2 views

Uploaded by Cristian Benalcázar

- R.1 VariousHypoTestAnswrs
- Using Surface EMG
- GMS MS 700, Lecture 7-2
- Instructions for Running a T-Test in Excel
- Big Data Experiments
- iahiuahuisah
- Math A
- Quiz 2 review questions (solutions)-1.pdf
- the final paper2
- 3A-BAZZAR
- Activity 3
- Inference
- Statistical Test
- 09-two-mean-2
- QTT Outline
- Uas Stapen Lain
- Vi Test of Hypothesis 1 on Mean
- Chapter 9
- EXPORT DATA SPSS PIET__KONSUL.doc
- week 7 (2)

You are on page 1of 9

Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura

Ingeniería en Biotecnología

Biofísica_NRC: 1668

Abstract – The present study aims to analyze the biophysical system Center of gravity is the point where force resulting from all the

of human gait. This is done through the use of Kinovea software, forces of gravity acting on each portion of the system

which will measure the hip angle and center of gravity of each concentrates. It is a point that represents the axis of an object

individual, identifying in a group of 18 individuals (6 men And 12 weight and is also the point where all parts are balanced, and

women) the differences in these measurements in fast walking, normal all planes of the body intersect each other. In anatomical

and slow gait with different types of footwear, high heels, sport shoes

and casual shoes for women, sports and casual for men, their age

position, center of gravity is located in pelvis, anterior to the

ranged between 21-22 years with Height and average weights 1.70 m sacrum (second sacral vertebra, S-2). In women, it is lower than

and 80 kg respectively. The experimental test was performed at the in men, because women have a heavier pelvis and thighs and

“Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE” during January 2017. In shorter legs (Plagenhoef et al, 2013).

addition, the error of anatomical appreciation, bearing, instrumental Nowadays many softwares have been developed that allows to

appreciation, place of center of gravity and distortion of the image will calculate angles of a moving body, one of these programs is

be calculated for the approximation to real results. Kinovea that measures distances and times manually or uses

In results, there are differences between the number of steps per gender semi automated tracking to follow points and check the actual

(p value = 0.002) and velocity (p-value = 2.19 × 10-15), women (mean values or trajectories [4].

= 109.8861) performed more steps per minute than men (mean =

100.2050). The number of steps according to the speed of the march:

fast, normal and slow had the following values, rapid gait (average = Analysis of the human march has the objective to arrive at an

127.4361) gives greater number of steps unlike normal gait (mean = accurate diagnosis of some pathology origin, as well as to

106.9111) and idle Mean = 85.63). The ratio by sex: speed configures prevent possible problems before they develop. By means of

the following women in a rapid gait (mean = 131.7917) perform more the pressure platform for this measurement, different pressures

steps per minute than men at a rapid gait (mean = 118.7250). realized in different stages of support of foot during the march

Concluding according to the results obtained, it is observed (ANOVA are captured. These data allow us to perform analysis of the

1) that gender and speed are significant factors and directly influence plantar pressures, different ankle movements, foot balance,

number of steps that are generated during a short period of time, in center of gravity, distribution of pressure line, etc [1].

higher speed each individual gives greater steps number. There is a

greater average of steps generated by women than men, regardless of

the type of footwear. Interaction and speed are factors that also With the accomplishment of this study it is possible to evaluate

influence the response variable. imbalances of alignment and of foot supports in each phase,

Keywords: Gravity center; human march; hip angle; footwear; that can trigger appearance of overloads and possible injuries,

gender. hence importance of doing this type of studies. The objective

of this study was to identify differences in a group of 18

individuals (6 men and 12 women) with different variables like

I. INTRODUCTION fast, normal and slow march with different types of footwear.

Human march is considered a process of displacement that

human beings use to go from one place to another, it is II. METHODOLOGY

considered as a rhythmic and cyclic activity, in which the whole The peculiarities of the environment of every human being,

body is involved, especially the lower limbs and the hip [2], the race, cultural factors and other distinctive elements determine

human being at the moment of walking behaves as a physical that every human being possesses an individual and typical

