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Gravity center and hip angle

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas – ESPE


Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura
Ingeniería en Biotecnología
Biofísica_NRC: 1668

Abstract – The present study aims to analyze the biophysical system Center of gravity is the point where force resulting from all the
of human gait. This is done through the use of Kinovea software, forces of gravity acting on each portion of the system
which will measure the hip angle and center of gravity of each concentrates. It is a point that represents the axis of an object
individual, identifying in a group of 18 individuals (6 men And 12 weight and is also the point where all parts are balanced, and
women) the differences in these measurements in fast walking, normal all planes of the body intersect each other. In anatomical
and slow gait with different types of footwear, high heels, sport shoes
and casual shoes for women, sports and casual for men, their age
position, center of gravity is located in pelvis, anterior to the
ranged between 21-22 years with Height and average weights 1.70 m sacrum (second sacral vertebra, S-2). In women, it is lower than
and 80 kg respectively. The experimental test was performed at the in men, because women have a heavier pelvis and thighs and
“Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE” during January 2017. In shorter legs (Plagenhoef et al, 2013).
addition, the error of anatomical appreciation, bearing, instrumental Nowadays many softwares have been developed that allows to
appreciation, place of center of gravity and distortion of the image will calculate angles of a moving body, one of these programs is
be calculated for the approximation to real results. Kinovea that measures distances and times manually or uses
In results, there are differences between the number of steps per gender semi automated tracking to follow points and check the actual
(p value = 0.002) and velocity (p-value = 2.19 × 10-15), women (mean values or trajectories [4].
= 109.8861) performed more steps per minute than men (mean =
100.2050). The number of steps according to the speed of the march:
fast, normal and slow had the following values, rapid gait (average = Analysis of the human march has the objective to arrive at an
127.4361) gives greater number of steps unlike normal gait (mean = accurate diagnosis of some pathology origin, as well as to
106.9111) and idle Mean = 85.63). The ratio by sex: speed configures prevent possible problems before they develop. By means of
the following women in a rapid gait (mean = 131.7917) perform more the pressure platform for this measurement, different pressures
steps per minute than men at a rapid gait (mean = 118.7250). realized in different stages of support of foot during the march
Concluding according to the results obtained, it is observed (ANOVA are captured. These data allow us to perform analysis of the
1) that gender and speed are significant factors and directly influence plantar pressures, different ankle movements, foot balance,
number of steps that are generated during a short period of time, in center of gravity, distribution of pressure line, etc [1].
higher speed each individual gives greater steps number. There is a
greater average of steps generated by women than men, regardless of
the type of footwear. Interaction and speed are factors that also With the accomplishment of this study it is possible to evaluate
influence the response variable. imbalances of alignment and of foot supports in each phase,
Keywords: Gravity center; human march; hip angle; footwear; that can trigger appearance of overloads and possible injuries,
gender. hence importance of doing this type of studies. The objective
of this study was to identify differences in a group of 18
individuals (6 men and 12 women) with different variables like
I. INTRODUCTION fast, normal and slow march with different types of footwear.
Human march is considered a process of displacement that
human beings use to go from one place to another, it is II. METHODOLOGY
considered as a rhythmic and cyclic activity, in which the whole The peculiarities of the environment of every human being,
body is involved, especially the lower limbs and the hip [2], the race, cultural factors and other distinctive elements determine
human being at the moment of walking behaves as a physical that every human being possesses an individual and typical
organism and as a biological system at the same time due to its march; often, condiera like a distinctive feature of every person
muscular actions. Two important periods are considerated, the according to its genre. Cinematic bosses are constant and they
support as a rocking where first refers to the time that the feet can be standardized by normality bosses
make contact against the firm ground considering 62% of the Studies of characterization of march were practiced on students
total cycle, and the second corresponds to the time in which one in “Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE”, the patient
of the limbs is in the air involving the remaining 38% of the study objects were 22, its age ranged between 21-22 years with
total [3]. People walking requires a minimum of energy that height and average weighed 1,70 m and 80 kg in weight
varies with speed with each one walk, however, energy respectively.
expenditure is affected by factors such as weight of the person,
type of terrain, slope of it and the physic conditions that person Test consists of making to travel the patient for a corridor of
has (Sánchez, 2006). It has been estimated that best speed at march in which an in sync digital camera is located, It is
which a lower amount of energy is required is at 4.5 km / h [2]. realized by three types of footwear differentiated for men and
women, sports and chance in men; sports, chance and heels in
women.
Two repetitions are realized for every type of footwear in a time III. RESULTS
of 1 second, with count of generated steps.
Center of gravity variation
Gravity center and hip angle By gender
Gravity center and the hip angle was measured using Kinovea Two Sample t-test
Bioengineering program. Data has been taken placing two data: Men and Women
markers in iliac crest and one on the sacrum bone, camera was t = -2.6628, df = 16, p-value = 0.01702
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is
posed in front of the site where participants will walk. not equal to 0
95 percent confidence interval:
-0.55829714 -0.06336953
Categorization and description of the proposed errors sample estimates:
Anatomical error: It is assignment for ignorance of Human mean of x mean of y
Anatomy, or for incorrect identification of the general and -2.298333 -1.987500
specific anatomical regions.
From this data we could see there is a significant statistical
difference by gender (p-value = 0.02).
Error of anatomical appreciation: Even knowing human
anatomy, errors can be committed due to difficulty of
specifying the position of points typical of “anatomical
regions that are visible in the image”. The anatomy of every
person is different from those from others, in most of the
figures they are not seen to simple sight superficial points of
the body.

