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PANGASINAN NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Lingayen, Pangasinan

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Background of the Study

Essential breakthroughs were made out of great discoveries and of

all these, technology is a distinct one which improved the quality of living

of mankind. Technology is a product of a continuous process called

research. Today, it is the means of almost everything, including the

impossible. The thing it offers is called the virtual world wherein anyone

can be himself/herself, or the other way. Also, technology became the

most powerful weapon which caused countless modifications to

mankind.

Truly technology has its own way of changing one’s life. As it gave

birth to social media, technology became a vital tool that almost every

individual uses. Social media has been the stage of exchanging

information and ideas at home, school and even at work. According to

Kenton (2018), social media is a computer-based technology that

facilitates the sharing of information and the building of virtual networks

and communities. This includes different forms of connecting to people,

as long as they also use social media, such as photo and video sharing,

blogging, business networks, and more.

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Lingayen, Pangasinan

As classified by SEO Pressor (n.d.), there are six (6) types of social

media. These are social networks, which encompasses Facebook,

Instagram, etc., bookmarking sites, social news, media sharing, that has

Youtube as the most well-known for this type, microblogging, and lastly,

the blog comments and forums.

Last November 2018, statistics showed that 4.021 billion people

are internet users, 5.135 billion people are mobile phone users, and

3.196 billion people are social media users. These figures depict a large

quantity of the overall population which made social media an active

means for the society. (Chaffey, 2018)

Social networking sites, or commonly known as the social

networks, are the most visited of all the six types of social media for

which it includes Facebook, as said by Kallas (2018) is the top social

media platform with approximately 2.23 billion of active users monthly.

Meanwhile for the social networking applications, which are primarily

used for calls and messages, WhatsApp and Messenger applications,

which are both owned by Facebook, hold the first two (2) spots with 1.5

million and 1.3 million active monthly users, respectively.

According to Camus (2018), Philippines has a total of 67 million

active social media users and spend an average of three (3) hours and

fifty seven (57) minutes a day on social media, mainly on Facebook.

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Lingayen, Pangasinan

Trends in clothing, food, style, and even updates about typhoons

and other disasters can be found in social media. In the Philippines,

trend means having social media accounts from different social

networking sites. As mentioned by House of I.T. (2018), Facebook still

hold the first spot for the most active social media platform for the

country with a percentage of 26, followed by Messenger, which is also

owned by Facebook with 23%. At the third spot is Twitter which has 13%

and then Instagram, which has 12%. All these four platforms give their

users different options to share trends, which is why Filipinos are very

fond of them.

Many mobile games have also been boosted by social media sites.

Some of the mobile games that are still powered by social media sites are

Clash of Clans (COC), Mobile Legends (ML), Rules of Survival (ROS), and

Candy Crush. By connecting them to different social media sites such as

Facebook and Twitter, these games unlock their special features, which

then become the reason why gamers can use the multiplayer mode.

Despite of all the advantages people get from social media, there

are also several adverse effects it can give. First is that many users, most

especially the young adults, can be addicted to it. Since social media

sites offer many interesting things, such as mobile games and online

shopping, often, people get addicted to them. In fact, on the last quarter

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of 2017, memes, which is defined by Reddit as a way of describing

cultural information being shared, about Filipino parents disciplining

their children who they consider as ‘addicts’ on social media.

Besides addiction, social media users are also at risk of being

hacked because of insecurity. Also, this can also lead to different forms

of cybercrimes including cyber bullying, phishing, pharming, and

cybersex. According to Dosomething.org (n.d.), 90% of teens who have

witnessed cyber bullying say that they have ignored it, which then

resulted to suicidal thoughts, attempts and worst, suicides of young

people.

Lastly, social media sites need personal information from the

subscribers and this may lead to identity theft that may also ruin

someone’s reputation. (Ahmad, 2016)

Aside from providing connections within and across the world,

another advantage of social media is to lessen the burden of students

when doing their school works at home. In fact, it has become the study

partner of high school learners in the Philippines. In just one click, they

can easily find the information needed for their home works. With this

technology, libraries became obsolete and only a few from the learners

visit them.

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High school students are considered as 21st Century Learners. To

face the dynamic world, it requires 21st century devices such as cellular

phones, laptops and computers which allow people to do anything

especially in social media platforms. Furthermore, it keeps the teachers

and learners in touch even without going to school.

Nowadays, teachers usually integrate different activities to adapt in

a modern way of learning in which social media is the primary medium.

Through this, they could allot more time for discussion during class

hours. This would help them rather than dividing an hour for both

lectures and activities.

Applying social media-based learning in school demands gadgets

and internet connection. Given the fact that Philippines is a third-world

country, poverty serves as a hindrance for the less fortunate students.

Truth is, not every Filipino student has any gadget to comply with the

requirements needed online.

Within the given information above, the researchers came up with

the study of examining the perceptions of randomly selected sixteen (16)

Grade 11 and Grade 12 Senior High School students taking up the

Academic Strand in Pangasinan National High School.

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Statement of the Problem

This study is conducted to investigate how senior high school

students perceive social media-based activities.

The researchers sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the perceptions of Senior High Schools students

regarding social media based activities?

2. What are the problems encountered by the Senior High School

students in social media-based activities?

Assumptions

The assumptions for the given questions are as follows:

1. The participants viewed social media-based activities as

unjustified bases of performance. They preferred classroom

activities rather than online ones.

2. The participants identified some problems regarding social

media-based activities, these re:

a. availability of gadgets

b. internet connections

c. presence of online temptations such as online games

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Significance of the Study

Social media plays an important role for its estimated 3.196 billion

users but only a number of this figure is aware of both the positive and

adverse effects of social media.

The researchers conducted this study mainly to benefit Senior

High School Students (SHS) in Pangasinan National High School who are

subjected to social media-based activities such as posting online and

using the number of likes as basis of their grades.

The results gathered would benefit the following:

The teachers of Pangasinan National High School, for them to

know if they may integrate social media to the academic performance of

the Senior High School students. Also, for them to be able to comprehend

how these social media-based activities affect students in many different

ways.

The Curriculum Executors who are in-charge of implementing the

school educational system. This will benefit them so they can know the

consequences of integrating social media-based activities and how it can

affect the students of the said activities.

The Senior High School Students of Pangasinan National High

School, who are subjected to the said activities, for them to use this

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study as a voice whether they agree or not to integrating social media to

their studies.

The parents of the Senior High School students, who played

important role for their children’s learning, whether it may be in school

or other classroom extensions. Moreover, this will benefit them so they

may assist their children in using social media, which now is a means of

different crimes.

The future researchers, who might want to improve this study in

a wider scale.

Conceptual Framework

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF


PANGASINAN NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

PROBLEMS
PERCEPTIONS
ENCOUNTERED

SOCIAL MEDIA-BASED SCHOOL


ACTIVITIES
Figure 1. Research Paradigm of the Study

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Lingayen, Pangasinan

This paradigm of the study flowed from the respondents of the

study, the Senior High School students of Pangasinan National High

School. From them, their perceptions and problems encountered were

gathered in order to arrive at the main subject of this study, the social

media-based activities.

Scope and Delimitation

The research was designed to evaluate the perception of the Senior

High School students of Pangasinan National High School students who

were the main people involved in the social media-based activities.

Furthermore, this was also designed for the teachers of the same school

may be able to know the effectiveness of integrating such activities.

The main gathering data method used was to conduct semi-

structured interviews to examine the perceptions of the students. The

participants of this study were sixteen (16) randomly selected students

from the eleventh (11th) and twelfth (12th) grade who were from

Accountancy and Business Management (ABM), General Academic

Strand (GAS), Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) and Science,

Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strands in

Pangasinan National High School for the School Year (S.Y.) 2018-2019.

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This study was delimited to only the perceptions of the Senior High

School students. Thus, it did not include the teachers and other

employees’ opinions.

Definition of Terms

This part of the study provided the meaning of different words and

how are these operationally use in the study.

