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# 1st Topic

Fourier Series
Importance, Definitions of Fourier series
Euler’s formulae
Prepared by:
Dr. Sunil
NIT Hamirpur (HP)
(Last updated on 20-02-2008)

Introduction:
Fourier series introduced in 1807 by Fourier (after works by Euler and
Danial Bernoulli) was one of the most important developments in applied
mathematics. Fourier series is an infinite series representation of periodic
function in terms of the trigonometric sine and cosine functions.
It is very useful in the study of heat conduction, mechanics, concentration
of chemicals and pollutants (impurities), electrostatics, acoustics and in areas
unheard of in Fourier’s days such as computing and CAT scan (computer assisted
tomography-medical technology that uses X-Rays and computers to produce 3-
dimensional images of the human body). Fourier series is very powerful method
to solve ordinary and partial differential equations particularly with periodic
functions appearing as non-homogeneous terms.
As we know, Taylor’s series expansion is valid only for functions, which
are continuous and differentiable. But Fourier series is possible not only for
continuous functions, but for periodic functions, functions discontinuous in their
values and derivatives.
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 2

## Further, because of periodic nature, Fourier series constructed for one

period is valid for all values.
Harmonic analysis:
Harmonic analysis is the theory of expanding functions in Fourier series.
Periodic functions:
A function f(x) which satisfies the relation f (x + T ) = f (x ) for all x and for some
positive number T, is called a periodic function. The smallest positive number T, for
which this relation holds, is called the period of f(x).
If T is the period, then f (x ) = f (x + T ) = f (x + 2T ) = ........... = f (x + nT ) = .....

## Also f (x ) = f (x − T ) = f (x − 2T ) = ........... = f (x − nT ) = .....

∴ f (x ) = f (x ± nT ) , where n is a positive integer.
Thus, f(x) repeats itself after periods of T.
Trigonometric series:
Trigonometric series is a functional series of the form
1
a 0 + a1 cos x + a 2 cos 2 x + .............. + b1 sin x + b 2 sin 2 x + ............
2
a0 ∞ ∞
or + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx ,
2 n =1 n =1

## where the coefficients a 0 , a n , b n (n = 1,2,3,……) are called the coefficients.

Fourier series:
Most of the single valued functions, which occur in many physical and
engineering problems, can be expressed in the form
1
a 0 + a1 cos x + a 2 cos 2 x + .............. + b1 sin x + b 2 sin 2 x + ............
2
within a desired range of values of the variable.
Then, such a series is known as the Fourier series.
The individual terms in Fourier series are known as harmonics.
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 3

## Euler’s Formulae: [Fourier-Euler Formulae]

The Fourier series for the function f (x) in the interval α < x < α + 2π is given by
a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx ,
2 n =1 n =1

α + 2π
1
where a 0 =
π ∫ f (x )dx ,
α

α + 2π
1
an =
π ∫ f (x )cos nxdx ,
α

α + 2π
1
bn =
π ∫ f (x )sin nxdx .
α

## These formulae of a 0 , a n , b n are known as Euler’s Formulae.

a0
Note: For getting more symmetric formulae for the coefficients, we write instead of a 0 .
2

## To establish these formulae, the following definite integrals will be required:

α + 2π α + 2π
sin nx
1. ∫ cos nxdx =
n α
=0 (n ≠ 0)
α

α + 2π α + 2π
cos nx
2. ∫ sin nxdx = −
n α
=0 (n ≠ 0)
α

α + 2π α + 2π
1
3. ∫ cos mx cos nxdx =
2 ∫ [cos(m + n )x + cos(m − n )x ]dx
α α

α + 2π
1 sin (m + n )x sin (m − n )x
= + =0 (m ≠ n )
2 m+n m−n α

α + 2π α + 2π
x sin 2nx
∫ (n ≠ 0)
2
4. cos nxdx = + =π
α
2 4n α

α + 2π
1  cos(m − n )x cos(m + n )x 
5. ∫ sin mx cos nxdx = − 
2 m−n
+
m + n 
=0 (m ≠ n )
α
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 4

α + 2π α + 2π
sin 2 nx
6. ∫ sin nx cos nxdx =
2n
=0 (n ≠ 0)
α α

α + 2π
1  sin (m − n )x sin (m + n )x 
7. ∫ sin mx sin nxdx =
2  m − n

m + n 
=0 (m ≠ n )
α

α + 2π α + 2π
x sin 2nx
∫ (n ≠ 0)
2
8. sin nxdx = − =π
α
2 4n α

## Proof: Let f (x ) be represented in the interval (α, α + 2π) by Fourier series:

a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1

In finding the coefficients a 0 , a n and b n , we assume that the series on the RHS of (i)
is uniformly convergent for α < x < α + 2π and it can be integrated term by term in the
given interval.
To determine the coefficient a 0 :

## Integrate both sides of (i) w.r.t. x from x = α to x = α + 2π . Then, we get

α + 2π α + 2π α + 2π α + 2π ∞
1  ∞   
 ∑ a n cos nx dx +  ∑ b n sin nx dx
∫ f (x )dx = a 0
2 ∫ dx + ∫   ∫  
α α α  n =1  α  n =1 
1
= a 0 (α + 2π − α ) + 0 + 0 = a 0π . [ by integrals (1) and (2) above]
2
α + 2π
1
Hence a 0 =
π ∫ f (x )dx
α

## To determine the coefficient a n for n = 1, 2, 3,…….:

Multiply each side of (i) by cos nx and integrate w.r.t. x from x = α to x = α + 2π .
Then, we get
α + 2π α + 2π α + 2π
1  ∞ 
 ∑ a n cos nx  cos nxdx
∫ f (x )cos nxdx = a 0
2 ∫ cos nxdx + ∫  
α α α  n =1 
α + 2π
 ∞ 
 ∑ b n sin nx  cos nxdx
+ ∫  
α  n =1 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 5

## = 0 + πa n + 0 . [ by integrals (1),(3), (4), (5) and (6)]

α + 2π
1
Hence a n =
π ∫ f (x )cos nxdx .
α

## To determine the coefficient b n for n = 1, 2, 3,……:

Multiply each side of (i) by sin nx and integrate w.r.t. x from x = α to x = α + 2π .
Then, we get
α + 2π α + 2π α + 2π
1  ∞ 
 ∑ a n cos nx  sin nxdx
∫ f (x )sin nxdx =
2
a0 ∫ sin nxdx + ∫  
α α α  n =1 
α + 2π
 ∞ 
 ∑ b n sin nx  sin nxdx
+ ∫  
α  n =1 
= 0 + 0 + πb n . [ by integrals (2),(5), (6), (7) and (8)]
α + 2π
1
Hence b n =
π ∫ f (x )sin nxdx .
α

α + 2π α + 2π α + 2π
1 1 1
Thus a 0 =
π ∫ f (x )dx , a n =
π ∫ f (x )cos nxdx and b n =
π ∫ f (x )sin nxdx .
α α α

## The coefficients a 0 , a n and b n , are known as Fourier coefficients of f(x).

Remarks:
1.: Putting α = 0 , the interval becomes 0 < x < 2π , and the formula (1) reduce to
2π 2π 2π
1 1 1
a0 =
π ∫ f ( x )dx , a n =
π ∫ f ( x ) cos nx dx , b n =
π ∫ f ( x ) sin nx dx .
0 0 0

2.: Putting α = −π , the interval becomes − π < x < π and the formula (1) take the form
π π π
1 1 1
a 0 = ∫ f ( x )dx , a n = ∫ f ( x ) cos nx dx , b n = ∫ f ( x ) sin nx dx .
π −π π −π π −π

Now let us expand the following functions as a Fourier series. In all these
problems, f(x) is assumed to have the period 2π .
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 6

Q.No.1.: Expand in a Fourier series, the function f ( x ) = x in the interval 0 < x < 2π .

