem with today’s copper interconnects. The accomplishment involved sprouting infinitesimally thin structures called, also called ‘single walled nanotubes’ or ‘buckytubes’. But why are these Nanotubes also called buckytubes? It’s because their ends when closed, take the form of soccer ball-shaped carbon molecules known as ‘buckminsterfullerene’ or ‘buckyballs’.
FLOW OF BUCKY BALLS IN NANOTUBES
IBM scientists have developed a breakthrough transistor technology that could enable production of a new class of smaller, faster and lower power computer chips. Using carbon Nanotubes as transistors in chips: Depending on their size and shape, the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes can be metallic or semi conducting. The problem scientists have faces in using carbon nanotubes as transistors is that all synthetic methods of production yield a mixture of metallic and semi conducting Nanotubes which ‘stick together’ to form ropes of bundles. This compromises the usefulness, because only semi conducting nanotubes can be used as transistors; and when they are stuck together, the metallic nanotubes overpower the semi conducting nanotubes. Beyond manipulating them individually, a slow and tedious process, there has been no practical way to separate the metallic and semi conducting nanotubes a road block in using carbon nanotubes to build transistors.
CDs written on a one inch square chip:
New probe microscopy techniques and new organic materials could be combined in the next generation data storage technology - which will be nanometre scale technology with major – impact on related storage technologies. We can believe that nanotech organic films will be the storage date medium of the near future, using micro-electro-mechanical systems, or MEMS probe devices, to read and write on the medium. Information will be written, read and stored in clusters of molecules , a CD (optical disk drive) holds 500 megabits of data per square inch.
Lucent technologies researchers will present a data storage technology concept in which information is stored in an aerosol of floating crystals as small as three nanometers, or three billions of a meter, in diameter. Zettacore intends to use one of nature’s building blocks of molecule to store data. The idea is to incorporate ‘molecular storage’ into standard microelectronics circuitry, using molecules synthesized in a laboratory at NCSU.
With Nano technology, even the finest textile fibers could have sensors, computers and motors embedded in the fabric. The micro granules that form the basic molecular structure are smaller than a grain of sand the fabric sensors ensure that garments resist fading or crumpling, and also monitor the body odour. The ‘Smart Shirt’ developed by Sensatex monitors the vital signs of those involved in high stress occupations. The parameters monitored are heart rate, respiration rate, body temperature, and calorie burn rate. The company has created ‘Smart Shirts’ tailor made to the requirement of individuals.
PROBLEMS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Almost any technology can be abused, and nanotechnology will be no exception. What dangers might arise if the resulting research were applied to destructive and dangerous goals? One of the most fearful events would be a uncontrollable replicates that could "take over the world" because we would not be able to stop them. Another question is if we can replicate everything we need, what will become of the global market? How will society progress if people live forever? What happens when machines make everything we use? Accidents will most likely happen, they’ve happened with nuclear devices, which aren’t ever as deadly, what will we do when we have rampant replicators? There is also the fear of your typical Mad Scientist; they could create super races, biological agents and other dangerous products using Nanotechnology. There have been no laws or guarantees put into effect to protect and regulate the use of Nanotechnology and if we do not use these technologies responsibly they may end the human race instead of curing all its ailments.
These are just the surface of the effects that nanotechnology will affect. In Engines of Creation, as mentioned before, Drexler asserts that molecular manufacturing can produce materials stronger and lighter than anything currently available. This allows for the production of a variety of things. Better spacecraft, devices to repair living cells, the ability to heal disease and make the body stronger: all these and more are possible given the potential of nanotechnology. Machines could be produced, down to the size of viruses, which would work at incredible speeds. This would give us the option of assembling these tiny parts into intelligent machines, based on the use of myriads of nanoscopic parallel-processing devices which make descriptions, compare them to recorded patterns, and then exploit the memories of all their previous experiences. Thus those new technologies could alter not only the materials and means we use to shape our physical environment, but also the activities we would then be able to pursue inside whichever kind of world we eventually create. Through the use of nanotechnology, the number of possible worlds we can create is limited only by what we can imagine.
http://www.nanoword.net/pages/intro.html http://www.engin.swarthmore.edu/~manzivino/Nanotechnology1.html http://www.belle-morte.net/nano/history.html http://www.nanotechfoundation.org/what.html#Characteristics http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/visuals.html http://www.belle-morte.net/nano/history.html http://www.nanotechfoundation.org/what.html#Characteristics http://www.foresight.org/NanoRev/Images.html