Academic Performance – in this study, academic performance

refers to the overall grade of a student based on all the different school

activities

Inactivity on Social Media – pertains to inactivity on social media is

the state of being inactive on social media

Popularity – in this study, popularity refers to having

a lot of online friends/followers in different social media platforms

Social media - social media refers to different sites

available online where students spend most of their time. Also this is

where the subject was based.

Social media-based activities - social media-based activities are the

main subject of the study

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Twenty-first (21st) Century Learners – these are the participants and

beneficiaries of this research

Virtual World – a place where anyone can be himself/herself or

otherwise

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Lingayen, Pangasinan

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Presented in this chapter were the related literature and studies

published before this study was conducted. Synthesis of all the included

literatures and studies in this study can also be read at the end of this

chapter in order to thoroughly comprehend the gathered information.

Review of Related Literature

The following literatures were published prior to this study. Thus,

this is a comprehensive summary of earlier literature related to the main

topic conducted in this research. Information were gathered using

scholarly articles, books, and other sources that are appropriate for this

study.

Perceptions on Social Media-Based Activities

Social media based-activities are widely integrated by teachers in

the Philippines, may it be a photo, status, video or any output posted

online. This may seem good for others but there are several issues which

need to be understood by people.

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Social media sites, mainly Facebook, are the common grounds of

teachers and students nowadays. With these, learning has made easy

even in the virtual world.

Social media, as defined by Lifewire (n.d.), are the web-based

communication tools that enable people to interact with each other by

both sharing and consuming information. This means that social media

are the primary means of people to interact, communicate, share and

exchange ideas which are internet-based.

According to Kakkar (2018), there are six (6) types of social media.

This includes:

Social networks. This type is primarily associated with netizens

(internet citizens) who are widening their connections. These connections

can be personal relationships, customer services, or business-related.

Examples include Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

Media Sharing Networks. Users of these networks aim to primarily

share different photos, videos and live videos to the world. These are also

effective for campaigns (e.g. skin care products) for a target audience.

Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat are included in this type of social

media.

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Discussion Forums. This is the oldest way of Social Media

Marketing campaigns. In this type of social media, users will be given the

chance to share, ask and answer questions, and discuss different issues

regarding anything. Advertisements can also be seen in these forums.

This type has Reddit, Quora and Digg as its sites.

Bookmarking Sites and Content Curation Networks. Social media

users will enjoy these sites and networks if they want to find the latest

trends. These will help them to share, discuss and save their most

wanted things. Pinterest is the most visited site of this type.

Consumer Review Networks. A part of different businesses’ success

is this type of social media for it helps the owners construct strategies

and make better campaigns by just reading, sharing, and discussing

different insights of consumers. Yelp and Zomato are examples of these

networks.

Blogging and Publishing Networks. Through the years, blogging

has become a trend that even students have their own blog sites. These

are mainly used for publishing, discovering and commenting on blog

sites and articles. Furthermore, blogging and publishing networks also

play important roles on Social Media Marketing Campaigns. WordPress

and Blogger are traditional blogging sites while Tumblr and Medium, a

micro-blog and a social publishing platform are the latest of this type.

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As social media becomes a global trend, it gives opportunities to

change the perspective of people towards dynamic change of the world.

Higher education was convinced to initiate technology, specifically social

media, to mediate and enhance the instructors and promote active

learning. (Tess, 2013)

According to King (2017), academic performance is the measure of

well an individual do in an educational setting. A report card is an

indication of one’s academic performance in school, he added.

There are six (6) factors of academic performance. First is

accuracy, which means understanding the standard of education, by not

lessening what something is giving or making it more complex. Next is

alignment, which means that the students are in line with what the

extent of curriculum they are in. Another factor is data, coherence of

lessons and topics must be observed for the students to better

understand what they are ought to do. Then, fourth is flexible literacy,

reading and writing falls in this factor. How a student reads and writes

matter. Fifth is student effort, this factor depends on the students

whether they would give much, less, or average towards their studies.

For the last factor, it means the ability to transfer knowledge or a skill to

an uncommon or unfamiliar way, the self-initiated transfer. Application

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of lessons, like making research papers, is included in this factor. (Heick,

2018)

A blog entitled “The Effects of Social Media on Mental Health”

tackled two paths of social media, the positive and the adverse effects of

social media. One negative effect was comparing one’s self to another by

just seeing something which may cause low self-esteem and also not

seeing one’s self-worth. Also, the blog stated that it is not healthy for the

mind if someone makes so much time on social media for a reason that

this will make him/her not connected with nearby people. On the other

hand, social media play a big role in which people, most especially young

adults, build themselves. (Schultz, 2017)

According to Abrams (2017), there are four (4) things a Facebook

or a Twitter user should consider whenever social media get the best part

of an individual. First thing is to deactivate accounts to refresh minds

and accept non-toxic things. Another is to unfollow users who bothers

one and to whom he/she compares his/her self. Most important of all is

to think that reality never happens on these social media sites. Lastly,

create happy moments to ease the tension in the mind.

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Problems Encountered

Oftentimes, school activities are associated with the use of social

media, mainly on Facebook. Status updates, uploaded photos and videos

on different social media platforms which say “like/react for grades” are

proofs of such association. Many teachers in the Philippines engage with

this type of activities since statistics show that almost all Filipino

students have their own mobile phones which they use for social media.

Not knowing the circumstances of all the students, some conclude that

integrating social media based activities on students’ academic

performance is an effective way of learning.

Inquirer.net (2013) published an article regarding the Filipino

parents’ approval on using social media based activities as bases of

grades of their children. Back in 2013, freshman high school students

from Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School in Sta. Cruz, Laguna

posted their 10-minute skit online and to be able to get high grades,

these posted videos must get many likes. For it to happen, the students

need to solicit likes from their Facebook friends by sharing, mentioning

names, or sending the video. Marlenn Sarmiento, a mother of one of the

students, said that grade of her children must be assessed through their

academic performance, which she mean that it should be done in the

natural setting of learning, inside the classroom.

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Self-esteem is also the main concern of parents for their children

when posting online and basing their grades on it. On the same article,

these social media based activities may affect their children’s self-esteem,

especially when these students do not have many friends online.

Social media has a big impact to students that parents should

aware on it. As a parent you should monitor and guide your children's

social media. One of the reasons why parents need to monitor their

children's social media is that there is a high risk of them to be targeted

by a sexual predators and cyber bullies. It is the parent's responsibility

to take the time to understand how those applications work and by doing

research. Parents should establish a of ground rules for their child.

(Robyn, 2018)

Five key points for parents’ role in their children’s social media life

were share shared by Canadian Paediatric Society (2018). First is that

make themselves involved in the application their child usually use for

them to be in the same page. Showing interest on the things their

children do is also important so that even in social media, they will not

feel they are left out or taken for granted. Next, is to set time limits for

their screen times to lessen the addiction rates of young adults on social

media applications. Moreover, monitoring a child’s online friendships is

also a key point which parents need to be consistent with because cyber

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issues start with it. Lastly, parents are also advised to guide their

children in protecting their emotions from everything they see online.

Paul and Gelish (2011), said that using Facebook by students

consumes a large amount of their time and thus, negatively influencing

academic performance. Using mobile phones for texting and social

network access also was explored to see if it is related to the engagement

level in classrooms, where research indicated that engagement is closely

related to teacher’s style and control. Also, the use of social networks

and mobile texting was not related to lower performance results.

Five (5) important downsides of social media were cited in an

article by Hurley (2019). Overuse of social media cannot only lead to

addiction but worse, anxiety and/or depression. One key point is that

users focus on the likes they want to get and if they did not reach it, they

tend to change behavior and engage in risky processes to be able to meet

the expected likes. Cyber bullying is not new but nowadays, it has

produced many subtypes wherein other users are not aware of the how

these affect them. Body shaming is a widely spread type of cyber

bullying. With this, usually, girls compare themselves to other who are

‘popular’ on the internet but boys are also affected. Furthermore, once a

user is fond of these social media applications, their privacy becomes

lesser. Lastly, face-to-face relationships will be set aside since browsing

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the internet, especially social media, is more convenient than staying

outside. In the end, real world will always be found outside the screen of

the gadgets.