organism and as a biological system at the same time due to its march; often, condiera like a distinctive feature of every person

muscular actions. Two important periods are considerated, the according to its genre. Cinematic bosses are constant and they

support as a rocking where first refers to the time that the feet can be standardized by normality bosses

make contact against the firm ground considering 62% of the Studies of characterization of march were practiced on students

total cycle, and the second corresponds to the time in which one in “Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE”, the patient

of the limbs is in the air involving the remaining 38% of the study objects were 22, its age ranged between 21-22 years with

total [3]. People walking requires a minimum of energy that height and average weighed 1,70 m and 80 kg in weight

varies with speed with each one walk, however, energy respectively.

expenditure is affected by factors such as weight of the person,

type of terrain, slope of it and the physic conditions that person Test consists of making to travel the patient for a corridor of

has (Sánchez, 2006). It has been estimated that best speed at march in which an in sync digital camera is located, It is

which a lower amount of energy is required is at 4.5 km / h [2]. realized by three types of footwear differentiated for men and

women, sports and chance in men; sports, chance and heels in

women.

Two repetitions are realized for every type of footwear in a time III. RESULTS

of 1 second, with count of generated steps.

Center of gravity variation

Gravity center and hip angle By gender

Gravity center and the hip angle was measured using Kinovea Two Sample t-test

Bioengineering program. Data has been taken placing two data: Men and Women

markers in iliac crest and one on the sacrum bone, camera was t = -2.6628, df = 16, p-value = 0.01702

alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is

posed in front of the site where participants will walk. not equal to 0

95 percent confidence interval:

-0.55829714 -0.06336953

Categorization and description of the proposed errors sample estimates:

Anatomical error: It is assignment for ignorance of Human mean of x mean of y

Anatomy, or for incorrect identification of the general and -2.298333 -1.987500

specific anatomical regions.

From this data we could see there is a significant statistical

difference by gender (p-value = 0.02).

Error of anatomical appreciation: Even knowing human

anatomy, errors can be committed due to difficulty of

specifying the position of points typical of “anatomical

regions that are visible in the image”. The anatomy of every

person is different from those from others, in most of the

figures they are not seen to simple sight superficial points of

the body.

identified point and really pronounced point.

measurement process, due to reading inaccurate or incorrect

of instruments. FIGURE 1. Center of gravity variation boxplot.

Two Sample t-test

Error for place of center of gravity: This error can be

committed when center of gravity of every corporal segment data: Men and Women

t = -2.6628, df = 16, p-value = 0.00851

is charted manually on the image. alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is

less than 0

95 percent confidence interval:

Error for distortions of the image: East is a type of error that -Inf -0.1070304

affects basically the clearness and proportions of an image, sample estimates:

and that it bears in mind diverse aspects: resolution, depth, mean of x mean of y

-2.298333 -1.987500

quality of the final impression, size and difference of scale

A two sample one sided t test indicated that men have a higher

Position markers: this mistake has been realated with a badly variation than women (p-value=0.01).

placement of the markers in a differents parts of the body. The

position markers must be fixed in the bones or skin. This By shoe type

mistake can produce a variability of 40 mm (center of gravity) Paired t-test

and 12 °(hip angle) data: Casual and Heel

t = 33.977, df = 11, p-value = 1.718e-12

Data Analysis alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is

not equal to 0

In order to find a statistical difference in center of gravity 95 percent confidence interval:

variation and hip deflection between women and men, two 0.1769126 0.2014207

sample estimates:

sample t tests were used. On the other hand, a paired test was mean of the differences

performed to find statistical differences by shoe type in women. 0.1891667

If in a two sided test the alternative hypothesis was not rejected,

a one sided tests was executed. We found, that there is a statistical difference between center

of gravity variation by shoe type (p-value=1.72×10-12), in

We analyse data from steps number similarly, comparing women. Thus, a one sided t Student test was performed.

Paired t-test

number of steps by gender and by shoe type (in women) but

using ANOVA tests instead of t tests. Also, LSD tests were data: Casual and Heel

t = 33.977, df = 11, p-value = 8.592e-13

used to find groups with similar means. RStudio software was alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is

greater than 0

used for all the statistical tests. 95 percent confidence interval:

0.179168 Inf

sample estimates:

mean of the differences

0.1891667

The test showed that there is a higher variation with heel shoes

than casual shoes (p-value=8.59×10-13), in women.