1
Sol.: Let f ( x ) = a 0 + ∑ (a n cos nx + b n sin nx ) (i)
2 n =1

## be the required Fourier series.

1

1

1 x2

( 2
1 4π − 0 )
Here a 0 =
π ∫
0
f ( x ) dx =
π ∫
0
xdx =
2 2
=
π 4
= π.
0

2π 2π
1 1
an =
π ∫ f (x ) cos nxdx =
π ∫ x cos nx dx
I II
0 0

1   sin nx   − cos nx   1  cos 2nπ   1 
= ( x )   − (1)  2   = π  2π(0) + 2
 −  0 + 2 
π  n   n 0  n   n 
1 1 1
=  2
− 2  = 0.
π n n 
2π 2π
1 1  µvdx = µ.v1 − µ′v 2 + µ′′.v3 − µ′′′.v 4 + ....
bn =
π ∫ f (x )sin nxdx =
π ∫ x sin nx dx
I II ∫ 
0 0

1  − cos nx   − sin nx  
= ( x ) .   − (1)  2 
π  n   n 0

1  1  2
=  −2π + 0 − ( −0 + 0 )  = − .
2π  n  n

## cos 2nπ = (− 1)2 n = 1

 
sin 2nπ = 0 
Hence, from (i), we get

1 −2
f ( x ) = .2π + ∑ 0 +   sin nx
2 n =1  n 

sin nx
= π − 2∑ dx , is the required Fourier series.
n =1 n

## Q.No.2.: Prove that for all values of x between − π and π ,

1 1 1 1
x = sin x − sin 2 x + sin 3x − sin 4 x + .........
2 2 3 4
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 7

1
Sol.: Here f ( x ) = x, −π< x < π.
2
As f(x) is an odd function.

Hence, the required Fourier series is f (x) = ∑ b n sin nx.
n =1

π π
1 1 1
Now b n = ∫
π −π
f (x )sin nxdx = ∫
π −π 2
x sin nxdx (i)

 π π 
1
π
∵ ∫ x sin nxdx = 2∫ x sin nxdx 
π ∫0 I
= x sin nx dx  −π 0 
 
(x sin nx is even function ) 
π
1   − cos nx   − sin nx 
= x  − (1) 
π  n   n 2  0

## 1 − π n (− 1)n = (− 1)n +1 sin nπ = 0, n ∈ Z 

= (− 1) = −  
π  n 
 n n n
cosnπ = (− 1) , n ∈ Z
Hence, from (i), we get

f (x ) = ∑
(− 1)n +1 sin x = sin x − sin 2x + sin 3x − .........
n =1 n 2 3

π2 cos nx
Q.No.3.: Prove that x 2 = + 4 ∑ (− 1)n , −π < x < π.
3 n =1 n2

1 π2
Hence, show that (i) ∑ n2
=
6
,

(− 1)n −1 = π2 ,
(ii) ∑ n2 12

1 π2
(iii) ∑ (2n − 1)2 =
8
.

## Sol.: The Fourier series is given by

a0 ∞ ∞
f (x) = x 2 = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 8

π π π
1 1 1 x3 1 2 π3 2 π 2
Here a 0 = ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ x 2dx = = = .
π −π π −π π 3 π 3 3
−π

π π π
1  x 2 sin nx 
π
1 1 2
a n = ∫ f (x )dx cos nxdx = ∫ x 2 cos nxdx =   − ∫ x sin nxdx
π −π π −π π  n  − π n − π
π
2  − x cos nx  
π
1  x 2 sin nx 
π
1
=   −   + ∫ cos nxdx 
π  n  n  n −π n − π 
−π

π
1  x 2 sin nx 2 x 2 
=  + 2 cos nx + 3 sin nx 
π  n n n  − π

1  π 2 .0 2 π 2  4(− 1) π 4(− 1)
n n
2 π 2 .0 2 π
=  + 2 (− 1)n − 3 (0 ) − + 2 (− 1)n + 3 .0 = = .
π  n n n n n n  πn 2 n2

 π 
1  − x 2 cos nx 
π π π
1 1 2 
b n = ∫ f (x )sin nxdx = ∫ x sin nxdx =   + ∫ x cos nxdx 
2
π −π π −π π  n  − π n − π 

 π
 
2  x sin nx 
π
1  − x 2 cos nx 
π
1
= 
π  n
 −  
 − π n  n  − π n − π
− ∫ sin nxdx 
 
 
π
1  − x 2 cos nx 2 x 2 
=  + 2 sin nx + 3 cos nx 
π  n n n  − π

## 1  − π2 n 2π.0 2 n π2 (− 1)n 2π.0 2(− 1)n 

=  (− 1) + 2 + 3 (− 1) + − 2 −  = 0.
π  n n n n n n 3 

⇒ bn = 0 .
Substituting the values of ai’s and bi’s in (i), we get the required Fourier series of

## f ( x ) = x 2 for − π < x < π as

a0 ∞ ∞
x2 = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx
2 n =1 n =1

2π 2 ∞ 4(− 1)n
⇒ x2 = +∑ cos nx + 0
3.2 n =1 n2
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 9

⇒ x2 =
π2
+ 4∑

(− 1)n cos nx . (ii)
3 n =1 n2

1 π2
To show (i): ∑ n2
=
6
.

## Putting x = π in equation (i), we obtain

π2 1 1 1 1 
π2 = + 4 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + ..............
3 1 2 3 4 

1 1 1 1  π 2 2π 2
⇒ 4 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + .............. = π2 − =
1 2 3 4  3 3

1 1 1 1 π2 1 π2
⇒ + + + + ............. = ⇒∑ 2 = ,
12 22 32 42 6 n 6
which is the required result.

(− 1)n −1 = π2 .
To show (ii): ∑ n2 12
Putting x = 0 in (i), we get
π2  1 1 1 1   1 1 1 1  π2
0= + 4− 2 + 2 − 2 + 2 − ......... ⇒ 4− 2 + 2 − 2 + 2 − ......... = −
3  1 2 3 4   1 2 3 4  3

⇒ 4∑
(− 1)n =
π2
⇒∑
(− 1)n =
π2
,
n2 3 n2 12
which is the required result.

1 π2
To show (iii): ∑ (2n − 1)2 =
8
.

## Adding results (i) and (ii), we get

1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  π2 π2
 2 + + + + .............   2
+ − + − + ......... = +
1 2 2 32 4 2  1 2 2 32 4 2  6 12

1 1  π2 1 1  π2
⇒ 2 2 + 2 + .............  = ⇒  2 + 2 + .............  =
1 3  4 1 3  8

1 π2
⇒∑ = ,
(2n − 1)2 8

## which is the required result.

Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur10

## Q.No.4.: f (x ) = x + x 2 for − π < x < π and f (x ) = π2 for x = ± π .

Expand f(x) in Fourier series and show that

π2 ∞ 4 2 
x + x2 = + ∑ (− 1)n  2 cos nx − sin nx  .
3 n =1 n n 

1 1 1 π2
Hence, show that − + − ...... = .
12 22 32 12
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by
a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = x + x 2 = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1

π
1  x 2 x3  1  π 2 π3 π 2 π3  2 π 2
π
1
π −π
(
Here a 0 = ∫ x + x 2 dx =  +  =  +
π  2 3 
)
π  2 3

2
+ =
3  3
.
−π

1  sin nx 
π π π
2 sin nx 
1 2
(
a n = ∫ x + x cos nxdx =  x + x
π 
) n  − π −∫π
− (1(+ 2 x )) dx 
π −π n 