Review of Related Studies

These are the recent studies that have been officially approved and

published which are connected to the research.

Social media based activities are being used worldwide by the 21st

century facilitators of learning, the teachers. Since social media display a

vast amount of information where everyone can learn, add, or share

information, facilitators started imposing them as a strategy for teaching.

Over the years, many studies have been conducted in line with the

integration of social media in learning and using it as basis of grades of

students.

Perceptions on Social Media-Based Activities

A study entitled “The Impact of Social Media on Student Academic

Life in Higher Education” in Beijing, China, ten participants of the study

supports the idea of adding social media into learning in higher

education. Social media has been the common area of students and their

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instructors where they can pass or do their school-related works. The

study also concluded that, these days, social media is widely used by

students. According to the researchers, social media also helps the

students in higher education develop themselves by enabling their

collaboration, critical thinking and reading, and knowledge construction.

Aside from these, the most visited search engine, Google, is usually used

as references of students for their school works. (Amankwaa and

Boateng, 2016)

As stated by Aghaee and Hrastinski (2012), the social media being

popular affected the students on how these media will helped them in

their activities. Their study explored the students’ perceptions when

using social media whether these help them in their studies, and also the

limitations and benefits of social media platforms. A vast majority of their

respondents use social media frequently, a "digital dissonance" can be

noted, because some of them said that the social media was helped them

in their studies. Some interviewees said that they use e-mails and

instant messaging when asking questions, cooperate on group work and

share files. Some of them mentioned Wikipedia and YouTube in retrieving

some information and Facebook in contacting their classmates. As a

conclusion of the study, social media help the teachers improve their

teaching strategy to be able to support the student's studies.

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In a study by Adams and Mingle (2015), negative effects of social

media in senior high school students were shown in a study conducted

in Ghana. Some of these effects were said by majority of the respondents

of the research, including poor grammar and spelling, late submission

and failures to submit assignments, and less study time but more time

spent on social media applications. Worst result from the findings was

the high addiction rate of students in Ghana in social media. Despite of

the adverse effects given by the majority, a number of the participants

said that their reading skills were enhanced when they started

participating in the virtual world. The research is entitled “Social Media

Network Participation and Academic Performance in Senior High Schools

in Ghana.”

Influences of social media in academic performance of students

were displayed in a research study of a researcher from the University of

Lagos, Nigeria. The main gathering data method used was a survey for

the 378 sample students. For the statistical treatment of the study,

inferential statistics, Chi-square was used. Results showed that many

students from the university are addicted to social media and for this

case, the researcher recommends that parents and teachers must

monitor their children and students when they use social media for

guidance and proper usage. (Osharive, 2015)

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A research entitled “The Effects of Social Media on Students’

Behavior; Facebook as a Case Study” in Cyprus resulted to strong,

positive effects of social media on students. This study was conducted in

2016 with 362 sample high school students from ninth (9th) to twelfth

(12th) grade. Highlights of the positive results were Facebook was used

mainly for entertainment, news sharing, uploading pictures, and

discovering new songs. These students are role model to the youth of

today since they know the importance of privacy and their social

identities, as mentioned by the researchers. (Bicen and Kaya, 2016)

Another social media related study was conducted in Kenya. The

abstract showed that the research used 50 sample students and

gathered data by the use of a computer software called SPSS. After the

data gathering, the researcher concluded that teenagers prefer

communicating by means of social networking sites, which can be a two-

way path, to positive or negative, when used not in moderation. It also

found out that social media has an impact on interpersonal relationships

among teenagers, which created bridges for their social lives. (Waigumo,

n.d.)

A researcher from the German University in Cairo, Hashem (2015),

conducted a study entitled “The Impact of Social Media on the Academic

Development of School Students” aimed to determine the type of impact

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social media caused the academic performance of students, and how this

affects. After gathering the data from her 110 respondents, the results

showed no significant difference between both the frequency of using

social media with the overall grade average of students; and with the

number of hours spent daily on social media platforms. She added that

students achieve good grades even if they spend more than the average

time browsing the internet.

One thousand five hundred (1,500) active Facebook and Twitter

users were surveyed by United Kingdom (UK) disability charity for a

research concerning mental health and the effects of social media.

Results showed that 62 percent are inadequate and 60 percent reported

that they are jealous of the other users. The researcher also shared that

these might be the cause of the sudden rise of self-harm percentage in

the hospitals in the last few years. (Abrams, 2017)

According to Lifewire (n.d.), social media are the web-based

communication tools that enable people to interact with each other by

both sharing and consuming information. This means that social media

are the primary means of people to interact, communicate, share and

exchange ideas which are internet-based.

According to Kakkar (2018), there are six (6) types of social

media. This includes:

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Lingayen, Pangasinan

Social networks. This type is primarily associated with

netizens (internet citizens) who are widening their connections. These

connections can be personal relationships, customer services, or

business-related. Examples include Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

Media Sharing Networks. Users of these networks aim to

primarily share different photos, videos and live videos to the world.

These are also effective for campaigns (e.g. skin care products) for a

target audience. Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat are included in this

type of social media.

Discussion Forums. This is the oldest way of Social Media

Marketing campaigns. In this type of social media, users will be given the

chance to share, ask and answer questions, and discuss different issues

regarding anything. Advertisements can also be seen in these forums.

This type has Reddit, Quora and Digg as its sites.

Bookmarking Sites and Content Curation Networks. Social media

users will enjoy these sites and networks if they want to find the latest

trends. These will help them to share, discuss and save their most

wanted things. Pinterest is the most visited site of this type.

Consumer Review Networks. A part of different businesses’ success

is this type of social media for it helps the owners construct strategies

and make better campaigns by just reading, sharing, and discussing

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Lingayen, Pangasinan

different insights of consumers. Yelp and Zomato are examples of these

networks.

Blogging and Publishing Networks. Through the years, blogging

has become a trend that even students have their own blog sites. These

are mainly used for publishing, discovering and commenting on blog

sites and articles. Furthermore, blogging and publishing networks also

play important roles on Social Media Marketing Campaigns. WordPress

and Blogger are traditional blogging sites while Tumblr and Medium, a

micro-blog and a social publishing platform are the latest of this type.

A blog entitled “The Effects of Social Media on Mental Health”

tackled two paths of social media, the positive and the adverse effects of

social media. One negative effect was comparing one’s self to another by

just seeing something which may cause low self-esteem and also not

seeing one’s self-worth. Also, the blog stated that it is not healthy for the

mind if someone makes so much time on social media for a reason that

this will make him/her not connected with nearby people. On the other

hand, social media play a big role in which people, most especially young

adults, build themselves. (Schultz, 2017)

According to study of Adams and Mingle, most of the participants

in Ghana specified problems that they encountered such as poor

grammar and spelling, late compliance to requirements and even worst,

failure to participate in the activity. Despite of its negativity, a numbered

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participants said that their skills were enhance when they started to be

part of the virtual world.

According to Harlan (2015), library at schools expands beyond the

basic literacy of reading to teaching student into access, use information,

evaluate, and academic society. It includes teaching responsibility and to

avoid fake news, because libraries serve as place of original ones.

The use of libraries for the youth today has been just an

option. When perhaps, generation which came before us was a library-

centered one. Thus, participants prefer online or on social media

applications when gathering information and data than in the libraries.

They also indirectly stated that being active on social media, they can get

ideas easily. They prefer one click works than those which demands

manual works.

Problems Encountered

Haq and Chand (2012) utilized a sample of 384 students and

concluded that Facebook use has an adverse influence on student

academic performance. The study revealed that males and females spent

equal time on the Internet where females used Facebook more, but males

had more friends than females. The significant difference was that

Facebook use had an adverse influence on males’ performance than

females. The authors accounted such adverse performance because

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males spend more time on sports and games activities than females,

which caused a loss of time and a bad influence on performance.