Between men there is a little variation in center of gravity, on average it changes -2.30cm

1.00

0.00

-1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

-5.00

-6.00

-7.00

Time

1.00

0.00

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

-5.00

Individuo 7 Individuo 8 Individuo 9 Individuo 10 Individuo 11 Individuo 12

Between women in casual shoes on average of variation in center of gravity is -2.18cm

1.00

0.00

-1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

-5.00

Individuo 7 Individuo 8 Individuo 9 Individuo 10 Individuo 11 Individuo 12

By shoe type

Hip deflection Paired t-test

By gender data: Casual and Heel

Welch Two Sample t-test t = -6.2946, df = 11, p-value = 5.882e-05

alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is

data: Men and Women not equal to 0

t = -13.856, df = 13.514, p-value = 2.262e-09 95 percent confidence interval:

alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is -5.667461 -2.730873

not equal to 0 sample estimates:

95 percent confidence interval: mean of the differences

-14.26627 -10.43039 -4.199167

sample estimates:

mean of x mean of y

7.196667 19.545000 The test to evaluate shoe type indicated that there is a

significant difference in hip deflection (p-value=5.88×10-5), in

The t-test indicated that there is a significant difference women.

between the hip deflection by gender (p-value=2.8×10-4). Thus, Paired t-test

a one sided test was necessary. data: Casual and Heel

Welch Two Sample t-test t = -6.2946, df = 11, p-value = 2.941e-05

alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is

data: Men and Women less than 0

t = -13.856, df = 13.514, p-value = 1 95 percent confidence interval:

alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is -Inf -3.001118

greater than 0 sample estimates:

95 percent confidence interval: mean of the differences

-13.92204 Inf -4.199167

sample estimates:

mean of x mean of y

7.196667 19.545000 Then we found that there is a higher hip deflection when

women use heel shoes (p-value=2.94×10-5).

The test showed that women have higher hip deflection than

men (p-value=2.3×10-9).

FIGURE 6. Hip deflection by gender boxplot FIGURE 7. Hip deflection by shoe boxplot

While there is a significant difference in the step number by

Step number speed (p-value≈0), but there is not enough evidence to say the

By gender same thing about the shoe type (p-value=0.52). Yet, there is an

Anova interaction between shoe type and speed (p-value=0.03),

Response: Number.steps indicating that, maybe, the step number varies according to

Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F)

Gender 1 1124.7 1124.7 10.573 0.002102 ** shoe type if the speed also varies.

Speed 2 15731.5 7865.7 73.948 2.194e-15 ***

Gender:Speed 2 114.0 57.0 0.536 0.588556

Residuals 48 5105.7 106.4 LSD test

Groups by speed

trt means M

It is clear that there is a significant difference in the step number 1 Fast 132.30556 a

during walking by gender (p-value=0.002) and by speed (p- 2 Normal 109.35833 b

value=2.19×10-15). In this case we compared the male data with 3 Slow 91.29167 c

the female casual shoe data.

LSD tests

Groups by speed

trt means M Groups by shoes:speed

1 Fast 127.4361 a trt means M

2 Normal 106.9111 b 1 Heels:Fast 134.20833 a

3 Slow 85.6300 c 2 Casual:Fast 131.79167 a

3 Gym:Fast 130.91667 a

4 Gym:Normal 116.79167 b

Groups by gender 5 Casual:Normal 110.36667 bc

trt means M 6 Heels:Normal 100.91667 cd

1 Women 109.8861 a 7 Heels:Slow 95.33333 de

2 Men 100.2050 b 8 Gym:Slow 91.04167 de

9 Casual:Slow 87.50000 e

Groups by gender:speed

trt means M

1 Women:Fast 131.7917 a

2 Men:Fast 118.7250 b

3 Women:Normal 110.3667 b

4 Men:Normal 100.0000 c

5 Women:Slow 87.5000 d

6 Men:Slow 81.8900 d

walk.

