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Phytoremediation of selected heavy metal by using combination Ecchornia

crassipes (Mart.) Solms And Pistia stratatiotes L in Acid Mine Drainage

1Nurul Hidayah, 2,3Tri R. Soeprobowati
Master Program of Environmental Science, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University,
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics Diponegoro University, Indonesia;
School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Indonesia.
Corresponding author:

Energy resources of fossil still become the largest provider to fulfill the energy need,
one of them is coal. Indonesia is one of the largest coal-producing countries in the world
and it ranked third in coal exports. By increasing coal production, the potential for
negative impacts is increasing. The most severe problem in coal mining activities is the
exposure of reductive minerals such as sulfur minerals to the environment which can
cause acidic mine water. Water hyacinth (eceng gondok) and water lettuce (water
lettuce) are floating plants that can reduce pollution. Based on the study that has already
been conducted, Fe metal on acidic mine water exceeds the quality standards of Decree
of the Minister of Environment No. 113 of 2001 so it needs processing. The result of the
study showed that the phytoremediation of water hyacinth, water lettuce, and
combination of both can reduce Fe contents in acidic mine water by 55.6-80.8% within
24 days of study.
Keywords : Floating plant, phytoremediation, heavy metal

INTRODUCTION on the human health as they are more

likely to enter the food chain (Razzaq
Heavy metals are currently of 2017). One of environmental problems
much environmental concern. They are in Indonesia is heavy metals pollution
harmful to humans, animals and tend to by mining industries especially coal
bioaccumulate in the food chain. mining. The most common minerals in
Activities such as mining and smelting coal mining is pyrites (FeS2).
of metal ores, industrial emissions and Prevention of acid mine drainage in coal
applications of insecticides and mining usually by placing material
fertilizers have all contributed to containing pyrites under surface by clay
elevated levels of heavy metals in the soil cover or water (water cover) then
environment (Yoon et al. 2006). The the conversion reaction ferrous iron into
occurrence of heavy metal is becoming ferric iron becomes slower. Acid mine
much more severe because of the drainage can causes the water pollution
increase in the industrialization and such as high suspended solids, heavy
severe disruption of natural metals (Fe and Mn). Heavy metals in
biogeochemical cycles. Heavy metals the environment cannot be degraded
are non-biodegradable elements and and tent to accumulate in the organism.
they tend to accumulate in the This heavy metals pollution can be
environment for longer run as compared solved by bioremediation technique.
to those of organic substances. Their Bioremediation is the clean up process
accumulation in the soils and water of the environment biologically from
bodies leads to the threatening effects polluted materials by organism that can
be done in-situ or ex-situ of polluted media (Jafari 2010). In the context of
sites, if the bioremediation using a phytoremediation, the Eicchornia
plants, it called by phyoremediation (T. crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Pistia
Soeprobowati and Hariyati 2014). stratatiotes L. has recently been used
Phytoremediation is a technique and has shown promising results.
that uses plants with the potential to Several studies on water
absorb and create conditions to decontamination have revealed that
immobilize the contaminant of interest. Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and
The technique combines advantages, Pistia stratatiotes L. can efficiently
such as low cost of implementation and accumulate heavy metals and
operation, little or no energy metalloids.
expenditure, possibility of biomass This study aims to determine the
generation, does not produce toxic ability of Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.)
secondary product, landscape harmony, Solms and Pistia stratatiotes L. to
in addition to having application in reduce heavy metal (Fe) in acid mine
large volumes of water (Souza et al. water with phytoremediation
2018). Phytoremediation was more technology.
effective and efficient compare with
bacteria-based remediation due to no MATERIALS AND METHODS
need oxygen and less odor problem This study uses the method of
(Dwivedi 2012). mini-scale project. Acid mine water that
The plant species Eicchornia is used for this research came from
crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Pistia Malinau Regency, North Kalimantan
stratatiotes L. is a floating free-living Province – Indonesia taken using a
macrophyte, considered invasive for its jerigen with 20 liter capacity. Types of
high propagation, mainly in eutrophic plants used in Figure 1.

Fig 1. Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; Pistia stratatiotes L.

The plants used are water filled with plants Eicchornia crassipes
hyacinth and water lettuce taken from (Mart.) Solms., Pistia stratatiotes L. and
the surrounding swamp. The container the combination with repetition 3 times.
used as the place of plant growth is This research use dilution acid mine
plastic container with the size of 33 x 16 water by 45 % and each plastic
x9 cm. In this study, dilution 45% is container filled with 500gr plants.
used. Before the experiment begin, the
plants was acclimatized 2 weeks to Sampling is conducted on the
adjust the environment. Simulation of first day and last day by using the
this research is use plastic container 10 sample test of water quality in Balai
liter capacity. Each plastic container Laboratorium Kesehatan Lingkungan
using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy concentration i.e 10.12 mg/l. Based on
(AAS). the Decree of the Minister of
Environment No. 113 of 2003, the
RESULT AND DISCUSSION percentage of Fe has exceeded the
To initial test of some heavy quality standards i.e. 7 mg/l, so that in
metals such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr and this study, there is only one kind of
Pb is conducted to find the heavy metal exceeds the quality
characteristic of acidic mine water and standards for phytoremediation. The
the highest concentration. From the result of the acidic mine water quality
result of laboratory test, it is found that testing can be seen in Table 1.
Fe metal is a metal with the highest
Table 1. Analysis Result Of Acid Mine Quality
Coal Waste Quality
Parameter Analysis Result

Fe 10.12 7
Mn 0.39 4
Zn 0.86 5
Cr 0.0389 0.5
Cd 0.002 0.1
Pb 0.113 0.1
Iron (Fe) is a metal that may be conduct advanced processing if the iron
present in high concentrations of waters content has exceeded the quality
and sediments. Iron is the fourth largest standard This study was conducted for
element found in crust and is an 24 days by using three replications. The
essential element for living things. phytoremediation result of water
Moore and Effendi (2003) stated that hyacinth and water lettuce can be seen
iron content of 1.0 mg/l is considered to through this following figure 1. For the
endanger the life of aquatic percentage of the heavy metal decreases
microorganisms, so it is necessary to show in figure 3.