Objectives of a quantitative study in Malaysia include the impact of

time appropriateness, nature of usage, health addiction, time duration,

friends and people connection, and security/privacy problems on

students’ academic performance. This study made use of questionnaire

as its data gathering method. The 120 questionnaire were distributed to

from freshmen to graduating college students in two (2) universities in

the same country. Results showed that there is negative and significant

influence of time appropriateness, no significant influence for time

duration and privacy/security problems and a positive and significant

influence on friend and people connections, nature of usage, and internet

addiction between the students’ academic performance. (Mensah and

Nizam, 2016)

According to a study made on 2017, Facebook users may feel

socially successful in the electronic world but they are more likely to

perform poorly in exams, according to new research into the academic

impact of the social networking website. Most students usually spend a

lot of time on these sites during examinations instead of on preparation

for their exams. A research shows that students who used Facebook had

a “significantly” lower grade point average – than those who did not use

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the site. The majority of students who use Facebook every day are

underachieving by as much as an entire grade compared with those who

shun the site. Researchers have discovered how students who spend

their time accumulating friends, gossiping and poking others on the site

may devote as little as one hour a week to their academic work.

Furthermore, the researcher clarified that the study does not suggest

that Facebook directly causes lower grades, rather, the two variables

coincide with each other. (Kaprinski, 2009)

According to Open Signal, the Philippines performed poorly on the

speed and availability of Longterm Evolution (LTE) Connection.

The firm’s “LTE report” for November 2017 revealed that the

country ranked 74th out of 77 countries in terms of 4G speed.

However, the Philippines clocked in an average download speed of

just 8.24 Mbps. It is slightly lower than the country’s 8.59 Mbps record

in firm’s June 2017 report. Open Signal said in general, that 4G

availability is improving across the globe. Therefore, it is expected for the

participants to say that internet connection in the Philippines is slow and

may be a cause of delays.

According to Anonymous (2017) gadgets play a vital role in the

educational field in order to improve their skills and knowledge. It is very

important for them since they need to improve their knowledge power to

gain success in the future. Teachers can enhance their teaching skills

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and strategies also. In short, this technology is very important for both

students and teachers but on the other hand, this technology has

disadvantages too.

Based on Inquirer.net (2013), an article regarding the Filipino

parents’ approval on using social media based activities as bases of

grades of their children. Back in 2013, freshman high school students

from Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School in Sta. Cruz, Laguna

posted their 10-minute skit online and to be able to get high grades,

these posted videos must get many likes. For it to happen, the students

need to solicit likes from their Facebook friends by sharing, mentioning

names, or sending the video. Marlenn Sarmiento, a mother of one of the

students, said that grade of her children must be assessed through their

academic performance, which she mean that it should be done in the

natural setting of learning, inside the classroom.

In a study by Adams and Mingle (2015), negative effects of social

media in senior high school students were shown in a study conducted

in Ghana. Some of these effects poor grammar and spelling, late

submission and failures to submit assignments, and less study time but

more time spent on social media applications. Worst result from the

findings was the high addiction rate of students in Ghana in social

media.

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According to Aburahmah and Sed (n.d.), online social games are

becoming a significant component in today's social media sites. The

social networking sites environment has provided a platform for online

games to develop and expand in the virtual medium.

Time management plays a vital role in improving student’s

academic performance and achievements. Each student should have

time management ability which includes setting goals and priorities.

Thus, by the fast upgrade of each technology in the world today, social

media plays a big role, especially to the 21st century learners. But

students, nowadays, do not know how to manage time properly. It is

because of games that they encounter and as a result, students cannot

finish their school works. (Brigitte et. al, 2015)

According to Russell and Tippett (n.d.), cyber bullying or cyber

harassment is a form of bullying using electronic means. It has become

increasingly common, especially among teenagers.

A study entitled, Cyberbullying: Eliciting Harm without

consequence (2013), students (n=260; m age = 12.88 years) reported

their involvement in cyber bullying as well as their perceptions of the

likelihood of cyber bully behavior eliciting harm, being reported, and the

initiator receiving consequences. Also, students’ scores on the Basic

Empathy scale were examined. Pettalia and Dickinson stated also that

the majority (67%) of students reported participation in cyber bullying

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and girls were more likely than boys to self-report cyber victimization and

cyber bully victimization. Students rated the likelihood of cyber victims

being hurt significantly higher that the likelihood of cyber bullies

receiving consequences.

Synthesis

The related literature and studies included in this chapter mainly

discusses on the effects of social media platforms, such as Facebook and

Twitter, to different groups of people that are used for learning. The

literatures accumulated focuses on the great involvement of Facebook in

students’ learning worldwide and its advantage for us students to

communicate and share ideas easily. Facebook is also used in school-

based activities in the Philippines where teachers commonly let students

to “like/react for grades.” This is for the main reason that almost all

Filipino students have their own smartphones.

Therefore, in the studies found there are psychological effects of

involving social media in school activities on different students. Targeting

a study made by Adams and Mingle (2015) in Ghana, students were

addicted to social media usage because of teachers applying it to their

activities. It can also increase the risk of bullying by some students who

are popular than those who are not, based on their number of

connections. In general, applying social media in school-based activities

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is helpful in learning, but it affects the psychological behavior of some

students. These literature and studies could be helpful for the

researchers who seek to understand the findings of this research.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

This pertains to the strategy that the researchers used to integrate

the different components of the study in a logical way, making sure that

this will effectively address the research problem. Research design

constitutes the blueprint for the gathering of data and analysis of the

data.

According to Groenewald (2004), researchers must use

phenomenological design with a study wherein the experiences of people

are involved. Thus, the researchers used phenomenological design for

this study for it is the appropriate design to use for evaluating

perceptions of Senior High School students on social media-based

activities. It includes conducting interviews and observe non-verbal

communications to understand the participants’ own perceptions

regarding the topic.

From the overall population of enrolled Senior High School

students in Pangasinan National High School for the School Year 2018-

2019, randomly selected sixteen (16) students were chosen to be the

participants of this research. The aim of this study is to evaluate the

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perceptions of the Senior High School (SHS) students towards different

social media-based activities. This is also conducted to know the

effectiveness of the activities for the participants, only.

Research Samples

This means the subset of subjects that will be a representative of

an entire population.

Systematic random sampling where every 6th name on the class

lists accumulated from the class monitors was used to obtain the

respondents of this study,

The researchers conducted a series of interviews with the target

sample of sixteen (16) randomly selected students of Senior High School

in Pangasinan National High School who are currently enrolled to

Accountancy and Business Management (ABM), General Academic

Strand (GAS), Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS), and Science,

Technology, Mathematics and Engineering (STEM) strands under the

Academic Track, who have opulent knowledge and information about the

study.

The information collected from the participants, who were asked

about their involvement or not on social media-based activities was used

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to help in evaluating the effectiveness of integrating social media based

activities in learning. Also, these are also used to support the existing

social media-based processes adapted by some of the teachers and

students for learning.

Research Instrument

This part tackles about the tools designed to gather specific data

from the participants.

This study used semi-structured interviews as its research

instrument. In a span of four (4) days, the researchers conducted

interviews from randomly selected sixteen (16) SHS students from

Pangasinan National High School.

The researchers used interview as the research instrument

because first, this is a qualitative study. Also, the study aims to

investigate the effectiveness of social media-based activities, and

according to Evalued (2006), interviews are used for this type of study.

The prepared questions for the interviewees were put in the

Appendix A.

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Data Gathering Procedure

This pertains to the main processes used, in this study interview,

to accumulate data that are yet to analyze.

The data gathered was based on the individual interviews

performed with the students who are currently enrolled in Pangasinan

National School. The researchers targeted Grade 11 and Grade 12 SHS

students as participants who are well-informed of the topic.

Before anything else, the researchers secured an approval sheet for

the conduct of the study which was approved and signed by the principal

of PNHS and PNHS SHS Department.