Bearing error: It is due to existing incongruity between the


identified point and really pronounced point.

Error of instrumental appreciation: It takes place during the


measurement process, due to reading inaccurate or incorrect
of instruments. FIGURE 1. Center of gravity variation boxplot.
Two Sample t-test
Error for place of center of gravity: This error can be
committed when center of gravity of every corporal segment data: Men and Women
t = -2.6628, df = 16, p-value = 0.00851
is charted manually on the image. alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is
less than 0
95 percent confidence interval:
Error for distortions of the image: East is a type of error that -Inf -0.1070304
affects basically the clearness and proportions of an image, sample estimates:
and that it bears in mind diverse aspects: resolution, depth, mean of x mean of y
-2.298333 -1.987500
quality of the final impression, size and difference of scale
A two sample one sided t test indicated that men have a higher
Position markers: this mistake has been realated with a badly variation than women (p-value=0.01).
placement of the markers in a differents parts of the body. The
position markers must be fixed in the bones or skin. This By shoe type
mistake can produce a variability of 40 mm (center of gravity) Paired t-test
and 12 °(hip angle) data: Casual and Heel
t = 33.977, df = 11, p-value = 1.718e-12
Data Analysis alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is
not equal to 0
In order to find a statistical difference in center of gravity 95 percent confidence interval:
variation and hip deflection between women and men, two 0.1769126 0.2014207
sample estimates:
sample t tests were used. On the other hand, a paired test was mean of the differences
performed to find statistical differences by shoe type in women. 0.1891667
If in a two sided test the alternative hypothesis was not rejected,
a one sided tests was executed. We found, that there is a statistical difference between center
of gravity variation by shoe type (p-value=1.72×10-12), in
We analyse data from steps number similarly, comparing women. Thus, a one sided t Student test was performed.
Paired t-test
number of steps by gender and by shoe type (in women) but
using ANOVA tests instead of t tests. Also, LSD tests were data: Casual and Heel
t = 33.977, df = 11, p-value = 8.592e-13
used to find groups with similar means. RStudio software was alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is
greater than 0
used for all the statistical tests. 95 percent confidence interval:
0.179168 Inf
sample estimates:
mean of the differences
0.1891667

The test showed that there is a higher variation with heel shoes
than casual shoes (p-value=8.59×10-13), in women.

FIGURE 2. Center of gravity variation by shoe type boxplot

Between men there is a little variation in center of gravity, on average it changes -2.30cm

Men casual shoes


1.00
0.00
-1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
-2.00
-3.00
-4.00
-5.00
-6.00
-7.00
Time

Individuo 1 Individuo 2 Individuo 3 Individuo 4 Individuo 5 Individuo 6

FIGURE 3. Variation of center of gravity in men casual shoes

Between women in casual shoes on average of variation in center of gravity is -1.99cm

Women casual shoes


1.00

0.00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

-5.00

Individuo 1 Individuo 2 Individuo 3 Individuo 4 Individuo 5 Individuo 6


Individuo 7 Individuo 8 Individuo 9 Individuo 10 Individuo 11 Individuo 12

FIGURE 4. Variation of center of gravity in women casual shoes


Between women in casual shoes on average of variation in center of gravity is -2.18cm

Women heel shoes


1.00
0.00
-1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
-2.00
-3.00
-4.00
-5.00