The test showed the same results than the previous one (step

number by gender), so there is strong evidence to support that

there are more steps per minute if the person walks faster.

FIGURE 8. Interaction plot between gender and speed of walk. Normal and slow speed shows the same steps number with

heels shoes, but it is very different when women walk fast.

Fast speed there is the same steps by different shoes types,

According to the LSD tests, there are more steps during normal speed shows that there is less steps when women is with

walking if the person walks faster. On the other hand, women heels.

showed to make more steps per minute than men.

Men in fast speed have the same steps number like Women in

normal speed and in slow speed this has no difference. IV. DISCUSSION

Gravity center

By shoe type In order to collect data required for our study, we used free

Anova software Kinovea in its version 0.8.15, which is a video

Response: Steps

Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F) analyzer that allows the measurement of times, angles, paths,

Shoes 2 202.7 101.4 0.6519 0.52326 perspectives and coordinates; Reproduction at high and low

Speed 2 30421.4 15210.7 97.8266 < 2e-16 ***

Shoes:Speed 4 1766.7 441.7 2.8406 0.02814 * speeds. This software works by analyzing the behavior of a

Residuals 99 15393.2 155.5 group of pixels set by the user and tracing a path that can be

derived in speed or angles of behavior (Kinovea.org, s.f.).

perform analysis of the techniques of sports movements like:

The results obtained by the statistical analysis with the t tests Kwon-3D, Kinovea, and ATD. According to a study published

with a significance level of 95% indicate that the comparison in the 7th International Congress of the Asociación Española

of center of gravity by gender presents a statistically significant del Deporte, a comparison between these programs indicates

difference (p = 0.02), as shown in Figure 1. the high fidelity of Kinovea, which is also shown as a simple

and multifunctional software (Bermejo, Palao, & Valadés).

This can be due to different reasons, one of them being location

of center of gravity, which is different in men and women. Hip deflection

Currently there are several perspectives related to location of By gender

center of gravity on human body in anatomical position. The

first indicates that it is in front of the second sacral vertebra in Test showed that women have higher hip deflection than men

men, 3 cm lower in women (Viladot, 2001). The second reason (p-value=2.3×10-9). In this test it was shown that there is a

proposes that center of gravity is located at a point located 56% greater deviation of the hip than men, because the male

to 57% of body height measured from ground in men and 55% anatomy differs from female anatomy. Men have a markedly

in women (Guillén del Castillo & Linares Girela, 2002). more masculine step because they have broader shoulders

relative to the hips. In women, just the other way around, they

Gender differences are also due to fact that women have a have larger hips in relation to shoulders so they walk lightly,

broader pelvic waist and a wider pelvis, shorter limbs, and a Walking a side swing of body, women do not. Hip in man

less mass / fat mass index; Men have a broader scapular waist, moves up and down, and legs go further apart. In woman, hip

their extremities are longer, and their lean mass / fat mass index sways and legs come together Gomez, M. (2015).

is higher (Arcila, Cardona, & Giraldo, 2013).

In addition we can take into account the physiology of women

On the other hand, a unilateral t test of two samples at a is different from male physiology. Woman's pelvis widens

significance level of 95% showed that men had a higher from puberty, dilating the pubis that will allow baby to pass at

variation than women (p-value = 0.01). According to Arcila et time of delivery. This causes the femur to arch, then the pelvis

al. (2013) the location of center of gravity varies constantly distributes weight of the spine between the two legs, giving the

with the execution of different daily activities and sports girls that hip movement that does not occur in males Nerín, S.

gestures. During the hike, for example, the body descends on (1999).