First step in doing the interview was the validation of the interview

questionnaires used for every participant. This was accomplished by the

researchers with the validation and guidance of three (3) Practical

Research I advisers. This was made to further polish and set the focus of

the problems involved.

There are some factors that may affect the answers of the

participants, one is a very formal approach wherein a student can be

uncomfortable. In order to reduce these, the researchers conducted a

conversational or often called as the semi-structured interview.

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Before the interview process, the researchers asked permission to

record, take photos of the whole process for the data processing

procedure and fortunately, all the participants were comfortable of it.

The record of interviews and observations during the process were

the main data processing technique used in this study. To assure the

validity of the interviews, the researchers kept the recordings and photos.

The researchers accumulated the class lists from the class

monitors of every chosen class. Afterwards, they went to different

classrooms of the target samples for the interview process, but before the

main data gathering process, the researchers explained the objectives

and scope of the study for the participants to be comfortable when the

interview started.

Since they interviewed sixteen (16) SHS students with different

perceptions, which mean multiple data sources, researchers believed

that data triangulation is the most appropriate data processing

technique to use. Data triangulation means the method of collecting

multiple data about a certain phenomenon. This happened during the

actual interview wherein the participants were given the participant

consent form.

The researchers prepared twelve (12) interview questions (exclusive

of the necessary follow-up questions), and the participants were notified

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on the scheduled time on their vacant time. The interview was conducted

on Pangasinan National High School grounds in order to minimize some

environmental factors that can affect the participants’ responses.

The researchers gave codenames for their participants to assure

protect their identities. Social media sites (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram,

Messenger, Viber, Gmail, WhatsApp, Google, Tumblr, YouTube,

Pinterest, and Snapchat) were used for the codenaming.

After the interview process, the researchers thanked the

participants for giving their time and honest answers.

Data Processing Procedure

After accumulating the raw data from the participants, the

researchers processed and analyzed them. In this sense, it can be

regarded a division of information processing.

To determine the commonalities present on the data gathered by

the researchers, open coding is used. This type of coding involves

grouping the collected data and finding their common grounds that may

help on formulating themes.

Repetition of words and phrases and highlights from the verbatim

of the participants were carefully analyzed through the use of open

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coding. As a result, there were eight common themes and two subthemes

for the first common theme which were presented in the next chapter.

To guarantee the credibility and unbiased research, the

researchers randomly selected Senior High School students taking up

Academic Track using systematic random sampling.

Data Analysis

Credibility

This refers to the range to which a research account is probable

and appropriate, with particular source to the level of agreement between

the respondents and the researcher.

The interviews conducted by the researchers were ranged from

thirty (30) minutes to one (1) hour. The interview process was done in the

most comfortable places of every participant. Their answers were audio

recorded via smartphone and was jotted down on a paper. Also, non-

verbal cues such as lack of eye-to-eye contacts, posture, unnecessary

body movements, and facial expressions while answering were observed

to intensify the answers of the participants.

After the interview, audio recordings are transcribed by the

researchers. Translation is done because of the local language used by

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the participants. Lastly, the transcripts were analyzed for data

management.

Dependability

Reliability and consistency of the research study was pointed out

in this part wherein removing of biases that surrounds it are involved.

The researchers underwent bracketing to develop focus and set

aside biases and preconceptions. A semi-structured interview was used

for the participants.

Semi-structured interviews are used to provide ways of new

understanding of a certain topic, which is also accompanied by

observations and an informal way of doing the process for the

respondents to feel comfortable and give more reliable answers to the

problems. With this, the researchers prepared a semi-structured

interview for this study.

Conformability

This part indicates that this study was confirmed and verified by

others.

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The process used in the study includes the use of audio recorder.

The voice records gathered were transcribed by the researchers. Also,

non-verbal cues of the participants were observed and noted to support

their answers. This was done to affirm the findings of the study.

Concept of triangulation was used to reduce any bias whereas

observation, notes and interviews are used.

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CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

Presented in this chapter are the findings from the semi-structured

interviews conducted on Pangasinan National High School. Discussions

are also included to further enlighten the readers about the social media-

based activities. This chapter is organized based on the themes and their

corresponding subthemes.

After scrutinizing all the perceptions of the participants, the

researchers came up with the following findings:

The following are the perceptions of the Senior High School

students in Pangasinan National High School concerning social

media-based activities.

Perceptions

The participants gave enough and detailed information about their

opinions and experiences on social media-based activities.

First Common Theme: BEYOND THE HORIZON

One thing is clear, it helped and molded the generations for who

they were, are and will be. Throughout the years, it has proved to

mankind its worth, its capability of turning the impossible into possible.

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Years ago, people set limitations to everything but since this came,

it did not just extend one’s horizon, but instead, it created the things

beyond the horizon. Yes, it is the internet encompassing all social media

platforms.

LinkedIn and Facebook honestly shared their opinions towards

social media. Below are their corresponding verbatim:

LinkedIn – “Positive approach. Using social media on learning diba? Kasi..

kasi sa social media makakapagconnect ka sa mga kaklase mo, sa mga

teachers, and through that makakapagshare kayo ng mga lessons.

Makipagtulungan o makakuha ng sagot sa ganito.” (Social media-based

activities has a positive approach. Using social media on learning,

right? Because.. because on social media, you can connect to your

classmates, teachers and through it, you can also share your

lessons. You can also receive and give help or get answers to this.)

Facebook – “Yes it is effective because when we use social media

contains a lot of information wherein we can use for our school

work.”

According to Lifewire (n.d.), social media are the web-based

communication tools that enable people to interact with each other by

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both sharing and consuming information. This means that social media

are the primary means of people to interact, communicate, share and

exchange ideas which are internet-based.

According to Kakkar (2018), there are six (6) types of social

media. This includes:

Social networks. This type is primarily associated with netizens

(internet citizens) who are widening their connections. These connections

can be personal relationships, customer services, or business-related.

Examples include Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

Media Sharing Networks. Users of these networks aim to primarily

share different photos, videos and live videos to the world. These are also

effective for campaigns (e.g. skin care products) for a target audience.

Instagram, YouTube, and Snapchat are included in this type of social

media.

Discussion Forums. This is the oldest way of Social Media

Marketing campaigns. In this type of social media, users will be given the

chance to share, ask and answer questions, and discuss different issues

regarding anything. Advertisements can also be seen in these forums.

This type has Reddit, Quora and Digg as its sites.

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Bookmarking Sites and Content Curation Networks. Social media

users will enjoy these sites and networks if they want to find the latest

trends. These will help them to share, discuss and save their most

wanted things. Pinterest is the most visited site of this type.

Consumer Review Networks. A part of different businesses’ success

is this type of social media for it helps the owners construct strategies

and make better campaigns by just reading, sharing, and discussing

different insights of consumers. Yelp and Zomato are examples of these

networks.

Blogging and Publishing Networks. Through the years, blogging

has become a trend that even students have their own blog sites. These

are mainly used for publishing, discovering and commenting on blog

sites and articles. Furthermore, blogging and publishing networks also

play important roles on Social Media Marketing Campaigns. WordPress

and Blogger are traditional blogging sites while Tumblr and Medium, a

micro-blog and a social publishing platform are the latest of this type.

With this, findings show that the participants see social media as a

tool where they can find everything they want and need to see. Last time

they checked, it was just creating social media accounts but now, it was

coding machines that they have mastered.

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1st Subtheme: DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD

In order to continue, it is still a balanced thing that people needed

the most. Using social media in our daily lives is a double-edged sword

which points to both the north and the south.

One day, while cleaning, a stuff went out of a lady’s cabinet. While

reminiscing how precious the stuff was and who gave it, she was stuck

on deciding whether she will throw it away or just keep it again. For she

knew that this stuff both caused her pain and happiness, she did not

move for a few minutes.

The next day, she decided to keep it knowing that this stuff may be

her pillow the next time she cries, she still looked at the brighter side.