Individuo 1 Individuo 2 Individuo 3 Individuo 4 Individuo 5 Individuo 6


Individuo 7 Individuo 8 Individuo 9 Individuo 10 Individuo 11 Individuo 12

FIGURE 5. Variation of center of gravity in women heel shoes

By shoe type
Hip deflection Paired t-test
By gender data: Casual and Heel
Welch Two Sample t-test t = -6.2946, df = 11, p-value = 5.882e-05
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is
data: Men and Women not equal to 0
t = -13.856, df = 13.514, p-value = 2.262e-09 95 percent confidence interval:
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is -5.667461 -2.730873
not equal to 0 sample estimates:
95 percent confidence interval: mean of the differences
-14.26627 -10.43039 -4.199167
sample estimates:
mean of x mean of y
7.196667 19.545000 The test to evaluate shoe type indicated that there is a
significant difference in hip deflection (p-value=5.88×10-5), in
The t-test indicated that there is a significant difference women.
between the hip deflection by gender (p-value=2.8×10-4). Thus, Paired t-test
a one sided test was necessary. data: Casual and Heel
Welch Two Sample t-test t = -6.2946, df = 11, p-value = 2.941e-05
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is
data: Men and Women less than 0
t = -13.856, df = 13.514, p-value = 1 95 percent confidence interval:
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is -Inf -3.001118
greater than 0 sample estimates:
95 percent confidence interval: mean of the differences
-13.92204 Inf -4.199167
sample estimates:
mean of x mean of y
7.196667 19.545000 Then we found that there is a higher hip deflection when
women use heel shoes (p-value=2.94×10-5).
The test showed that women have higher hip deflection than
men (p-value=2.3×10-9).

FIGURE 6. Hip deflection by gender boxplot FIGURE 7. Hip deflection by shoe boxplot
While there is a significant difference in the step number by
Step number speed (p-value≈0), but there is not enough evidence to say the
By gender same thing about the shoe type (p-value=0.52). Yet, there is an
Anova interaction between shoe type and speed (p-value=0.03),
Response: Number.steps indicating that, maybe, the step number varies according to
Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F)
Gender 1 1124.7 1124.7 10.573 0.002102 ** shoe type if the speed also varies.
Speed 2 15731.5 7865.7 73.948 2.194e-15 ***
Gender:Speed 2 114.0 57.0 0.536 0.588556
Residuals 48 5105.7 106.4 LSD test
Groups by speed
trt means M
It is clear that there is a significant difference in the step number 1 Fast 132.30556 a
during walking by gender (p-value=0.002) and by speed (p- 2 Normal 109.35833 b
value=2.19×10-15). In this case we compared the male data with 3 Slow 91.29167 c
the female casual shoe data.
LSD tests
Groups by speed
trt means M Groups by shoes:speed
1 Fast 127.4361 a trt means M
2 Normal 106.9111 b 1 Heels:Fast 134.20833 a
3 Slow 85.6300 c 2 Casual:Fast 131.79167 a
3 Gym:Fast 130.91667 a
4 Gym:Normal 116.79167 b
Groups by gender 5 Casual:Normal 110.36667 bc
trt means M 6 Heels:Normal 100.91667 cd
1 Women 109.8861 a 7 Heels:Slow 95.33333 de
2 Men 100.2050 b 8 Gym:Slow 91.04167 de
9 Casual:Slow 87.50000 e
Groups by gender:speed
trt means M
1 Women:Fast 131.7917 a
2 Men:Fast 118.7250 b
3 Women:Normal 110.3667 b
4 Men:Normal 100.0000 c
5 Women:Slow 87.5000 d
6 Men:Slow 81.8900 d

FIGURE 9. Interaction plot between type of shoe and speed of


walk.