1  2 cos nx 
π π π
2 sin nx   − (2x + 1) cos nx 
= 
π 
x +(x )

n  − π  n  − π −∫π

n2
dx 
n 

## 1  (1 + 2x )cos nx  π −  2 sin nx  π 

= 
π 
x (
+ x 2 sin nx
n
+ ) n2
   
 − π  n 3  − π 

=
( +
)
1  π + π2 sin nπ (1 + 2π )cos nπ 2 sin nπ 
 − 
π  n n2 n 3 

( +
)
1  − π + π 2 sin (− nπ) 1 − 2π cos(− nπ ) 2 sin (− nπ ) 
 − 
π  n n2 n3 

## 1  (1 + 2π)(− 1)n (1 − 2π)(− 1)n 

=  − 
π  n2 n2 

1  (1 + 2π − 1 + 2π ) n 1 4π n 4
=  2
(− 1)  = × 2
(− 1) = 2
(− 1)n .
π n  π n n

1  cos nx 
π π π
2 cos nx 
1 2
(
b n = ∫ x + x sin nxdx = − x + x
π 
) n  − π −∫π
+ (1 + 2(x ) ) dx 
π −π n 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur11

1  2 sin nx 
π π π
2 cos nx   (1 + 2x )sin nx 
= − x + x
π 
( +
n  − π 
− ) n2
 + ∫
−π −π n 2
dx 


= 
( −
)
1  − x + x 2 cos nx (1 + 2 x )sin nx 2 cos nx 
− 
π

π  n n2 n 3  −π

= 
( −
)
1  − π + π2 cos nπ (1 + 2 x )sin nπ 2
− cos n π

π  n n2 n3 

− 
( )
1  − π + π 2 cos(− nπ) (1 + 2π )sin (− nπ ) 2
− − cos( − n π )

π  n n2 n3 

=
1  − (− 1)n π + π2

( 2 )
  − (− 1)n π + π2
− 3 (− 1)n  − 
( 2 )
− 3 (− 1)n 
π  n n  
  n n 


1  − (− 1)n π + π2
= 
( 2 n
− 3 (− 1) +
)
π + π2 ( ) 
(− 1)n + 23 (− 1)n 
π  n n n n 

=
1
π
[( 1 2π
− π − π 2 − π + π 2 (− 1)n = − ×
π n
) ]
(− 1)n .
−2
⇒ bn = (− 1)n .
n
Substituting the values of a0, an and bn in (i), we get the required Fourier series of

## f (x ) = x + x 2 , in the range − π < x < π , as

1 2π2 ∞ 4 ∞
2
x + x2 = × + ∑ 2 (− 1)n cos nx + ∑ − (− 1)n sin nx
2 3 n =1 n n =1 n

π2 ∞ 4 2 
= + ∑ (− 1)n  2 cos nx − sin nx  .
3 n =1 n n 
Deduction: Put x = 0, in above, we get

n2
+ 4∑

(− 1)n ⇒ 0 = π 2 + 4 − 1 + 1 − 1 + ........
0=  2 
3 n =1 n2 3  1 2 2 32 

π2 1 1 1
⇒ = 2 − 2 + 2 − ......
12 1 2 3

## Q.No.5.: Find a Fourier series to represent x − x 2 from x = − π to x = π .

Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur12

1 1 1 1 π2
Hence, show that − + − + ....... = .
12 22 32 42 12
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by

a0 ∞ ∞
f (x) = x − x 2 = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1

π π
1 x 2 x3 2π 2
1
π −π
(
Here a 0 = ∫ x − x 2 dx = =
π 2

3
) =−
3
.
−π

1 
π π π
an =
1

π −π
x − x(2
cos nxdx =)  x − x2
π 
sin nx
n
( ) −
sin nx
∫ (1 − 2x ) n dx 
−π −π 

1  cos nx  
π π π
 cos nx 
π
(
=  x − x2
sin nx
n
) − (1 − 2 x ) ×  −

 +
n 2  −π −π
∫ (− 2 )−

dx 
n 2  
 −π

π
1  cos nx   sin nx  − 4(− 1)n
π
(
=  x − x2
sin nx
n
)
− (1 − 2x ) ×  −
 n2 
 + (− 2 )

−  
n 3  − π
=
n2
.

[∵ cos nπ = (− 1) ]
n

4 −4 4 −4
∴ a1 = 2
, a2 = 2
, a3 = 2
, a4 = ,……. etc.
1 2 3 42
π
1
Finally, b n = ∫ x − x 2 sin nxdx
π −π
( )
π
1  cos nx   sin nx   cos nx 
π
(
=  x − x2  −
 n 
)
 − (1 − 2x ) ×  − 2  + (− 2) 3 
 n   n  − π

− 2(− 1)n
= .
n
2 −2 2 −2
∴ b1 = , b2 = , b3 = , b 4 = ,……. etc.
1 2 3 4
Substituting the values of ai’s and bi’s in (i), we get the required Fourier series of

f ( x ) = x − x 2 from x = − π to x = π as

## π2  cos x cos 2x cos 3x cos 4x 

x − x2 = − + 4 2 − 2
+ 2
− 2
+ .............
3  1 2 3 4 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur13

##  sinx sin 2 x sin 3x sin 4 x 

+ 2 − + − + ............. . Ans.
 1 2 3 4 
2nd Part:
Putting x = 0, in the above relation, we get

π2 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 π2
0=− + 4 2 − 2 + 2 − 2 + .....  ⇒ 2 − 2 + 2 − 2 + ..... = ,
3 1 2 3 4  1 2 3 4 12
which is the required result.
Remarks:

In the above example, we have used the result sin nπ = 0 and cos nπ = (− 1)n .

 1  1
Also sin  n + π = (− 1)n and cos n + π = 0 .
 2  2

## Q.No.6.: Obtain the Fourier series of f (x ) =

(π − x ) in the interval (0, 2π) .
2
π 1 1 1
Deduce = 1 − + − + ........
4 3 5 7

1
Sol.: Let f ( x ) = a 0 + ∑ (a n cos nx + b n sin nx ) (i)
2 n =1

## be the required Fourier series. Then

1 (π − x) 
2π 2π 2
1 1 1 1 2
a0 =
π ∫ f (x)dx =
π ∫ 2
( π − x ) dx = 
2π  2 ( −1) 
 =−

(
π − π2 = 0. )
0 0  0
2π 2π
1 1 1
an =
π ∫ f ( x ) cos nxdx =
π ∫ 2 (π −I x )cosIInx dx
0 0

## Integrating by parts, we get

1   − cos nx   1    1 
( π − x ) 
sin nx  1
an =   − ( −1)  2  =  0− 2  −  0 − 2   = 0.
2π   n   n 0 2 π  n   n 
2π 2π
1 1 1
Also b n =
π ∫ f ( x ) sin nxdx =
π ∫ 2 (π −I x )sinIInx dx
0 0

## Integrating by parts, we get

Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur14

1  sin nx 
( π − x ) sin xdx = ( π − x )  −
1 cos nx 
bn =  − ( −1) 2 
2π 2π   n  n 0

1   1   π  1  π π  1
=  ( −π )  −  − 0  −  − − 0   =  + = .
2π   n   n   2n  n n  n
Hence, from (i), we get
∞ ∞
1 1  sin nx
f ( x ) = .0 + ∑  sin nx  = ∑ , is the required Fourier series.
2 n =1  n  n =1 n

π 1 1 1
2nd Part: Deduce = 1 − + − + ........
4 3 5 7
π
Put x = , then Fourier series becomes
2
π
π− ∞
2 =π= 1 π
2

4 n =1 n
sin n
2

π 1 1 1
⇒ = 1 − + − + ........
4 3 5 7
2
π − x  π2 ∞ cos nx
Q.No.7.: If f (x ) =  in the range 0 to 2π , then show that f ( x ) = +∑ .
 2  12 n =1 n 2

1 π2
Also, deduce that (i). ∑
n =1
= .
n2 6
1 1 1 1 π2
(ii). − + − + ...... = ,
12 22 32 42 12

1 1 1 π2
(iii). + + + ...... = .
12 32 52 8
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by

2
π − x  a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = 
 2 
 = + ∑ n
2 n =1
a cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
n =1

1  
2π 2π 2 2π 2π 2π
1 1 π−x
Here a 0 = ∫ f (x )dx = ∫   dx =  ∫ π dx − 2π ∫ xdx + ∫ x 2dx 
2
π 0
π 0  2  4π  0 0 0 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur15