Balanced thoughts about social media were mentioned below:

Twitter – “Para sa akin, neutral siya. Kasi, madaling maintindihan, and

more efficient. Yung negative naman is kapag yung task sobra,

makakaaffect siya sa time management at ‘yong paggawa mo ng ibang

imprortant matter, kasi minsan nakakalimutan na yung responsibilities sa

bahay kapag nasa cellphone na” (For me, it is just neutral. Because of

course, it is easier to understand, and more efficient. The negative

one is that if the given task is too much, it may affect the time

management, the capability of doing some important things because

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sometimes, the responsibility at home when someone his/her

cellphone)

A blog entitled “The Effects of Social Media on Mental Health”

tackled two paths of social media, the positive and the adverse effects of

social media. One negative effect was comparing one’s self to another by

just seeing something which may cause low self-esteem and also not

seeing one’s self-worth. Also, the blog stated that it is not healthy for the

mind if someone makes so much time on social media for a reason that

this will make him/her not connected with nearby people. On the other

hand, social media play a big role in which people, most especially young

adults, build themselves. (Schultz, 2017)

According to study of Adams and Mingle, most of the participants

in Ghana specified problems that they encountered such as poor

grammar and spelling, late compliance to requirements and even worst,

failure to participate in the activity. Despite of its negativity, a numbered

participants said that their skills were enhance when they started to be

part of the virtual world.

Findings show that internet has various positive and/or negative

approaches and for some participants, it is neutral, meaning they

considered both the approaches without choosing any side. One positive

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approach for Twitter is that working on social media applications is

easier and more efficient while its negative side was setting aside his/her

other responsibilities at home.

2nd Subtheme: STAGE OF UNCERTAINTY

My hands and knees were trembling as I smelled his unique scent

of perfume and as I heard his steps towards my classroom. This is not

happening..

Without any adieu, he said “Bring out one whole piece of pad

paper.” Everybody returned to their proper seats and shouted “Wait, Sir!”

but he was unstoppable, he started reading his prepared test

questionnaires.

Block. I was in a mental block as he stated “Number one, when did

the snap election happened in the Philippines?” Everything just turned

black. I can’t even remember a word from my reviewer. So I checked if

my teacher was looking at me, and fortunately, he’s at the back. I turned

my head to the right, it was 1986 and when I looked into the paper of my

classmate on the left, it was 1985. These years just added to my mental

block, to my confusion.

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It was time for exchanging the papers for checking. I’m still

confused. But my teacher started counting down, in 3… 2…. I just wrote

1985. And turned out, it wasn’t the right answer.

In this observed theme, WhatsApp and Facebook brought up the

following:

WhatsApp – “Positive, a lot of information, negative naman ay if it is

overused it is called fake news” (Positive, a lot of information.

Negative if the information are overused, it is called fake news.)

Facebook – “Ahmmm hindi natin maikakaila na maraming infos ang na

edit na so sometimes it is not valid and it can lead us to wrong info. So

maybe it is one factor that negative of social media.” (We cannot resist

the fact that there are many information that can be edited so

sometimes they are not valid and it can lead us to wrong

information. So maybe it is a negative factor of social media.)

Social media provides necessary information needed by human

kind. It became a common place to gather and collect data that could

satisfy ignorance.

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Discussion Forums is one of the types of social media

distinguished by Kakkar that connects relationship between an author

and researcher. Therefore, interactions occur through this process.

However, these may lead to too much information and instead of

helping learners, it caused us to be confused. According to Silverman

(2016), fake news spreads faster than the real news by the recent

analysis of Buzz Feed, fake news has gone viral. With this, fake news can

be tempting, which leads a person to share fake news into multiple social

media platforms and results to be harmful especially when this news is

disconnected to the original one.

This subtheme involved the spread of fake news throughout social

media today. Even the participants are confused of what would they

consider right or wrong when browsing their social media applications.

Findings also indicated that the accuracy of information present on

social media is low.

Second Common Theme: PLAN B

It was noontime, when my friend told me that we are going to have

a group activity. The two said, “They will come and we’re going to

designated groups.” There are two great suggestions came up, our leader

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can’t decide what will be the strategy that we are going to use because of

the noise that we created.

All the groups didn’t finish the activity because they also

encountered the same problems as we had, so our teacher decided that

we are going to pass the activity on the next meeting.

Finally, our leader decided to use the suggestion of Lydia, which he

also liked without knowing our suggestion.

The said date came so we passed our finished work, when our

teacher checked it, she was so disappointed because it doesn’t jive to our

topic. After that day, we talked about what happened, and we explained

about our suggestions and our leader noticed that it would be great to

use our own strategy.

YouTube – “Ano? Ano, parang… hindi mo na kailangan pumunta sa

library and maghanap hanap ng libro libro, kasi meron na sa internet.”

(What? It’s like.. you don’t need to go to the library and find books

(for references) because you can already find them on the internet.)

According to Harlan (2015), library at schools expands beyond the

basic literacy of reading to teaching student into access, use information,

evaluate, and academic society. It includes teaching responsibility and to

avoid fake news, because libraries serve as place of original ones.

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The use of libraries for the youth today has been just an option.

When perhaps, generation which came before us was a library-centered

one. Thus, participants prefer online or on social media applications

when gathering information and data than in the libraries. They also

indirectly stated that being active on social media, they can get ideas

easily. They prefer one click works than those which demands manual

works.

Problems Encountered

Problems such as slow internet connection, superiority of other

users based on their number of connections/friends online,

mismanagement of time, unavailability of gadgets used, and presence of

online temptations when doing social media-based activities.

Third Common Theme: CONNECTION LOST

A bright shining life will be described on me as a rich person. I

always love taking vision on my everyday feed, it just overwhelms my

bored feeling. I really don’t like it every time my dad turns off our fast

WiFi, so I sneak into his room and switch it on again.

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The next day came and I opened my eyes reminiscing the best

cherished moments with my best friends, it’s just so good. Well, we also

love playing games to social media, thanks to Facebook for that.

I’ve never experienced phone lag so I’m not used to not having

stable connection. Later this night, I was scrolling down on my long feed

‘til I saw this Mobile Legend advertisement. I was addicted to the game

and I just love experiencing many win-streaks. Now that I bagged

Grandmaster I, I badly wanted to level up to the next promotion, so I

played, it’s getting dark outside and as it got near to victory, “MY WIFI

CONNECTION JUST LOST!” Loud high-pitched voice conquered my room

as I scream.

With my uncontrollable ‘anger’, I went to my dad’s room and

slapped his face. My dad got his face red as his anger also overflew. I

cried of hurt because he punched me in the face. I went down the stairs

running and saw the router was still on, and realized the signal was just

lost.

With all honesty, Snapchat gave the following information:

Snapchat – “Lalabas ako ng bahay para makahanap ng mabilis na

signal.” (I need to go outside the house to find strong signal of

internet connection.)

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According to Open Signal, the Philippines performed poorly on the

speed and availability of Longterm Evolution (LTE) Connection.

The firm’s “LTE report” for November 2017 revealed that the

country ranked 74th out of 77 countries in terms of 4G speed.

However, the Philippines clocked in an average download speed of

just 8.24 Mbps. It is slightly lower than the country’s 8.59 Mbps record

in firm’s June 2017 report. Open Signal said in general, that 4G

availability is improving across the globe. Therefore, it is expected for the

participants to say that internet connection in the Philippines is slow and

may be a cause of delays.

In this theme, the researchers found out that internet connectivity

is considered as main problem encountered by the participants. They

have internet connection but not enough to pass their needed

requirements on time.

Fourth Common Theme: NOTHING WITHOUT YOU

Being still at my blue basketball themed room, I was thinking

about what to do to pass my homework, almost all of my classmates gave

theirs. Tearing with worry, whisper I made while whimpering at the

corner of my room, “Why would this happen to me? I don’t want to fail.” I

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was afraid of my parents that time. As I think of my tidal home works,

my parents handed me a Bible and told me to read it, I fell down with

anger, so I threw the Bible at my room and slept with sorrow.