The test showed the same results than the previous one (step
number by gender), so there is strong evidence to support that
there are more steps per minute if the person walks faster.
FIGURE 8. Interaction plot between gender and speed of walk. Normal and slow speed shows the same steps number with
heels shoes, but it is very different when women walk fast.
Fast speed there is the same steps by different shoes types,
According to the LSD tests, there are more steps during normal speed shows that there is less steps when women is with
walking if the person walks faster. On the other hand, women heels.
showed to make more steps per minute than men.
Men in fast speed have the same steps number like Women in
normal speed and in slow speed this has no difference. IV. DISCUSSION
Gravity center
By shoe type In order to collect data required for our study, we used free
Anova software Kinovea in its version 0.8.15, which is a video
Response: Steps
Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F) analyzer that allows the measurement of times, angles, paths,
Shoes 2 202.7 101.4 0.6519 0.52326 perspectives and coordinates; Reproduction at high and low
Speed 2 30421.4 15210.7 97.8266 < 2e-16 ***
Shoes:Speed 4 1766.7 441.7 2.8406 0.02814 * speeds. This software works by analyzing the behavior of a
Residuals 99 15393.2 155.5 group of pixels set by the user and tracing a path that can be
derived in speed or angles of behavior (Kinovea.org, s.f.).
perform analysis of the techniques of sports movements like:
The results obtained by the statistical analysis with the t tests Kwon-3D, Kinovea, and ATD. According to a study published
with a significance level of 95% indicate that the comparison in the 7th International Congress of the Asociación Española
of center of gravity by gender presents a statistically significant del Deporte, a comparison between these programs indicates
difference (p = 0.02), as shown in Figure 1. the high fidelity of Kinovea, which is also shown as a simple
and multifunctional software (Bermejo, Palao, & Valadés).
This can be due to different reasons, one of them being location
of center of gravity, which is different in men and women. Hip deflection
Currently there are several perspectives related to location of By gender
center of gravity on human body in anatomical position. The
first indicates that it is in front of the second sacral vertebra in Test showed that women have higher hip deflection than men
men, 3 cm lower in women (Viladot, 2001). The second reason (p-value=2.3×10-9). In this test it was shown that there is a
proposes that center of gravity is located at a point located 56% greater deviation of the hip than men, because the male
to 57% of body height measured from ground in men and 55% anatomy differs from female anatomy. Men have a markedly
in women (Guillén del Castillo & Linares Girela, 2002). more masculine step because they have broader shoulders
relative to the hips. In women, just the other way around, they
Gender differences are also due to fact that women have a have larger hips in relation to shoulders so they walk lightly,
broader pelvic waist and a wider pelvis, shorter limbs, and a Walking a side swing of body, women do not. Hip in man
less mass / fat mass index; Men have a broader scapular waist, moves up and down, and legs go further apart. In woman, hip
their extremities are longer, and their lean mass / fat mass index sways and legs come together Gomez, M. (2015).
is higher (Arcila, Cardona, & Giraldo, 2013).
In addition we can take into account the physiology of women
On the other hand, a unilateral t test of two samples at a is different from male physiology. Woman's pelvis widens
significance level of 95% showed that men had a higher from puberty, dilating the pubis that will allow baby to pass at
variation than women (p-value = 0.01). According to Arcila et time of delivery. This causes the femur to arch, then the pelvis
al. (2013) the location of center of gravity varies constantly distributes weight of the spine between the two legs, giving the
with the execution of different daily activities and sports girls that hip movement that does not occur in males Nerín, S.
gestures. During the hike, for example, the body descends on (1999).
the extended leg, generating a rise of center of gravity of
approximately 5 cm. Test to evaluate shoe type indicated that there is a significant
difference in hip deflection (p-value = 5.88 × 10-5), in women
According to (Navarro, 2014) changes are constantly occurring also we found that there is a higher hip deflection when women
in center of gravity of the human body, even with breathing or use heel shoes (p-value = 2.94 × 10-5). The effect of wearing
blood circulation. Therefore, the body is constantly making heels on sagittal plane posture is unclear. Although obviously
changes and automatic adjustments so that center of gravity is causing a variation in the position of ankle, which is situated to
maintained on the basis of lift. a greater extent, effect on knees, hips, pelvis and lumbar spine
is not precisely known. General knowledge of traumatologists,
Finally, using a test with a significance level of 95% was made rehabilitators and physiotherapists explains that the use of heels
the comparison between the various types of shoes in women causes an anterior rotation of the pelvis and an increase in
(heel and casual), found that there is a statistical difference lumbar lordosis (LL) secondary to the initial displacement of
between the variation of center of gravity of the type of center of gravity forward that is counteracted by an increased