 2π 2π 
1  2 2π x2 x3 
= π x 0 − 2π +
4π  2 3 
 0 0 

1  3 3 8π3  π2 2 2π
2
π2
= 2 π − 4 π + = − π + = .
4π  3  2 3 6
2π 2π 2
1 1 π−x
an =
π ∫ f (x )coxnxdx =
π ∫   cos nxdx
 2 
0 0

1  2 
2π 2π 2π

4π  ∫0
= π cos nxdx − 2π ∫ x cos nxdx + ∫ x 2 cos nxdx
0 0 

1  2 sin nx 
2π 2π 2π
= π − 2π ∫ x cos nxdx + ∫ x 2 cos nxdx  .
4π  n 0 0 0 
2π 2π 2π
x sin nx 1 x sin nx 1
Let I1 = ∫ x cos nxdx =
n

n ∫ sin nxdx =
n
+ 2 cos nx
n 0
0 0

##  2π sin n 2π cos n 2π   cos(0 )n  1 1

= + −
   = − = 0.
 n n2   n2  n2 n2
2π 2π 2π 2π
x 2 sin nx 2 x 2 sin nx 2
∫ ∫ ∫
2
I2 = x cos nxdx = − x sin nxdx = − x sin nxdx .
0
n n 0
n n 0
0

Let I3 = ∫ x sin nxdx
0

2π 2π 2π
− x cos nx 1
∴ I3 = ∫ x sin nxdx = − ∫
1
∫ (− cos nx )dx = − x cos nx + 1 sin nx
0
n n 0
n n n n 0

x 2 sin nx 2  − x cos nx 1 sin nx  4π
∴ I2 = −  +  = 2.
n n n n n  n
0

1  4π  4π 1 1
Thus a n =  0 + 2 + 0 = 2 × = 2.
4π  n  n 4π n
2π 2
1 π−x
It is clear that b n = 0 ⇒
π ∫   sin nxdx = 0 .
 2 
0

Substituting the values of a0, an and bn in (i), we get the required Fourier series of
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur16

2
π − x 
f (x ) =   in the range 0 to 2π , as
 2 

π2 ∞ cos nx
f (x ) = +∑ . (ii)
12 n =1 n 2

2nd Part:

π2 1
(i) To show: =∑ 2 .
6 n =1 n

## Putting x = 0 in (ii), we get

π2 π2  1 1 1 1 
= +  2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + .........
4 12 1 2 3 4 

π2 π2  1 1 1 1 
⇒ − =  2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + .........
4 12 1 2 3 4 

π2 1
⇒ =∑ 2 ,
6 n =1 n

## which is the required result.

1 1 1 1 π2
(ii) To show: − + − + ...... = .
12 22 32 42 12
Put x = π in (ii), we get

π 2 ∞ (− 1)n π 2  1 1 1 
0= +∑ 2
= + 1 + 2 − 2 + 2 − ..........
12 n =1 n 12  2 3 4 

π2 1 1 1
⇒ = 1 − 2 + 2 − 2 + ...... , which is the required result.
12 2 3 4

1 1 1 π2
(iii) To show: + + + ...... = .
12 32 52 8
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
π2 π2  1 1 1   1 1 1 
+ = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 − ..........  + 1 − 2 + 2 − 2 + .......... 
6 12  2 3 4   2 3 4 

π2  1 1 
⇒ = 21 + 2 + 2 + ...... 
4  3 5 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur17

π2 1 1
⇒ = 1 + 2 + 2 + ...... , which is the required result.
8 3 5

## Q.No.8.: Prove that for − π < x < π ,

(π 2 − x 2 )x = sin x − sin 2x + ......
12 12 22 .

Sol.: f ( x ) =
(
x π2 − x 2 )
, −π< x < π.
12

Now f (− x ) = − x
(π 2
− x2 )
= −f ( x ) ⇒ f(x) is odd function.
12
∴ a 0 = 0 , a n = 0.

Let f ( x ) = ∑ b n sin nx (i)
n =1

## be the required Fourier series.

1
π
1
Now b n = ∫ f ( x ) sin nxdx = ∫ x
π2 − x 2
sin nxdx
π
( )
π −π π −π 12

π π
=
1

12π −π
(
π 2 x − x 3 sin nxdx =
1
)

6π 0
π 2 x − x 3 sin nx dx
II
( )
I

2 3

## Integrating by parts, we get

π
1  2  − cos nx   − sin nx   cos nx   sin nx 
= 
6π 
(
π x − x3 )

 n
2
 − π − 3x

3
( )

 n2 
 + (− 6 x )
 n3 
 − (− 6 ) 4 
 n  0

## 1  6π(− 1)n 

 (− 1)n +1 sinnπ = 0, n ∈ Z
=  0−0− − 0 − (0) = sin0 = 0 
6π  n3 
  n3  

## Hence, from (i), we get

 π2 − x 2  ∞ (− 1)n +1 sin nx = sin x − sin 2x + ......
 12  ∑
x =
  n =1 n3 12 22 .

Q.No.9.: Obtain the Fourier series to represent e x in the interval 0 < x < 2π .

1
Sol.: Let f ( x ) = a 0 + ∑ (a n cos nx + b n sin nx ) (i)
2 n =1
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur18

## be the required Fourier series.

1

1 2π (e 2π
−1).
∫ e dx = e x
x
Now a 0 = =
π 0
n 0 π
2π 2π
1 1
an =
π ∫ f ( x ) cos nxdx =
π ∫ e x cos nxdx
0 0

1  ex   e ax 
( )  ∫ ( )
ax
=  cos nx + n sin nx  ∵ e cos bxdx = a cos bx + b sin bx 
π 1 + n 2   a 2 + b2 
0

1  e 2π 1  e 2π − 1
=  (1 + 0 ) − (1 + 0 ) = .
π 1 + n 2 1+ n2  π 1 + n
2
( )
2π 2π
1 1
bn =
π ∫ f ( x ) sin nxdx =
π ∫ e x sin nxdx
0 0

1  ex   e ax 
( )  ∫ ( )
ax
=  sin nx − n cos nx  ∵ e sin bxdx = a sin bx − b cos bx 
π 1 + n 2   a 2 + b2 
0

=
1
e 2π
 ( 0 − n )  −
1 1
( − n )  n 1− e
=

.
( )
  π 1 + n 2 
π (1 + n 2 )  1+ n2 ( )
Hence, from (i), we get

e 2π − 1 ∞  cos nx n sin nx 
f (x ) =
1 2x

(
e −1 + ) ∑ −
π n =1  1 + n 2 1 + n 2 
.

## Q.No.10.: Find the Fourier series to represent ex in the interval ( −π, π ) .

1
Sol.: Let f ( x ) = a 0 + ∑ (a n cos nx + b n sin nx ) (i)
2 n =1

## be the required Fourier series.

π
 e θ − e −θ 
1 1 1
Now a 0 = ∫ f ( x )dx = e x dx = e x
π −π π π
π
=
π
(
1 π 2
)
e − e −π = sinh π sinh θ =
π

−π
 2 
π π
1 1 1 x
a n = ∫ f (x) cos nxdx = ∫ e cos nxdx
π −π π −π π
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur19

π  e ax 
1  ex   ∫
∵ e ax
cos bxdx = (a cos bx + b sin bx )
=  (cos nx + n sin nx )  a 2 + b2 
π 1 + n 2  −π Here a = 1, b = n 

1  ex e−x 
= 
π 1 + n 2
(− (
1) n
+ 0 − )
2
(− 1)n + 0  ( )
1+ n 

## 1 (− 1)n π cos(− nπ) = cos nπ = (− 1)n 

=
(
π 1+ n 2
)(
e − e −π ) 
Also sinnπ = 0, n ∈ Z


n
2sinh π ( −1)  e π − e −π 
= . sinh π = 
(
π 1+ n2 )  2 
Further,
π π
1 1
b n = ∫ f (x) sin nxdx = ∫ e x sin nxdx
π −π π −π