the extended leg, generating a rise of center of gravity of

approximately 5 cm. Test to evaluate shoe type indicated that there is a significant

difference in hip deflection (p-value = 5.88 × 10-5), in women

According to (Navarro, 2014) changes are constantly occurring also we found that there is a higher hip deflection when women

in center of gravity of the human body, even with breathing or use heel shoes (p-value = 2.94 × 10-5). The effect of wearing

blood circulation. Therefore, the body is constantly making heels on sagittal plane posture is unclear. Although obviously

changes and automatic adjustments so that center of gravity is causing a variation in the position of ankle, which is situated to

maintained on the basis of lift. a greater extent, effect on knees, hips, pelvis and lumbar spine

is not precisely known. General knowledge of traumatologists,

Finally, using a test with a significance level of 95% was made rehabilitators and physiotherapists explains that the use of heels

the comparison between the various types of shoes in women causes an anterior rotation of the pelvis and an increase in

(heel and casual), found that there is a statistical difference lumbar lordosis (LL) secondary to the initial displacement of

between the variation of center of gravity of the type of center of gravity forward that is counteracted by an increased

footwear (P-value = 1.72 × 10 -12), in women. Therefore, the LL. Then the change on inclination of foot support plane causes

unilateral t Student test was performed, which showed that an alteration of anterior rotation of pelvis, modifying center of

there is a higher variation with heeled shoes than in casual gravity Ruiz, A. (2005).

shoes (p-value = 8.59 × 10-13). As shown in Figure 2.

Maximum hip flexion, which occurs in oscillation phase,

The study of center of gravity could be affected by several decreases as heel height increases in people accustomed to it,

factors such as incorrect identification of anatomical regions, while it increases in unaccustomed ones, besides causing

poor placement of position markers and, especially for a instability at ankle and knee joints Bombi, M. (2015).

distortion of the image since it is mentioned before, the

software works analysing the pixels of this. Step number

There are several methods of measuring center of gravity that By gender

are valid, among them we have: Reynolds and Lovett (1909),

platform for the evaluation of footprints, Basler equilibrium According to Anova analysis it can be observed that there is a

platform (Gutiérrez, 1999). However, for this type of studies significant difference between number of steps per gender (p-

can resort to a software, There are many softwares that allow to value = 0.002) and speed (p-value = 2.19 × 10-15), therefore

both factors are important at moment To define differences in According to analysis of means, women in a fast march (mean

human progress. When analyzing according to gender it was = 131.7917) perform more steps per minute than men to a fast

obtained that women (mean = 109.8861) performed more steps march (mean = 118.7250). In contrast women to a normal gait

per minute than men (mean = 100.2050). According to Núñez (mean = 110.3667) the steps done per minute did not have

& Alcázar (1997), differences in different parameters of the much difference than men to a normal gait (mean = 100.00).

gait cycle between men and women could be due to factors such There is a significant difference in women at slow speeds

as height, weight, footwear, etc., and not only to sexual (mean = 87.50) than men at slow speeds (mean = 81.89).

difference. Lumbar lordosis is usually greater in women than in

men due to weight of the breasts and the use of high heels that As has already been pointed out, normal gait is modified in

move forward center of gravity. In addition, weight and height everyday life for many and varied causes, taking into account

influence forces exerted on ground during walking, mainly on that not all of them have to be properly pathological like size,

vertical forces, which reflect vertical displacement of center of age, footwear, terrain, load, The activity of the person, etc.

gravity (Ramírez, 1998).

On the other hand, we find that there are many conditions of

By speed different origin (structural, osteoarticular, myopathic,

neuropathic, etc.) that lead to an alteration of some part of the

Analyzing the number of steps according to the speed of the cycle or the complete cycle of the march, being our job to

march: fast, normal and slow. It was obtained that a fast march rebuild it Again (Dreisbach & Robertson, 1999).

(mean = 127.4361) is given greater number of steps unlike the

normal gait (mean = 106.9111) and the slow gait (mean =

Type of shoes

85.63). Human walking speed is the distance a person travels

in a given time, usually measured in m * s-1 or m * m-1 (Rao

The main objective was to study the duration and the frequency

& Joseph, 1993).