The moon came down and the sun arose the sky, being nervous, I

rushed to the school with a trembling heart, and as I approach the room,

Professor Escalona asked me “Where’s your home homework, Mr.

Boulstridge?” I bowed and said “I haven’t done it sir, I don’t have any

gadgets.” “That’s impossible!” he shouted.

My heart broke with so much tremble and wild I go as I run to my

room. I noticed the Bible having a thick back side, I cried as I open, a

new phone came out of the Bible.

Gmail stated:

Gmail – “Hmm problems in.. problems in? problems do you

encounter in doing. Ah ano, ah I have stable connection in using but, but

I’m just borrowing it, so.. I don’t have my own device, own mobile phone,

for what, for what.. uh in.. in using social media apps, I mean –based

activities.” (Hmm problems in.. problems in? problems do you

encounter in doing (social media-based activities). Ah, I have stable

connection in using but, but I’m just borrowing it, so.. I don’t have

my own device, own mobile phone, for what, for what.. uh in.. in

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using social media applications, I mean social media-based

activities.)

According to Anonymous (2017) gadgets play a vital role in the

educational field in order to improve their skills and knowledge. It is very

important for them since they need to improve their knowledge power to

gain success in the future. Teachers can enhance their teaching skills

and strategies also. In short, this technology is very important for both

students and teachers but on the other hand, this technology has

disadvantages too.

Findings show that out of sixteen (16) participants, only one

directly stated that he doesn’t have gadgets to use for social media-based

activities. It clearly showed that not all can afford to buy gadgets to use

and participate in such activities. This may lead to not to comply and

perform the activities given by the teachers.

Fifth Common Theme: CELEBRITY MODE ACTIVATED

I went to see myself in the mirror to ask, “What did these likes do

to me?” I came from a simple family but raised by my grandmother.

Despite of financial issues, I encourage my grandmother to buy me a

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cellphone. Thus, my hobby includes posting my pictures online

especially on social media. I became an active user of it.

Every time I post on social media, it reaches more than five

thousand likes/ reactions, more than three thousand comments and

approximately a thousand shares each. But what's this feeling of, there

is something wrong and it bothers me. It was unexpected moment for me

and even me, i couldn’t believe it. My life entirely changes because of it. A

company invited me to advertise their new release product. I was excited

because it was my time to shine.

When it comes to popularity, Instagram and Viber brought up the

following information which they consider a problem encountered in

social media-based activities:

Instagram – “There is not enough friends, then like will the basis for the

grade.” (There is not enough friends, then the likes (gained) will be

the bases for the grade (in school).)

Viber – “I think, sa pagkuha ng likes, minsan kapag hindi ka sikat,

mahihirapan ka talaga. Ta’s medyo nahihiya ka kapag magmention kahit

na grade na ‘yong nakasalalay do’n.” (I think, just like what I said in

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gaining likes when you aren’t famous. It is uncomfortable to

mention your friends even if it is for your grades.)

Based on Inquirer.net (2013), an article regarding the Filipino

parents’ approval on using social media based activities as bases of

grades of their children. Back in 2013, freshman high school students

from Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School in Sta. Cruz, Laguna

posted their 10-minute skit online and to be able to get high grades,

these posted videos must get many likes. For it to happen, the students

need to solicit likes from their Facebook friends by sharing, mentioning

names, or sending the video. Marlenn Sarmiento, a mother of one of the

students, said that grade of her children must be assessed through their

academic performance, which she mean that it should be done in the

natural setting of learning, inside the classroom.

In this observed theme, popularity may cause the students to

experience shyness and lower his/her self-esteem. Students will have low

performance that will affect his/her grades. And also, a student

interaction towards social media will be lessened.

Sixth Common Theme: BEWARE: BE AWARE

Hello, my name is Andry, and yes, I have a stitch at my face, and

I'll be telling you a story.

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Gazing at my black, small, low quality phone, I've stared all the

time watching advertisements, amusing and entertaining it was. A pop-

up suddenly appears in the middle of nowhere, making me wander, why

is that so beautiful? A product of somehow shiny brand came to my dark

media spot with me wanting a brand new Smartphone. While I watch the

advertisement, interesting features came before my eyes. One whole

tiktok later, down I came on the stairs, seeing dad read a newspaper. On

the paper's other side, my heart felt goodness seeing the iPhone printed

on a colorful ink as I've seen on the video. Dad seemingly thinking about

me smiling, as he know I want this phone, the keys he got, grabbed me

with his hand, car engine started to roar and here we go, we're heading

to the mall! My dream was fulfilled finally by my dad's kindness, I'm

spoiled though.

Excited to open my phone, I pressed the side button until the

bright light with an apple logo started the moment, I screamed with joy

like I'm in a cloud full of fluffiness. Many different apps blocked me from

testing the camera. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Tumblr made me

amazed. Interested in Facebook, I made a new account, until such time a

handsome man in his round profile picture messaged my new account.

Being impressed with his looks, I liked him a lot so I replied with red

blushing cheeks, "I'm fine, how about you?" and as time ran through the

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horizon, he invited me to a date, knowing that he'll invite me made me

think about what to wear. Well, a crop-top that'll make my body look like

an hourglass is the best choice to make, also, jeggings. Patience filled my

mind as I wait for him at the park for a fast running time.

As the clouds start to blacken out and squeeze between the skies,

he finally came with his head looking down, wearing this formal Sahara

polo and his formal pants. My eyes smiled and my mouth curved up to

my ears as I see him approach my place, and wandering of him looking

down, I asked him having a stubborn face, "Why are you looking down all

this time?" and he started to pull up his sharp long knife and tries to get

my bag, luckily, I studied karate since I was a child so I've defended

myself not knowing that he accidentally stab his knife on my now

bleeding cheeks.

My sight turned black and as I get up from a soft bed, I've seen

myself lying on a hospital ICU, a tall and a fit nurse then approached my

place and gave me a mirror. My teardrops fell at a soft cloth as I see my

face covered in a bright white bandage, and the nurse said, "Sorry, dear,

your face was stabbed so hard with a rusty knife that we had to remove

your face skin." I screamed so loud of being ashamed of myself. And

those days, I only let people know my face was just stitched. I should've

learned to beware and be aware.

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Messenger stated:

Messenger – “For me, hindi. Para sakanya, ang social media ay

distraction at libangan lamang” (For me, no. For him, social media is a

distraction and for entertainment purposes only.)

In a study by Adams and Mingle (2015), negative effects of social

media in senior high school students were shown in a study conducted

in Ghana. Some of these effects poor grammar and spelling, late

submission and failures to submit assignments, and less study time but

more time spent on social media applications. Worst result from the

findings was the high addiction rate of students in Ghana in social

media.

According to Aburahmah and Sed (n.d.), online social games are

becoming a significant component in today's social media sites. The

social networking sites environment has provided a platform for online

games to develop and expand in the virtual medium.

While doing given tasks, participants confessed that they could be

easily distracted and tempted of online games and chatting.

Consequently, there were delays in their submission of school works. In

this observed theme, it also stated that their focus has been diverted to

other things.

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Seventh Common Theme: TIME’S UP

Countdown has started, 3.. 2.. 1.. and it easily ended.. A while ago

my mom just woke me and by now somehow, I was about to sleep. But

before that, I want to evaluate myself by thinking what did I do for the

whole day.

As the sun rises and give off its light, chances and opportunities

came into my life. More importantly it was a probationary time for me to

make my life at the best state I could ever have. I decided to explore

outside. I enjoyed a lot walking by the street and site-seeing the nature.

Until I notice a dark cloud covers the entire sky. I was afraid,

thunder and lightning may pass by but there was no raindrop. Then I

recognize it is just the night. I wandered around too much and

unconsciously wasting time for fun. The sun already sets and it’s light

suddenly fade away. As I went back to our house, I saw my mom. I

kissed her and said, "good night."

Why am I so good at procrastinating?

Instagram also stated some difficulties regarding time

management:

Edmodo – “Ahmm…. Sometimes di ko siya masyadong ma manage kasi

marami ding ginagawang school works and mmmm… sa mga trabaho sa

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bahay ganun..” (Ahm… sometimes I can’t manage it properly because

there a lot of school work to do and.. mm… other household

chores..)