π  e ax 
1  ex   ∫
∵ e ax
cos bxdx = (a cos bx + b sin bx )
=  (sin nx − n cos nx )  a 2 + b2 
π 1 + n 2  −π Here a = 1, b = n 
n
1  eπ e −π n  − (− 1)n n π −2n ( −1) sinh π
( ) ( ) )( )
n −π
=  0 − ( )
−1 − − n ( ) 
− 1 = e − e = .
π 1 + n 2
1+ n 2
 π1+ n
2
( π 1+ n2 ( )
Hence, from (i), we get

1 2 ∞  2 sinh π 2n (− 1)n 
f (x ) = . sinh π + ∑  (− 1) n
cos nx − (sinh x ) × sin nx 
2 π n =1
 π1+ n2
 ( ) π 1+ n 2
( ) 

## 2 sinh π  1 ∞  (− 1)n cos nx n (− 1)n 

=  +∑  − sin nx 
π  2 n =1  1+ n2
 ( 1 +)n 2 


## 2sinh π  1  1 cos 2x cos 3x 

=  −  cos x − + − ..... 
π 2  2 5 10 

1 2 3 
−  sin x − sin 2x + sin 3x − .....   .
2 5 10 

Q.No.11.: Obtain the Fourier series for f (x ) = e− x in the interval 0 < x < 2π .
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur20

a0 ∞ ∞
e− x = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =2 n =1

2π 2π
1 1 1 2π 1 − e −2 π
Here a 0 =
π ∫ f (x )dx =
π ∫ e − x dx =
π
− e− x
0
=
π
.
0 0

2π 2π
1 1
an =
π ∫ f (x )cos nxdx =
π ∫ e − x cos nxdx
0 0

1 2π  1 − e −2 π  1
= e − x (− cos nx + n sin nx ) = . .
(
π n2 + 1 ) 0  π  n2 + 1
 
 1 − e− 2π  1  1 − e −2 π  1  1 − e −2 π  1
∴ a1 =   ,a =   , a =  .......etc.
 π  2 2  π  5 3  π  10
     
2π 2π
1 1
Finally, b n =
π ∫ f (x )sin nxdx =
π ∫ e − x sin nxdx
0 0

1 2π  1 − e −2 π  n
= −x
(− sin nx − n cos nx ) = . .
(
π n2 + 1 )e 0  π  n2 + 1
 
 1 − e −2 π  1  −2 π   −2 π  3
∴ b1 =  . , b 2 =  1 − e . 2 , b 3 =  1 − e . ,…. etc.
 π 2  π 5  π  10
     
Substituting the values of ai’s and bi’s in (i), we get the required Fourier series of

## f (x ) = e− x in the interval 0 < x < 2π as

1  1 1 1 
 +  cos x + cos 2 x + cos 3x + .............. 
 1 − e − 2 π  2  2 5 10 
e− x  
 π   . Ans.
=
  +  1 sin x + 2 sin 2x + 3 sin 3x + ..............
 2 5 10 

## Q.No.12.: Obtain a Fourier series to represent e− ax from x = −π to x = π .

π
Hence, derive series for .
sinh π
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by
a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = e −ax = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur21

π π π
 e − ax 
1 1
Here a 0 = ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ e −ax dx = −
π −π π −π
 =
− 1 − ax
e [ ] π
−π = [
− 1 − aπ aπ
e −e ]
 a  − π πa πa

 e aπ − e − aπ  2 sinh aπ
= = .
 aπ  aπ

ex − e− x
Since we know that sinh x = ⇒ 2 sinh x = e x − e − x ⇒ eaπ − e −aπ = 2 sinh aπ .
2
π
1
Also a n = ∫ e −ax cos nxdx = I (say).
π −π

1  e − ax  π  e −ax  
Then I = cos nxdx −  (− n sin nx )dx 
π   − a  ∫− π  −a 
    

− e aπ cos nx n   e − ax  π  e − ax  
= − sin nx −
 ∫

 −a
.n cos nxdx

πa πa   −a  −π   

## − e −ax cos nx n sin nx.e −ax n 2 − ax

= + − 2 e cos nxdx
aπ a 2π a π

## − e −ax cos nx n cos nxe−ax n 2  1

π 
= + − 2 [I] ∵ I = ∫ e − ax cos nxdx
aπ a 2π a  π −π 
π
 n 2   n sin nxe − ax e − ax cos nx 
⇒ I + 2 .I =  − 
 a   a 2π aπ  − π
π
 n sin nxe − ax e − ax cos nx 
a2
⇒I= 2  − 
(
a + n 2  a 2π ) aπ  − π

a2
(a + n ) a π [n sin nxe − e a cos nx]
1 − ax − ax π
= 2 2
× 2 −π

=
1
π(a + n )
[ne sin nπ − ae cos nπ − n sin nπe + ae
2 2
− aπ − aπ + aπ + aπ
cos nπ ]
=
1
π(a + n )
[
2
0 − ae (− 1) − 0 + ae (− 1) ] =
2
− aπ n 1
π(a + n )
[ae aπ n
2 2
− aπ
]
− ae+ aπ (− 1)n
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur22

=
(− 1)n a [2 sinh aπ] .
(
πn +a 2 2
)
Now put n = 1, 2, 3, .................... , we get
− 2a sinh aπ 2a sinh aπ − 2a sinh aπ
a1 = , a2 = , a3 =
(
π a +12 2
) (
πa +2 2 2
) (
π a 2 + 32 ) , ...........etc.
π
1
Similarly, b n = ∫
π −π
e − ax sin nxdx = I (say).

## 1  e −ax  π  e −ax    − eax sin nx  π n

π
∴ I = sin nx −  .n cos nxdx = 
 −a  ∫ ∫
 + e − ax cos nxdx
π   −a    aπ  − π aπ − π
  −π  
π
 − e − ax sin nx  n   e − ax

 π
−
 e − ax 

(− n ) sin nxdx 
  ∫
=  + cos nx
 aπ  − π aπ   −a  −a  
  −π  
π π
 − e − ax sin nx   ne − ax cos nx  n2
π
 − 2 ∫ e sin nxdx .
− ax
=  − 2
 aπ  − π  πa  − π a π − π
π
 n 2   e − ax sin nx ne − ax cos nx 
Thus I + 2 .I =  − 
 a   aπ πa 2  − π
π
 − e − ax sin nx ne − ax cos nx 
a2
⇒I= 2  − 
a + n 2  aπ πa 2  − π

a2
(a + n ) a π [− ae sin x − ne cos nx ]
1 − ax − ax π
∴I = 2 2
× 2 −π

=
1
π(a + n )
[− ae sin nπ − ne cos nπ + ae sin nπ + ne cos nπ]
2 2
− aπ − aπ aπ aπ

n
=
1
[0 − ne (− 1) + 0 + ne (− 1) ] =
(− 1) [ne − ne ]
− aπ n aπ n aπ − aπ
π(a + n ) 2 2
π(a + n ) 2 2

## n (− 1)n n (− 1)n 2 sinh aπ

)[e ]

= − e −aπ ⇒ b n = I = .
(
π a2 + n2 (
π a2 + n2 )
[∵ 2 sinh aπ = e aπ
− e−aπ ]
Now putting n = 1, 2, 3,.......... , we get
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur23

## − 2 sinh aπ 2(2 sinh aπ) 3(− 2 sinh aπ)

b1 = , b2 = , b3 = ..... etc.
(
π a 2 + 12 ) (
π a 2 + 22 ) (
π a 2 + 32 )
Substituting the values of ai’s and bi’s in (i), we get the required Fourier series of

f ( x ) = e −ax from x = −π to x = π as

## 2 sinh aπ 2 sinh πa  a cos x a cos 2 x a cos 3x 

e− ax = −  2 2 − 2 + + ...............
2πa π  a +1 (
a + 22 a 2 + 32) ( ) (  )
2 sinh πa  − sin x 2 sin 2 x 3 sin 3x 
+  2 2 + 2 − + .......... .....
2πa  a + 1 ( a + 22 ) (
a 2 + 32 ) (  )
 1 a cos x a cos 2x a cos 3x 
 2a − 2 2 + 2 2
− 2 2
+ ................... 
2 sinh aπ  a +1 a +2 a +3 
=  
π  sin x 2 sin 2x 3 sin 3x  
 − 2 2 − 2 + − ...............
  a +1 a + 22 a 2 + 32  
2nd Part:
By putting x = 0, a = 1 in the above relation, we get
 1 cos 0 cos 0 cos 0 
 − 2 2 + 2 2 − 2 2 + ................... 
2 sinh π  2 1 + 1 2 +1 3 +1 
e −1(0 ) =
π   sin 0 2 sin 0 3 sin 0 
 −  2 2 − 2 2 + 2 2 − ...............  
 1 +1 2 +1 3 +1 

2 sinh π  1 1 1 1  
⇒1=  − + 2 2 − 2 2 + ........ + (0)
π  2 2 2 + 1 3 + 1  
π 1 1 1
⇒ = 2 − 2 + 2 − ........ ,
2 sinh π 2 + 1 3 + 1 4 + 1
which is the required result.