of the steps generated for male and female participants,

According to Sánchez (1993), the transition from the march to establishing a comparison between the two, it is worth

the race begins to occur according to the characteristics or mentioning that another additional test was performed

preferences of the people. When the running speed of the stride comparing the steps based on the type of footwear that each

length and stride length depend, the variation of one of these participant (Women) used. According to the results obtained

two variables will influence the speed. People tend to change during the research, it is observed (ANOVA 1) that both gender

speed by jointly changing these two variables. and velocity, to which each individual walks, are significant

factors and directly influence the number of steps that are

When we comparing subjects, Torres (1995) mentions that to generated during a short period of weather. Our data provide us

avoid the influence of height on walking speed, the magnitude with information that the greater the speed, the greater the

of this variable is usually normalized by the height of the number of steps each individual gives. The low time variability

subjects and / or by the length of their lower member. values of each step reflect the automated regular rhythmic gait

characteristic and are associated with a safe gait and are used

The normal velocity gait (mean = 106.9111), according to as a clinical index of gait stability (Nutt JG, 1993).

Gisbert (2001) is the speed that a subject acquires when he

walks naturally, without any predetermined speed being Based on the means obtained in each group there is a greater

imposed on him. At this rate, the energy expenditure is less than average of steps generated by women than by men without

any other speed. Clothing characteristics can condition the taking into account the factor of footwear in each participant.

normal running pattern; Weight of the clothes, the comfort or According to Beauchet (2009) in his research on "Variation of

discomfort of the same, that is more or less ample and allows gait velocity in time variability of passage: effects of decreased

or not to carry out the movements properly (Sánchez, 1993). velocity", shows that the variability of passage time increased

with decreasing gait speed, Even taking into account an

The performance of certain activities in a habitual way, with adjustment for the effect of the subjects, the repetition of the

repetition of a series of gestures and movements or frequent tests and the asymmetry of the left passage, comparing with the

maintenance of certain positions, for example during the obtained results, there is an inverse relation in the number of

performance of the professional activity or of the practice of steps and the speed of march, whereas our results show a direct

sports, dance, etc., can introduce modifications in the March. relationship between the two factors. The following results

The professional and sports activities, movements and postures (ANOVA 2) show that the number of steps has two significant

that are frequently adopted in carrying out these activities may factors (velocity and interaction) that directly influence the

change the gait pattern but also take into account the clothes response variable. As before, speed is a factor that influences

and footwear that are used in the performance of these activities the number of steps, however here also is considered the

and other factors Personal or environmental influences interaction that exists between the type of footwear and speed.

(Gisbert, 2001). You can see a higher average number of steps generated per

minute when the participants (women) use heels and go to a

By gender:speed "fast" speed but when wearing casual shoes the average does

not vary much from the previous one. Arcila, J., Cardona, D., & Giraldo, J. (2013). Algoritmos para

la medición de centros de gravedad corporal en plataformas

According to the interactions obtained on the basis of the speed convencionales. EFDeportes.comRevista digital.

and type of shoe, for the interaction of a shoe with a high heel

and a high speed, an increase of the average is evidenced having Beauchet O, Berrut G: Gait and dual-task: definition, interest,

influence in the response variable, for the interaction of a shoe and perspectives in the elderly. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil

with heel and an average speed, the average of steps decreases 2006, 4:215-25.

whereas a normal speed does not show a remarkable variability.

Instead for a casual shoe type as well as a sports shoe, the shoe Bermejo, J., Palao, J., & Valadés, D. (s.f.). Fiabilidad de tres

type and speed interaction does not vary drastically and the softwares de análisis de la técnica. Asociación española de

socks resemble each other. The lowest interaction mean of the Ciencias del Deporte

two factors is for a casual shoe where the number of steps is

approximately 87. Proving that depending on the type of

footwear the march tends to have a greater or lesser variability. Caron, Faurel , & Breniere. (1997). Estimating center of gravity

of the body on the basis of the center of pressure in standing

posture. Obtenido de http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-

9290(97)00094

V. CONCLUSIONS

At the moment when we analyze the results is important

Daza, J. (2007). Evaluación clínico-funcional del movimiento

consider the possibility of errors. Along the work we can

corporal humano||. Bogotá : Médica Panamericana.

demonstrate the grade of error, that error appear because the

anatomic appreciation is different between women and men.

Also we can appreciate in the graphics the variation of results. Dreisbach RH, Robertson W O. (1999). Manual of Clinical

Toxicology. 6th Ed. Mexico: Editorial the Modern Manual.