5 4.49
4 3.55
Consentration Fe

3.01 3.07
3 2.66 2.62
2.11 1.94

EG-1 EG-2 EG-3 KA-1 KA-2 KA-3 Komb-1Komb-2Komb-3
Phytoremediation Plant Treatment

Hasil Analisa
Analysis Result

Fig.2 Consentration Fe after 24 days

Based on the result of this study hyacinth on the second replication i.e.
of water hyacinth and water lettuce, it 79.2%. The smallest reduction
showed that these two plants are able to happened on the combination i.e. 55.6-
reduce Fe to below the quality standard. 69.7%. The capability of water hyacinth
The highest reduction was on the use of and water lettuce is no doubt in
water lettuce on the second replication reducing heavy metal content because it
i.e. 80.8%, then on the use of water has been proven in several other studies.

90 79.2 80.8
80 73.7 74.1 70.3 69.7
70 64.9 61.1
60 55.6


Phytoremediation Plant Treatment

Fig. 3 . The percentage decreases of heavy metal

The interesting thing in this absorbing it from the waters and

study is the use of a combination of sediments then accumulating the
plants. The decrease in Fe by using a dissolved material into the body
combination of water hyacinth plants structure and rhizofera microbes in the
and water lettuce did not show higher root can change heavy metals absorbed
result than monoculture plants, so it can and use it as a cofactor (metalloenzim)
be concluded that the combination of from the enzyme plastocyanin for
water hyacinth and water lettuce did not photosynthesis, which is used to
have a positive synergy between the two stimulate the division of water hyacinth
plants. Based on the study (Herman et cells. Whereas, after the first week, on
al. 2017), the process of reducing the the use of water lettuce, there were
concentration of pollutants in symptoms of chlorosis and necrosis, i.e.
wastewater is by using water plants leaves begin to turn yellow and necrosis
which is alliance between plants and (plants experience root hair loss) which
microorganisms associated with these causes chlorophyll synthesis to be
plants. First, wastewater is oxidized to inhibited so that plants cannot absorb
release the energy used by optimally and plants have reached the
microorganisms for the preservation and saturation point. In addition, the things
formation of new cells. The that cause low absorption combination
effectiveness of the reduction of iron treatment are the number of plants in
(Fe) heavy metal concentration each combination is only ±250 gr of wet
indicates that the metal dissolved in weight, while the monoculture water
water can be reduced by rhizofera hyacinth and water lettuce used ±500 gr
microbes found in water hyacinth by of wet weight. Because water lettuce
began to show the indication of Pencemaran. Y. Koestoer
chlorosis after the first week, so that the [Penerjemah]. Universitas
absorption of water lettuce was no Indonesia Press. Jakarta. 520 hal.
longer optimal so that the water Darmono. 1995. Logam dalam Sistem
hyacinth with the amount of ±250gr (4 Biologi Makhluk Hidup. Depok
plants) could not do optimal absorption. (ID): UI Press.
According to (Madaniyah 2016) Herman, Yuliana et al. 2017.
there are four possibilities that cause a “Fitoremediasi Menggunakan
decrease in the concentration of Tanaman Eceng Gondok (
dissolved Fe, namely: Eichhornia Crassipes ) Untuk
1. The interaction between sulfides (S2-) Menurunkan Cod Dan Kandungan
produced in the process of sulfate Cu Dan Cr Limbah Cair
reduction with metal with two valences Laboratorium Analitik Universitas
(such as Fe2+ and Mn2+) forming Udayana.” 5: 137–44.
precipitated metal sulfide. Jafari, N. 2010. “Ecological and Socio-
2. The process of absorption of metals by Economic Utilization of Water
plant tissues. Hyacinth ( Eichhornia Crassipes
3. The process of adsorption of metals by Mart Solms ).” J.Appl. Sci.
organic matter. Environ. Manage 90(June): 43–49.
4. The process of metal biopsy by Madaniyah. 2016. Efektivitas Tanaman
microorganisms found in water. Air Dalam Pembersihan Logam
Berat Pada Air Asam Tambang
CONCLUSION Madaniyah. Bogor: Tesis. Intitut
Based on the research results, Pertanian Bogor.
Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Razzaq, Rohma. 2017.
(water hyacinth) and Pistia stratatiotes “Phytoremediation: An
L. (water lettuce) can reduce Fe content Environmental Friendly Technique
by 55.6-80.8% to below the quality - A Review.” Journal of
standard of the Decree of the Minister Environmental Analytical
of Environment No. 113 of 2003. Chemistry 04(02): 2–5.
However, the treatment of Soeprobowati, TR, and R Hariyati.
phytoremediation plants using 2014. “Phycoremediation of Pb,
combination plants does not show Cd, Cu, and Cr by Chaetoceros
higher result than monoculture plants. Calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano.”
International Journal of Advances
in Chemical Engineering &
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