## Q.No.13.: Obtain the Fourier series expansion of f ( x ) = e ax in (0,2π) .

Sol.: The Fourier series is given by
a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = e ax = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1

2π 2π 2π
1 1 e ax e 2ax − 1
∫ ∫
ax
Here a 0 = f ( x )dx = e dx = = .
π 0
π 0
π π
0
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur24

2π 2π
1 1
an =
π ∫ f ( x ) cos nxdx =
π ∫ e ax cos nxdx
0 0

[a cos bx + b sin bx ]
Using ∫ e ax cos bxdx = e ax
(a 2
+ b2 )
 2π 
1  ax (a cos nx + n. sin nx ) 
)[ ]
1
an = e = ae 2ax cos 2nπ − e 0 . cos 0
π

2
a +n 2
(0 
 πa +n
2 2
) (

)[ae ]
1 2 aπ
= −1 .
(
πa +n 2 2

2π  2π 
1 1  ax (a sin nx − n cos nx ) 

ax
bn = e sin nxdx = e
π 0
π

a2 + n2 (
0 
 )
 ax [a sin bx − b cos bx ]
∵ ∫ e sin bxdx = e
ax

 (
a2 + b2 )

## )[− e ] π(a n+ n )[1 − e ].

n 2aπ 2aπ
∴ bn = cos 2nπ + 1 =
(
πa +n 2 2 2 2

Substituting the values of a0, an and bn in (i), we get the required Fourier series of

## f (x ) = e ax , in the range 0 < x < 2π , as

 e 2aπ − 1   1 ∞  1    ae 2aπ − 1  ∞
f (x ) =   + ∑   (− n sin nx ) +   ∑ cos nx . Ans.
 π  2
 
2 2
n =1  a + n    π  2
n =1 a + n
2
( )
Q.No.14.: Find the Fourier series to represent e ax in the interval − π < x < π .
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by
a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = e ax = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1

π π π
1  e ax 
1
π −π
1
Here a 0 = ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ e dx = 
π −π
ax
π  a 
 =
1 ax
πa
e − e −ax =
2 sinh aπ
πa
. ( )
−π

π π π
1 1 1  e ax 
a n = ∫ f ( x ) cos nxdx = ∫ e cos nxdx =  2
ax
(a cos nx + n sin nx )
π −π π −π π  a + π 2  −π
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur25

(
a cos nπ e ax − e −ax ) = 2a(− 1) sinh aπ .n

)[ae ]
1
= ax
cos nπ − ae −ax cos nπ =
(
π a2 + n2 (
π a 2 + π2 ) π(a + n ) 2 2

2n (− 1)n sinh aπ
Similarly, b n = .
(
π a2 + n2 )
Substituting the values of a0, an and bn in (i), we get the required Fourier series of

## sinh aπ ∞ 2a (− 1)n sinh aπ ∞

2n (− 1)n sinh aπ
e ax = +∑ cos nx + ∑ π a 2 + n 2 sin nx
aπ n =1 π a 2
+ n 2
( n =1 ) ( )
 1 a cos x a cos 2 x a cos 3x 
 − 2 2 + 2 − + ................... 
2 sinh aπ  2a a + 1 a + 2 2 a 2 + 32 
e ax = . Ans.
π   sin x 2 sin 2x 3 sin 3x  
 − 2 2 − 2 + − ............... 
  a +1 a + 2 2 a 2 + 32  
Q.No.15.: Expand f (x ) = x sin x , 0 < x < 2π , in a Fourier series.

a0 ∞ ∞
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by f (x ) = x sin x = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx .(i)
2 n =1 n =1

Here a 0 =
1
π ∫ x sin xdx =
1
π
[x (− cos x ) − ∫ (− cos x )dx

0
]
0

 − x cos x sin x  1
= +  = [sin x − x cos x ]02 π
 π π 0 π

=
1
[0 − 2π(+ 1) − 0 + 0] = − 2xπ = −2 .
π π
2π 2π 2π
1 1 2 1
an =
π ∫ x sin x. cos nxdx =
π ∫ 2
.x sin x cos nxdx =
2π ∫ x.2 sin x cos nxdx
0 0 0

2π 2π 2π
1 1 1
=
2π ∫ x[sin (x + nx ) + sin (x − nx )]dx =
2π ∫ x sin x (1 + n )dx +
2π ∫ x sin x (1 − n )dx
0 0 0

## 1  (− cos x (1 + n )) (− cos x(1 + n )) dx 

= x
2π  1+ n
− ∫ 1+ n


0

1  (− cos x (1 − n )) (− cos x (1 − n )) dx 

+ x
2π  1− n
− ∫ 1− n

0 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur26

2π 2π
 − x cos x (1 + n ) sin x (1 + n )   − x cos x (1 − n ) sin x (1 − n ) 
= +  +  + 
 2π(1 + n ) 2π(n + 1)2  0  2π(1 − n ) 2π(n − 1)2  0

##  − 2π cos(n + 1)2π   − 2π cos(1 − n )2π 

= + 0 + 0 − 0 +  + 0 − 0 + 0
 2π(1 + n )   2π(1 − n ) 
 (− 1)(− 1)2(n +1) (− 1)(− 1)2(1−n )  (−1)(− 1)2 n + 2 (1 − n ) + (−1)(− 1)2−2n (1 + n )
= + =
 1+ n (1 − n )  1− n2 ( )
−1+ n −1− n −2 2
= = = . (n ≠ 1)
1− n2 1− n2 n 2 −1
2
Thus a n = . (n ≠ 1) .
n2 −1
When n = 1, then
2π 2π 2π
1 1 x 1  x (− cos 2x ) sin 2x 
a1 =
π ∫ x sin x cos xdx =
π ∫ 2
sin 2xdx =
2π  2

2  0
0 0

1  2π(− 1) − 0  1  − 2π  1
=   =  =− .
2π  2  2π  2  2

1
Also b n =
π ∫ x sin x sin nxdx = 0 . [∵ x sin x sin nx is odd function]
0

When n = 1, then
2π 2π
1 1
b1 =
π ∫ x sin x. sin xdx =
π ∫ x sin 2 xdx
0 0

2π 2π
1  − x2 

1 (1 − cos 2x ) dx =  sin 2 x 
=
π ∫ x
2

2π  2 
 −
 2 0

0 0

1  4π 2  1 4π 2
= × − 0 − 0 = × = π.
2π  2  2π 2

Substituting the values of a0, an and bn in (i), we get the required Fourier series of
f (x ) = x sin x , in the range 0 < x < 2π , as

1 cos nx
x sin x = −1 + π sin x − cos x + 2 ∑ 2 .
2 n =2 n − 1
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur27