The statistic analysis show the difference between the type of

shoe. Also we can appreciate how that factor intervenes in the Gisbert, Calabuig JA (2001). Legal Medicine and Toxicology.

number of the steps. With the ANOVA analysis we can 5th Ed. Barcelona: Masson Salvat Medicina.

demonstrate the importance of some factors.

González Gutiérrez R, Bandrés Moya F. (1993). Analysis of

The variation center of gravity in women according the type of drugs of abuse in urine. Madrid: Complutense University of

shoe is extremely significant. That results can be interpreted in Madrid.

many different ways, but the most important is how a variation

in the position and high can influence in the correct Guillén del Castillo, M., & Linares Girela, D. (2002). Bases

determination of center of gravity. biológicas y fisiológicas del movimiento humano. Revista

Médica Panamericana S.A.

VI. RECOMENDATIONS Gutiérrez, M. (1999). Biomecánica deportiva. Síntesis.

For further study is recommended to place markers on the iliac Kinovea. (2013). Kinovea. Obtenido de

crest and sacrum bone properly in all participants because the https://www.kinovea.org/

deviations may produce incongruent data and uncertain results.

Morocco L, Nogué S, Nolla J. (1993). Clinical Toxicology.

It is also important to take the number of steps data in a quiet Barcelona: Springer Verlag Ibérica.

place without distractions because the lack of concentration of

the people involved can negatively affect the results. In other

hand, each person must follow his own pace without trying to Navarro, M. (2014). ESTUDIO DEL CENTRO DE

adapt to the pace or speed of the other participants at his side to GRAVEDAD: Relación entre análisis de equilibrio y el tipo de

make data consistent. trabajo propioceptivo en el caso de pacientes con intervención

quirúrgica de LCA. Revista de Fisioterapia

VII. REFERENCES Foot Surgery.

Acero, J. (2013). Conceptualización y Ámbito de la Nutt JG, Marsden CD, Thompson PD: Human walking and

Biomecánica. Instituto de Investigaciones y Soluciones higher-level gait disorders, particularly in the elderly.

Biomecánicas. Neurology 1993, 43:268-79.

Ramírez, J. (1998). Guide of recommendations for the design,

selection and use of footwear for seniors. Madrid: Ministry of

Labor and Social Affairs;

prevalence of flat foot. A survey of 2300 children. J Bone Joint

Surg. (75): 163-165.

medicina física. Buenos Aires: Médica Panamericana.

pathological human gait. Valencia: Institute of Biomechanics

of Valencia.

of foot. Janus; XLIX (1129): 1231-1236..

aparato locomotor. Barcelona : Springer Science & Business

Media

and the Hip of Men and Women During the Normal March.

Polytechnic University of Madrid. Madrid. Spain.

University School of Health Sciences. Zaragoza's University.

Zaragoza. Spain

tilt in the sagittal plane. Madrid. Spain.

Barcelona´s University. Barcelona. Spain

- R.1 VariousHypoTestAnswrsUploaded byArthur Chen
- Using Surface EMGUploaded byBalachandran Kalidass
- GMS MS 700, Lecture 7-2Uploaded byScott Yee
- Instructions for Running a T-Test in ExcelUploaded byMihaela Neata-Imparatu
- Big Data ExperimentsUploaded byShrey Gupta
- iahiuahuisahUploaded byPedro Pires
- Math AUploaded byFrishian Gail Quijano
- Quiz 2 review questions (solutions)-1.pdfUploaded bySteven Nguyen
- the final paper2Uploaded byapi-249615264
- 3A-BAZZARUploaded byPradeep Agrawal
- Activity 3Uploaded bynaspuloy
- InferenceUploaded byalyssa_marie_ke
- Statistical TestUploaded byXandae Mempin
- 09-two-mean-2Uploaded byZul Abror Bin Ya'akop
- QTT OutlineUploaded bysaad ali
- Uas Stapen LainUploaded bykiki_riana31
- Vi Test of Hypothesis 1 on MeanUploaded bysgultom
- Chapter 9Uploaded byJes Bui
- EXPORT DATA SPSS PIET__KONSUL.docUploaded byDesii Fitriati
- week 7 (2)Uploaded byFahad Almitiry
- Chap 011Uploaded byBG Monty 1
- final the effects of multilingualism on the grade point averages of college students 2Uploaded byapi-272869703
- Scientific ReportsUploaded bypedronavajas69
- instrumenUploaded byFinga Hitam Manies
- 4. Chapter IV - Data AnalysisUploaded byAgiel Meidiputra
- Perceptions AboutUploaded bylavinuff
- intro to hypothesis testingUploaded byrahulrockon
- MethodologyUploaded byAaron Reyes
- Effect of Aggregate Inhomogeneity on Mechanical Properties of Asphalt MixturesUploaded bySasha Henderson
- Bacillus Subtil is Tannin v Schl or AUploaded byJohn Espique

- Mi primer argumento va hacer por.docxUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Mi primer argumento va hacer por.docxUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- resumen_1Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- 06_Elevacion_IgEUploaded byEdgar Uribe
- 06_Elevacion_IgEUploaded byEdgar Uribe
- Doc1.docxUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Ambiental_2Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Anexo-2-1.docxUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- traducUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Prueba MovProt T1Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- HelpUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- TradghghUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Ecu 112180Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- solub-p.docxUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Libro Vi Anexo 1Uploaded byJhon Andres Coello Muñoz
- aleeeecostooos (2)Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- 2Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- operaciones_3Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Abstract oUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Fenomenos de Trasporte 10Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- LesUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- 2.docxUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- operaciones_1Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Consulta-4Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- operaciones_2Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- Virus Marinos Principales Jugadores en El Ecosistema GlobalUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- 1Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- cinchonaUploaded byCristian Benalcázar
- 1Uploaded byCristian Benalcázar

- Allmagic.com - The Haunted KeyUploaded byfata123
- Weaving CalculationsUploaded byrameshkothiya
- The Silk Road a New HistoryUploaded byRafael Esteban Benitez Avendano
- Present PerfectUploaded byInma Lopez Rodriguez
- A-Fish-and-a-GiftUploaded byDho Mhal Ting
- Sports Shoe Strategies 01Uploaded byUdaykumar Sengunthar
- Thunderstruck by Erik Larson - ExcerptUploaded byCrown Publishing Group
- Examen Extraordinario 1o. Sec.Uploaded byOscar
- Arc Flash Jim Lagree EatonUploaded byLaurence Michael
- Mary Kay Image - NSD Pat DanforthUploaded byMaryKayVictims
- DanceUploaded byJayno Labajo Lamosao
- To Wake the Dead. a Renaissance Merchant and the Birth of ArchaeologyUploaded byjfmartos2050
- p Statements 6YA0JuUploaded byPanneer Selvam
- Sugestões de músicas para trabalhar em sala de aula (Língua Inglesa)Uploaded byNatan Campos
- SareeUploaded byGarima Chauhan
- Goya_and_Altamira_Family_The_Metropolitan_Museum_of_Art_Bulletin_v_71_no_4_Spring_2014.pdfUploaded byCristina Tolita
- Fairytale Scripts in TA Therapists the Powerful Adapted Child of the TherapistUploaded bylillouana
- Easter in the UKUploaded bycristinaescribanoromero
- Essay- Pillow BookUploaded byAndy Ibarra Dela Cruz
- WET_ DRY-User ManualUploaded bymechnicalstudent
- 221088499 Mechanically Advanced Scissor JackUploaded byestifanos
- Intro BangladeshUploaded byBhushan Bari
- Garment Bundling & Garment Sewing and AssemblingUploaded byBijal DedhianGosar
- Liquid Argon airproductUploaded bynico
- 6 Inch M-seal Model Blowers StokesUploaded bygabrielob
- 9781925177329.epubUploaded byJamison Gay
- White Dwarf - 003Uploaded byMr Monk
- Curse of Strahd Introductory Adventure Death HouseUploaded byG
- Finale 1.Uploaded bySiddhartha Nigam
- The Pearl NecklaceUploaded byKatryRain