footwear (P-value = 1.72 × 10 -12), in women. Therefore, the LL. Then the change on inclination of foot support plane causes
unilateral t Student test was performed, which showed that an alteration of anterior rotation of pelvis, modifying center of
there is a higher variation with heeled shoes than in casual gravity Ruiz, A. (2005).
shoes (p-value = 8.59 × 10-13). As shown in Figure 2.
Maximum hip flexion, which occurs in oscillation phase,
The study of center of gravity could be affected by several decreases as heel height increases in people accustomed to it,
factors such as incorrect identification of anatomical regions, while it increases in unaccustomed ones, besides causing
poor placement of position markers and, especially for a instability at ankle and knee joints Bombi, M. (2015).
distortion of the image since it is mentioned before, the
software works analysing the pixels of this. Step number
There are several methods of measuring center of gravity that By gender
are valid, among them we have: Reynolds and Lovett (1909),
platform for the evaluation of footprints, Basler equilibrium According to Anova analysis it can be observed that there is a
platform (Gutiérrez, 1999). However, for this type of studies significant difference between number of steps per gender (p-
can resort to a software, There are many softwares that allow to value = 0.002) and speed (p-value = 2.19 × 10-15), therefore
both factors are important at moment To define differences in According to analysis of means, women in a fast march (mean
human progress. When analyzing according to gender it was = 131.7917) perform more steps per minute than men to a fast
obtained that women (mean = 109.8861) performed more steps march (mean = 118.7250). In contrast women to a normal gait
per minute than men (mean = 100.2050). According to Núñez (mean = 110.3667) the steps done per minute did not have
& Alcázar (1997), differences in different parameters of the much difference than men to a normal gait (mean = 100.00).
gait cycle between men and women could be due to factors such There is a significant difference in women at slow speeds
as height, weight, footwear, etc., and not only to sexual (mean = 87.50) than men at slow speeds (mean = 81.89).
difference. Lumbar lordosis is usually greater in women than in
men due to weight of the breasts and the use of high heels that As has already been pointed out, normal gait is modified in
move forward center of gravity. In addition, weight and height everyday life for many and varied causes, taking into account
influence forces exerted on ground during walking, mainly on that not all of them have to be properly pathological like size,
vertical forces, which reflect vertical displacement of center of age, footwear, terrain, load, The activity of the person, etc.
gravity (Ramírez, 1998).
On the other hand, we find that there are many conditions of
By speed different origin (structural, osteoarticular, myopathic,
neuropathic, etc.) that lead to an alteration of some part of the
Analyzing the number of steps according to the speed of the cycle or the complete cycle of the march, being our job to
march: fast, normal and slow. It was obtained that a fast march rebuild it Again (Dreisbach & Robertson, 1999).
(mean = 127.4361) is given greater number of steps unlike the
normal gait (mean = 106.9111) and the slow gait (mean =
Type of shoes
85.63). Human walking speed is the distance a person travels
in a given time, usually measured in m * s-1 or m * m-1 (Rao
The main objective was to study the duration and the frequency
& Joseph, 1993).
of the steps generated for male and female participants,
According to Sánchez (1993), the transition from the march to establishing a comparison between the two, it is worth
the race begins to occur according to the characteristics or mentioning that another additional test was performed
preferences of the people. When the running speed of the stride comparing the steps based on the type of footwear that each
length and stride length depend, the variation of one of these participant (Women) used. According to the results obtained
two variables will influence the speed. People tend to change during the research, it is observed (ANOVA 1) that both gender
speed by jointly changing these two variables. and velocity, to which each individual walks, are significant
factors and directly influence the number of steps that are
When we comparing subjects, Torres (1995) mentions that to generated during a short period of weather. Our data provide us
avoid the influence of height on walking speed, the magnitude with information that the greater the speed, the greater the
of this variable is usually normalized by the height of the number of steps each individual gives. The low time variability
subjects and / or by the length of their lower member. values of each step reflect the automated regular rhythmic gait
characteristic and are associated with a safe gait and are used
The normal velocity gait (mean = 106.9111), according to as a clinical index of gait stability (Nutt JG, 1993).
Gisbert (2001) is the speed that a subject acquires when he
walks naturally, without any predetermined speed being Based on the means obtained in each group there is a greater
imposed on him. At this rate, the energy expenditure is less than average of steps generated by women than by men without
any other speed. Clothing characteristics can condition the taking into account the factor of footwear in each participant.
normal running pattern; Weight of the clothes, the comfort or According to Beauchet (2009) in his research on "Variation of
discomfort of the same, that is more or less ample and allows gait velocity in time variability of passage: effects of decreased