## Q.No.16.: Prove that, in the range − π < x < π ,

2a  1 ∞
(− 1)n 
cosh ax = sinh ax  2 + ∑ 2 2
cos nπ .
π  2a n =1 n + a 
Sol.: The Fourier series is given by

a0 ∞ ∞
f (x ) = cosh ax = + ∑ a n cos nx + ∑ b n sin nx . (i)
2 n =1 n =1

π π π
1 1 2 ×1
Here a 0 = ∫
π −π
f (x )dx = ∫ cosh axdx =
π −π π ∫0
cosh axdx

1 eax + e −ax  2  ax 
π π π
= 2 ∫ dx  =  ∫ e dx + ∫ e − ax dx 
π  0 2  2π  0 0 
π
1 eax e − ax 2  eaπ − eaπ 
=
π a
− =
πa
[
1 aπ
e − e− aπ = ]
πa 
=
2
sinh aπ .
a
0
2  πa

2 2a 2 1
Thus a 0 = sinh aπ = sinh aπ 2  .
πa π a 

1
π π  eax + e −ax 
an = ∫ (cosh ax )cos nxdx = 1 ∫ 

 cos nxdx

π −π π −π  2 

1  
π π
=  ∫ e cos nxdx + ∫ e −ax cos nxdx .
ax
(i)
2π − π −π 
π
π  eax  n
π
Let I1 = ∫ e cos nxdx = 
ax
cos nx  − ∫ eax (− sin nx )dx
−π  a  − π a − π
π
 eax
=
n 
cos nx + sin nx
eax n 
− I1  ⇒
I n2 + a2
=
 eax
 cos nx +
(neax
sin
)
nx

π

 a a  a a  a2 
 a a2  − π
−π

π
 eax 
⇒ I1 =  2 2
1
[
(a cos nx + n sin nx ) = 2 2 eaπ .a (− 1)n − e−aπ .a (− 1)n ]
 n + a  − π n + a

## 2a (− 1)  eaπ − e − aπ  2a (− 1)n sinh aπ

=  = .
n 2 + a 2  2  (
a2 + n2 )
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur28

π
π  e − ax 

− ax
Similarly, I 2 = e cos nxdx =  2 2
(− a cos nx − n sin nx )
−π  n + a  − π

=
n +a 2
1
2
[e − aπ
(− a )(− 1)n − eaπ (− a )(− 1)n ]
− a (− π )
=
e − aπ
n2 + a2
[− a(− 1) ]−  ne
n
2
+a 2

(− a )(− 1)n 


## 2(− 1)n (− a )  e − aπ − eaπ  2a (− 1)n  eaπ − e − aπ  + 2a (− 1)n

=  = 2  = 2 sinh aπ .
n 2 + a 2  2  n + a
2
 2  (
n + a2 )
4a (− 1)n
Thus I1 + I 2 =
(n 2
+ a2 )sinh aπ .
On keeping the values of I1 + I 2 in equation (i), we get

2a (− 1)n sinh aπ
an = .
(
π n2 + a2 )
1
Also b n = ∫
π
(
eax + e −ax
sin nxdx = 0 .
) [as odd function]
π −π 2

Substituting the values of a0, an and bn in (i), we get the required Fourier series of
f (x ) = cosh ax , in the range − π < x < π , as

2a sinh aπ  1 ∞
(− 1)n cos nx  .
cosh ax =  2 ∑ 2
+ 
π  2a n =1 a + n
2
 ( )
Q.No.17.: Obtain the Fourier series for 1 − cos 2x in the interval ( 0, 2π ) .

## Sol.: Let f ( x ) = 1 − cos 2x = 2 sin 2 x = 2 sin x .

 αx = α x 
Also f (− x ) = 2 sin(− x ) = 2 − sin x = 2 sin x = f ( x ) .  
 − 1 = 1 
⇒ f ( x ) is even function

∴ b n = 0∀n

1
Let f ( x ) = a 0 + ∑ a n cos nx , (i)
2 n =1
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur29

## be the required Fourier series for f(x).

1

1

2 π 2π 
Now a 0 = ∫ f ( x )dx = ∫ 2 (sin x )dx =  ∫ sin x + ∫ sin x dx 
π 0
π 0
π  0 π 

  x, x > 0 
x = 
π 2π   -x, x < 0 
2  For 0 < x < π, sinx = + ve and 
=  ∫ sin xdx + ∫ (− sin x )dx 
π  0 π   
 Forπ < x < 2π, sinx = − ve 
 
 

=
π
2
[ π 2π
− cos x 0 + cos x π =
π
2
]
(− cos π + cos 0 + cos 2π − cos π)

2
= (1 + 1 + 1 + 1) = 4 2 . (ii)
π π
2π 2π
1 2
Also a n =
π ∫ f ( x ) cos nxdx =
π ∫ sin x cos nxdx
0 0

2 π 2π 
=  ∫ sin x cos nxdx + ∫ − sin x cos nxdx
π  0 π 
π 2π
21 2 1
=
π 20∫ 2 cos nx sin xdx − .
π 2 ∫ 2 cos nx sin xdx
π

π 2π
1 1
=
2π 0
∫ [sin (n + 1)x − sin (n − 1)x ]dx − 2π
∫ [sin(n + 1)x − sin (n − 1)x ]dx
π

π 2π
1  − cos(n + 1)x cos(n − 1)x  1  − cos(n + 1)x cos(n − 1)x 
=  (n + 1) + − +
2π  (n − 1)  0 2π  (n + 1)
 (n − 1)  π
1  − cos(n + 1)π cos(n − 1)π  − 1 1 
=  + − + 
2π  n +1 n −1  n + 1 n + 2 

 − cos 2(n + 1)π cos 2(n − 1)π   − cos(n + 1)π cos(n − 1)π 
−  + − + 
 n +1 n −1   n +1 n − 1 

## 1  − (− 1)n +1 (− 1)n −1 1 1 1 1 (− 1)n +1 (− 1)n −1 

=  + + − + − − + 
2π  n + 1 n −1 n +1 n −1 n +1 n −1 n +1 n − 1 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur30

2  − (− 1)n +1 (− 1)n −1 1 1 
=  + + − 
2π  n + 1 n −1 n + 1 n − 1

 1 1 1 1
 − + − ; n is even
2 n +1 n −1 n +1 n −1
= 
π  −1 1 1 1
+ + − ; n is odd
 n + 1 n − 1 n + 1 n − 1

 2 2
2 − , n is even
= n +1 n −1
π 
0, n is odd

−4 2
=
(
π n 2 −1), n is even.

−4 2
Take n = 2m, we get a n =
(
π 4m 2 − 1 ) , m =1, 2, ….. (iii)

Putting the values of a0 from (ii) and an from (iii) in (i), we get

1 4 2 ∞ −4 2 2 2 4 2 ∞ cos 2mx
f (x) = . +∑ cos 2 mx = − +∑
2 π 2
m =1 π 4m − 1 ( π )
π 2
m =1 π 4m − 1 ( )
2 2 4 2 ∞ cos nx
Thus 1 − cos x =
π
− ∑
π n =1 4n 2 − 1
.