Time management plays a vital role in improving student’s

academic performance and achievements. Each student should have

time management ability which includes setting goals and priorities.

Thus, by the fast upgrade of each technology in the world today, social

media plays a big role, especially to the 21st century learners. But

students, nowadays, do not know how to manage time properly. It is

because of games that they encounter and as a result, students cannot

finish their school works. (Brigitte et. al, 2015)

Participants experienced a lot of requirements in school and

household chores and it can affect the grades of students. As a result,

poor time management prevailed. Also, unhealthy lifestyle may occur

because of not eating and deprived sleep trying to finish the given

activities.

Eighth Common Theme: UNFRIENDED

I’ve always dreamt of going up on stage and performing for fans,

this is me, hoping it will come true. I study in Harvard University as a

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Performing Arts student, and every day I see myself as a colorful one,

shining, and having billions of fans. One thing that makes a large hurdle

standing as a wall to my dream is my fear, fear of being judges by the

higher ones.

I tried dancing and singing to a famous song and took a video of it,

choosing which side to choose, to post, or not. Two roads with each

obstacle to face, and I decided to post it.

Next day, as I go near to my room, people laugh at me having no

idea what is the reason. I checked my post being shocked, as I take a

glimpse on my reactors, there were one thousand “haha.” Ashamed of

myself as I take my feet to the locker, crying. Never I took blame on

everyone laughing at me, because it was me who started it. The

comments I’ve seen were such knives “You’ll never reach your dream!”

“You’re not that good.” “Oh my, a hard moving dancer.” “Too skinny to be

a star. Haha”

My mom fetched me on the school going to the restaurant, as we

seat on the soft chair, I saw everyone pointing at me. My tears fell down

my eyes, my mom tapped my shoulder and chuckles, “My dear Angel,

they are amazed of you.” I saw people cheering me up, and they are my

close family relatives. This time that I am a star, I always thank my

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family who told me to cheer up and be that shooting star. This is me,

Angel, and this is my virtual story.

Pinterest, broke silence with this:

Pinterest – “Ahm.. minsan nakakakita ng mga hindi magagandang

words. Like halimbawa, sa that pertains to cyber bullying or minsan

criticisms or judgments mula sa ibang tao na hindi nga gano’n kaganda.

‘Yon nga.” (Ahm.. sometimes we can see inappropriate words like for

example, in that pertains to cyber bullying, or sometimes criticisms

and judgment that came from other people that is really not so

good. Yea, that.)

According to Russell and Tippett (n.d.), cyber bullying or cyber

harassment is a form of bullying using electronic means. It has become

increasingly common, especially among teenagers.

A study entitled, Cyberbullying: Eliciting Harm without

consequence (2013), students (n=260; m age = 12.88 years) reported

their involvement in cyber bullying as well as their perceptions of the

likelihood of cyber bully behavior eliciting harm, being reported, and the

initiator receiving consequences. Also, students’ scores on the Basic

Empathy scale were examined. Pettalia and Dickinson stated also that

the majority (67%) of students reported participation in cyber bullying

and girls were more likely than boys to self-report cyber victimization and

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cyber bully victimization. Students rated the likelihood of cyber victims

being hurt significantly higher that the likelihood of cyber bullies

receiving consequences.

Lastly, under this theme, the researchers found out that cyber

bullying is still a part of the virtual world given that cyber bullying issues

arose from almost a decade ago.

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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

This study entitled “I am a 21st Century Learner: Perception of

Senior High School Students on Social Media-Based Activities” aimed to

evaluate the perceptions of sixteen (16) randomly selected Senior High

School Students under the four (4) Academic Strands of Pangasinan

National School for S.Y. 2018-2019. Social media has become the

common ground of almost all students and with this, teachers started to

adapt learning in social media sites to engage their students. Social

media-based activities pertain to the school-based activities done

through the use of social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter.

With the given information, the researchers came up with this research.

Throughout this qualitative study, the researchers used

phenomenological design to not seek for solutions to existing problems,

but rather, it is the appropriate design to carry out the aim of the study.

The data from the participants were collected by the means of semi-

structured interviews.

Afterwards, transcription of the audio recordings to written text

was done to further analyze the accumulated data. Commonalities were

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observed in the transcriptions, thus, the researchers used open coding

for the data processing and analysis. To increase the credibility of the

study, the researchers also used triangulation method to validate the

multiple-referenced perceptions of the participants.

Summary of Findings

The findings of the study evaluated the experiences of the Senior

High School students in the premises of Pangasinan National High

School. Themes and subthemes emerged from the analysis implied the

following:

1. Beyond the Horizon. According to most of the participants, social

media sites helped them in everything they need to do and even in

learning. These sites also have been their everyday companion for

extending and going beyond their comfort zones.

2. Double-edged Sword. Three (3) of the participants said both the

positive and negative effects of social media, the variety of

information found on these sites and as distraction in learning,

respectively.

3. Stage of Uncertainty. Participants also revealed the alarming

issues about fake news in the Philippines. They said that what

they see online are not credible enough.

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4. Plan B. Some of the participants mentioned about the convenience

of social media for gathering needed data or information rather

than going to the libraries near them.

5. Connection Lost. All the participants in this study said that they

have an internet connection at home but not stable enough to

comply to the needed requirements online. Thus, this resulted to

delays in their school works.

6. Nothing Without You. One out of the sixteen (16) participants

shared his lack of gadgets which are needed to carry out social

media-based activities. While the remaining fifteen (15) said that

they have gadgets like laptops, cellular phones and personal

computers.

7. Celebrity Mode Activated. In this part, the participants implied

that a user’s number of connections/friends/followers online affect

their performances in such social media-based activities.

8. Beware: Be Aware. Presence of online temptations which diverted

attention of the users was involved in the data gathered from the

conducted interviews. These include online games, chatting with

friends and online advertisements.

9. Time’s Up. According to the participants, their time management

was also affected when doing social media-based activities because

of some factors like household chores and family matters.

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10. Unfriended. Cyber bullying cases were also brought up by

two of the participants as another problem encountered by them.

Truly, it is a serious issue which needs solutions in order to lessen

suicidal crime numbers and to have healthy connections online.

Implications

1. Internet and social media offers a variety of information which

students consider as helpful especially in their learning processes.

2. There are both positive and negative approaches social media

applications could give to their users.

3. Convenience of social media usage is often compared to libraries,

which came before social media. Libraries became obsolete for

some of the students.

4. Social media-based activities were identified by the students. These

include sharing of notes and information, connecting to their

classmates and teachers, posting graphics, statuses or videos, and

texts and gaining likes for what they have shared.

5. Delays of school works include poor internet connection at home,

lack of time management due to simultaneous works and presence

of online temptations which divert a learner’s attention to such.

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6. Students think of credibility of sources they see on social media

applications. They are at risk of fake news and not reliable sources

when doing their school works through social media.

7. Cyber bullying is rampant and many students do not report about

it. There are several bad effects of it including low self-esteem and

shyness in school.

Recommendations

In order to make betterment for this study, the researchers

recommend to:

All the users of social media applications to think before they click

in order to preserve healthy browsing on the internet and be more

conscious in the different sites in the virtual world where they participate

in;

Inform the teachers and students, as well as the parents of the

students, about this study so that they will be aware of their parts on

social media-based activities. For the teachers, their part is to decide

whether or not to integrate these activities on learning of their students.

Moreover for the students, they should use social media wisely by not

overusing or misusing it on any unnecessary things.

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Proper management of time through identifying necessary things to

do and making an itinerary for them is advised in participating said

activities online and submitting the things needed for completion of

requirements which serves as one of the bases of grade which reflects

their performance level while at home.

All the users in the virtual world especially the students to surf on

a reliable resources to avoid fake news and information on what they see

online.

The future researchers to involve relationship among the

implications mentioned above in their study.

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