or not to carry out the movements properly (Sánchez, 1993). velocity", shows that the variability of passage time increased
with decreasing gait speed, Even taking into account an
The performance of certain activities in a habitual way, with adjustment for the effect of the subjects, the repetition of the
repetition of a series of gestures and movements or frequent tests and the asymmetry of the left passage, comparing with the
maintenance of certain positions, for example during the obtained results, there is an inverse relation in the number of
performance of the professional activity or of the practice of steps and the speed of march, whereas our results show a direct
sports, dance, etc., can introduce modifications in the March. relationship between the two factors. The following results
The professional and sports activities, movements and postures (ANOVA 2) show that the number of steps has two significant
that are frequently adopted in carrying out these activities may factors (velocity and interaction) that directly influence the
change the gait pattern but also take into account the clothes response variable. As before, speed is a factor that influences
and footwear that are used in the performance of these activities the number of steps, however here also is considered the
and other factors Personal or environmental influences interaction that exists between the type of footwear and speed.
(Gisbert, 2001). You can see a higher average number of steps generated per
minute when the participants (women) use heels and go to a
By gender:speed "fast" speed but when wearing casual shoes the average does
not vary much from the previous one. Arcila, J., Cardona, D., & Giraldo, J. (2013). Algoritmos para
la medición de centros de gravedad corporal en plataformas
According to the interactions obtained on the basis of the speed convencionales. EFDeportes.comRevista digital.
and type of shoe, for the interaction of a shoe with a high heel
and a high speed, an increase of the average is evidenced having Beauchet O, Berrut G: Gait and dual-task: definition, interest,
influence in the response variable, for the interaction of a shoe and perspectives in the elderly. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil
with heel and an average speed, the average of steps decreases 2006, 4:215-25.
whereas a normal speed does not show a remarkable variability.
Instead for a casual shoe type as well as a sports shoe, the shoe Bermejo, J., Palao, J., & Valadés, D. (s.f.). Fiabilidad de tres
type and speed interaction does not vary drastically and the softwares de análisis de la técnica. Asociación española de
socks resemble each other. The lowest interaction mean of the Ciencias del Deporte
two factors is for a casual shoe where the number of steps is
approximately 87. Proving that depending on the type of
footwear the march tends to have a greater or lesser variability. Caron, Faurel , & Breniere. (1997). Estimating center of gravity
of the body on the basis of the center of pressure in standing
posture. Obtenido de http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-
9290(97)00094
V. CONCLUSIONS
At the moment when we analyze the results is important
Daza, J. (2007). Evaluación clínico-funcional del movimiento
consider the possibility of errors. Along the work we can
corporal humano||. Bogotá : Médica Panamericana.
demonstrate the grade of error, that error appear because the
anatomic appreciation is different between women and men.
Also we can appreciate in the graphics the variation of results. Dreisbach RH, Robertson W O. (1999). Manual of Clinical
Toxicology. 6th Ed. Mexico: Editorial the Modern Manual.
The statistic analysis show the difference between the type of
shoe. Also we can appreciate how that factor intervenes in the Gisbert, Calabuig JA (2001). Legal Medicine and Toxicology.
number of the steps. With the ANOVA analysis we can 5th Ed. Barcelona: Masson Salvat Medicina.
demonstrate the importance of some factors.
González Gutiérrez R, Bandrés Moya F. (1993). Analysis of
The variation center of gravity in women according the type of drugs of abuse in urine. Madrid: Complutense University of
shoe is extremely significant. That results can be interpreted in Madrid.
many different ways, but the most important is how a variation
in the position and high can influence in the correct Guillén del Castillo, M., & Linares Girela, D. (2002). Bases
determination of center of gravity. biológicas y fisiológicas del movimiento humano. Revista
Médica Panamericana S.A.
VI. RECOMENDATIONS Gutiérrez, M. (1999). Biomecánica deportiva. Síntesis.
For further study is recommended to place markers on the iliac Kinovea. (2013). Kinovea. Obtenido de
crest and sacrum bone properly in all participants because the https://www.kinovea.org/
deviations may produce incongruent data and uncertain results.
Morocco L, Nogué S, Nolla J. (1993). Clinical Toxicology.
It is also important to take the number of steps data in a quiet Barcelona: Springer Verlag Ibérica.
place without distractions because the lack of concentration of
the people involved can negatively affect the results. In other
hand, each person must follow his own pace without trying to Navarro, M. (2014). ESTUDIO DEL CENTRO DE
adapt to the pace or speed of the other participants at his side to GRAVEDAD: Relación entre análisis de equilibrio y el tipo de
make data consistent. trabajo propioceptivo en el caso de pacientes con intervención
quirúrgica de LCA. Revista de Fisioterapia

Núñez, M .; Alcázar, F .; (1997). Biomechanics, Medicine and


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