Q.No.18.: Obtain a Fourier expansion for 1− cos x in the interval − π < x < π .

x x
Sol.: Here f (x) = 1 − cos x = 2sin 2 = 2 sin .
2 2

 x x
Now f (− x ) = 2 sin −  = 2 sin − [∴ sin(− θ) = − sin θ]
 2 2

x
= 2 sin = f (x) . [ αx = α x ]
2

⇒ f ( x ) is even function. ∴ bn = 0 .

a0 ∞
Let f ( x ) = + ∑ a n cos nx (i)
2 n =1

## be the required Fourier series.

Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur31

π π π
1 1 x 2 x
Now a 0 = ∫ f ( x )dx = ∫ 2 sin dx = ∫ 2 sin dx
π −π π −π 2 π0 2

 x , x > 0 
3/ 2 π x =  
2 x  − x, x < 0 
=
π ∫ sin dx
2  x x x
0 For 0 < x < π, sin is positive ∴ sin = sin 
 2 2 2 
π
x
− cos
23 / 2 2 − 2 3/ 2 4. 2
= 0
= .2 (0 − 1) = .
π 1/ 2 π π
π
1 x  x 
Also a n = ∫ 2 sin cos nxdx  sin 2 cos nx is even function 
π −π 2  
π π
2 x 2 x
= . 2 ∫ sin cos nxdx − 2. ∫ sin cos nxdx { For 0 < x < π, sinx is positive}
π 0
2 π 0
2

π
2  1  1  
=
π ∫ sin 2 + n  x + sin  2 − n  x  dx
     
[2 sin A cos B = sin(A + B) + sin(A − B]
0

π
  1 1  
 cos n +  x cos − n  x 
=
2
−  2
− 2  
π  1 1 
 n+ −n 
 2 2 0

  1  1   
 − cos n + π cos n − π   
2   2  2    −1 1 
= + − +
π    1 
n − 
1 1 1
 n+ n−  n+
 2 2   2 2 

 
2  1 1 
= −
π 
n − 
1 1
n+
 2 2
cos(nπ + θ ) = (− 1)n cos θ 
 
  π n π
∴ cos nπ + 2  = (− 1) cos 2 
 
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur32

−4 2
=
(
π 4n 2 − 1 ).
Hence, from (i), we get

x a0 ∞ 1 4 2 ∞ −4 2
2 sin = + ∑ a n cos nx = . +∑ . cos nx
2 2 n =1 2 π 2
n =1 π 4n − 1 ( )
2 2 4 2 ∞ cos nx
=
π
− ∑
π n =1 4n 2 − 1
,

## is the required Fourier series.

Q.No.19.: Express f ( x ) = cos wx , − π < x < π , where w is a fraction, as a Fourier
1 2θ 2θ
series. Hence, prove that cot θ = + 2 + + ...........
θ θ − π 2 θ 2 − 4π 2 .
Sol.: Here f ( x ) = cos wx is an even function. ∴ b n = 0.

## [cos(− wx ) = cos wx]

1
Let f ( x ) = a 0 + ∑ a n cos nx (i)
2 n =1

## be the required Fourier series.

a a 
1
π
1 2
π π
 ∫ f ( x )dx = 2∫ f ( x )dx 
Now a 0 = ∫ f (x)dx = ∫ cos wxdx = ∫ cos wxdx  −a 0 
π −π π −π π0  
if f ( x ) is even 
π
2 sin wx 2
= = ( sin wπ ) .
π w 0 πw
π π
1 1
an = ∫
π −π
f ( x ) cos nxdx = ∫ cos wx cos nxdx
π −π

π π
2 1
= ∫ cos wx cos xdx = ∫ 2 cos wx cos nxdx [cos wx cos x is even function]
π0 π0

π
1
= ∫ [cos(w + n )x cos(w − n )x ]dx [2 cos A cos B = cos(A + B) + cos(A − B)]
π0
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur33

π
1  sin (w + n )x sin (w − n )x  1  sin (w + n )π sin (w − n )π 
=  +  =  +
π w+n w − n 0 π  w + n w − n 

## 1  sin wπ cos nπ + cos wπ sin nπ sin wπ cos nπ − cos wπ sin nπ 

= +
π  w+n w−n 

1  sin wπ cos nπ sin wπ cos nπ 
= + [sin nπ = 0]
π  w+n w−n 

sin wπ cos nπ  1 1 
=  + 
π  ( w + n ) ( w − n ) 
sin wπ cos nπ  w − n + w + n  2 w sin wπ cos nπ
=  (w + n )(w − n )  =
π   π w2 − n2 ( )
n n +1
2w ( −1) sin wπ 2w ( −1) sin wπ
= = .
π(w − n
2 2
) π(w − n2 )
2

## Hence, from (i), we get

1 ∞
sin wπ ∞ 2w (− 1)n +1 sin wπ
f (x) = a 0 + ∑ a n cos nx = +∑ cos nx
2 n =1 w π n =1 π n 2
− w 2
( )
n +1

=
sin wπ 2w
+ sin wπ∑

( −1) cos nx
wπ π n =1 (n 2
− w2 )

## sin wπ 2w sin wπ  cos x cos 2x cos 3x 

= +  2 2
− 2 2
+ 2 2
+ ........... 
wπ π 1 − w 2 −w 3 −w 
2w sin wπ  1 cos x cos 2x cos 3x 
=  2
+ 2 2
− 2 2
+ 2 2
+ ........... 
π  2w 1 − w 2 −w 3 −w 
2w sin wπ  1 cos x cos 2x cos 3x 
∴ cos wx =  2
+ 2 2
− 2 2
+ 2 2
+ ...........  .
π  2w 1 − w 2 −w 3 −w 
Deduction : Take x = π , we get
w 1 cos x cos 2x  cos π = −1
cos wx = 2 sin wπ ×  2
+ 2 2
− 2 2
+ ........... cos 2π = 1 
π  2w 1 −w 2 −w   
1 2w 2w
⇒ cot wπ = − 2 − 2 − ..........
(
wπ 1 − w π 2 − w 2 π
2
) ( )
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur34

 wπ = θ 
1 2θ 2θ  .
⇒ cot θ = + 2 + 2 + .....
θ θ −π 2
θ − 4π 2 w = θ 
 π
Q.No.20.: Find the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval (− π, π) , when

n + x , −π< x <0
f (x) =  .
n − x, 0<x<π

n − x, −π< x <0
Sol.: f (− x) = 
n + x, 0<x<π

π − x, 0<x<π
= [1 < 2 < 4 ⇒ −1 > −2 > −4]
π + x, −π< x < 0

## = f ( x ) ⇒ f(x) is even function. ∴ b n = 0.

1
Let f ( x ) = a 0 + ∑ a n cos nx (i)
2 n =1

## be the required Fourier series.

π 0 π
1 1 1
Now a 0 = ∫
π −π
f ( x )dx = ∫ (π + x )dx + ∫ (π − x )dx
π −π π0

0 π
1 x2  1 x2  1   2 π2   1  2 π2 
= πx +  + nx −  = 0 −  −π +   +  π − − 0 
π  2  π  2  π  2  π  2 
−π 0

1 π2 1 π2 π π
= . + . = + = π.
π 2 π 2 2 2
π 0 π
1 1 1
an = ∫
π −π
f (x ) cos nx = ∫ (π + x ) cos nxdx + ∫ (π − x ) cos nxdx
π −π π0

0 π
1  sin nx   − cos nx  1  sin nx   − cos nx 
= (π + x )  − (1) 2
 + (π − x )  − (− 1) 
π  n   n  −π π   n   n 2  0

1 1  cos nx   1  cos nx   1 
=  0+ 2 −0+ 2   +  0 − 2  −  0 − 2 
π n  n   π  n   n 

1  2 2 cos nπ  2
=  2− 2
 = 2 [1 − cos nπ]
πn n  n π
Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur35

0, n is even

= 4
 2 , n is odd
n π
Hence, from (i), we get

π 4 π 4  cos x cos 3x cos 5x 
f (x) = + ∑ 2 cos nx = +  2 + 2
+ 2
+ ........ .
2 n =odd n π 2 π 1 3 5 
Q.No.21.: Define Fourier series over the interval − π to π .
Is it possible to write the Fourier sine series for the function f (x ) = cos x , over

## Sol.: Let f(x) be a function defined in the interval (− π, π) . Then

a0 ∞
f (x ) = + ∑ (a n cos nx + b n sin nx )
2 n =1
π π π
1 1 1
where a 0 = ∫ f ( x ) , a n = ∫ f ( x ) cos nxdx , b n = ∫ f ( x ) sin nxdx
π −π π −π π −π

## is called Fourier series for f(x).

For half range sine series f(x) must be defined in the interval ( 0,  ) .

Hence, we cannot find the Fourier half range sine series for f (x ) = cos x , over the

interval ( −,  ) .

Home Assignments
No assignment
(Students are advised to solve each problem before moving next topic)
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Fourier series: Euler’s formulae Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur36