Studying Rocks Types of Rock Earth Rocks Rocks and Minerals The Rock Cycle Gemstones Rock Uses Fossils in Rocks Surfing Our Earth Science in Action What Have You Learned? Words to Know/Index 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 21 22 24

and cliffs to learn what Earth is made from. They also learn how Earth has changed over time. They form Earth's crust. Geologists are scientists who study rocks. mountains. They lie by the sides of roads and in backyards. boulders. The study of Earth's structure is called geology. and mountains are all rocks. Layers of rock can be seen in the canyon walls. Rocks are found at the bottoms of rivers and lakes. dust. Sand. They are also found on mountain peaks. • Canyons are formed by rivers cutting through rock. .Studying Rocks Rocks are everywhere.

The heat melts the tiny rocks that make up the sand to form a glassy rock called fulgurite. Only 20 common types of rocks are found on Earth's surface.718 tonnes) of rock fall to Earth from space each year. .Rock Facts Although rocks are not alive.000 tons (90. • Sometimes lightning strikes sand on a beach. Rea| on tb^ learn itiéreInteresting facts about rocks. • The oldest known rock was found in Canada. • Up to 100. It is nearly 4 billion years old. • There are hundreds of rock types. th^y are changing alii the time. • Rocks are made of two or more minerals.

• Sedimentary rock is fragile. Sedimentary rocks are formed when layers of sediment become stuck together. These groups are based on how rocks form. forms. called metamorphic rock. Heat and pressure cause sedimentary and igneous rocks to change. .Types of Rock Geologists group rocks into three main types. It is easily broken down by wind and rain. Igneous rocks are made when lava cools. A new type of rock.

Here are some rock words.ocks can be called by many names.i I I I . usually rounded. that can be held with twofinqers STONE: a PEBBLE: a small medium-sized rock that can be held in two hands BOULDER: a large rock tha is taller than a person RIVER ROCK: round rocks found along the edges and at the bottom of fast-flowing rivers a giant piece of rock that is attached to Earth's crust and does not rnoVe MOUNTAIN: . Can you think of any others? rock..The word used often tells the size of the rock.

water. Beneath the surface is molten. The crust is made of rocks and minerals. ice. and sand cover much of the crust. . or melted. Earth's core is made of molten. waves. Rocks on Earth can be changed in two ways.Earth Rocks The planet Earth is one big rock. • Earth's solid crust is rock. rain. Weathering is the breaking down of rocks on Earth's surface by natural forces such as frost. soil. and heat. Erosion is the removal of rock and pieces of soil by natural forces such as running water. rock called magma. rock. and wind. These processes are part of the rock cycle. or melted. Ice.

These rocks are called meteorites when they are on Earth. . The Moon's surface is mostly made of basalt. Scientists have brought rocks from the Moon to Earth for study. too. Sometimes rocks fall to Earth from space. Like Earth. Basalt is the most common type of rock on Earth's surface. it is made up of smaller rocks. Scientists have found that rocks from the Moon are made of the same materials as some rocks on Earth. Most of the ocean floor is also basalt.I I I I I I I I I I I I I e The Moon is a big rock. Moon basalt is darker in color and more dense than Earth basalt.

Minerals are solid materials that are found in the natural environment. All rocks are made from at least two kinds of minerals. About 3. • The Garden of the Gods Park in Colorado Springs. . They are made of materials that were never alive. is famous for sandstone rock formations.Rocks and Minerals All the rocks.000 different kinds of minerals have been found on Earth. pebbles. Sandstone contains the minerals quartz and feldspar. and sand on Earth are made from minerals. Colorado.

Most crystals reflect light very well.The minerals in the rocks sparkle and shine. When rocks are wet.The pieces that make up crystals are arranged in regular patterns. Others are colorful. Crystal is not the only reason rocks sparkle. so they appear to sparkle. If rocks sparkle. .sparkle Some rocks are diuil. Metal is shiny and reflects light. Theèe rocks sparkle. Some rocks reflect light. dirt and sand are washed away.These minerals contain metal. it is usually because they have crystal inside. Crystals are solid substances. Rocks are nnade from minerals. Some rocks that sparkle have metallic minerals inside them. Some minerals are metallic.

Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks . High temperature and pressure can change sedimentary and igneous rocks into metamorphic rocks. New igneous rocks form from cooled lava. and reform is called the rock cycle. Over time. break down. all types of rocks break apart and become sediments. Pressure from gathering sediment creates sedimentary rock. It takes thousands of years for one rock to change.The Rock Cycle The process in which rocks form. Wind and rain cause sediments to gather and pile up.

Weathering Iqneous Rocks Igneous Rocks Magma .

Gemstones A gemstone is a rock or mineral used for jewelry or decoration. Gemstones that can be cut to reflect their luster. Some gemstones are very expensive. Less than 100 minerals are used as gemstones. rubies. . are the most valuable. about half of the original diamond is lost. how common they are. and their hardness. or shine.The most valuable gemstones are diamonds. Their value depends on their beauty. and emeralds. • When diamonds are cut and polished for gemstones.

a geode begins as a hollow area inside the sediments.A géode develops fronn either sedimentary rock or volcanic rock. As the rock forms. géodes begin forming when a bubble forms in hardening lava. Over time. In sedimentary rock. . a hard shell surrounds the bubble or hollow area. the minerals inside the rock harden and become crystals. minerals remain inside the rock. As the water evaporates. Water containing dissolved minerals gets inside the rock. Volcanic rock is igneous rock that forms from cooled magma. In volcanic rock.

A building has a foundation. buildings. sand. \ • Rocks are a popular addition to gardens and pathways. Foundations are often made with rocks. They help keep moisture in the soil. and cement in his or her lifetime.000.Rock Uses Rocks have many uses.592 kilograms) of stone. which is the base that the building sits on. . Rocks are also used for decoration.000 pounds (453. gravel. The average North American uses more than 1. and sidewalks. Many cities today are built with stones. These rock materials are used as concrete in buildings and as crushed stone in roads. Rocks are used to make roads.

You can store your rock collection in a shoe box or egg carton. | hills. J on your way to school. Do you think it is igneous. metamorphic. Label where you found each rock and when you collected it. Collect rocks you find in your yard.Someone \A^ho co|lects rocks is çalfedia rock hound. quarries. . \A^uyyoM like i d become a rodk houínd? Start your collection by picking up rocks.Try to identify each type of rock in your collection. or sedimentary? You may need to visit the library or search the Internet to learn what types of rocks you have found. j and roadsides are i also good places to look for rocks. and in the j schoolyard. Cliffs.

Fossils in Rocks ist m . Plants or animals that have died get trapped among layers of sediment. After a long time. Eossils are usually found in sedimentary rock. Fossils teach scientists about animals in Earth's past. inside the rock.^' Va ». • Fossils of dinosaurs such as the pterodactyl are found in rocks. Eossils tell scientists what life was like on Earth long ago. . or protected. these layers of sediment turn into sedimentary rock. The animal or plant remains are preserved.V A fossil is the rocklike remains of a plant or animal.

In 1972. Schmitt taught the astronauts how to be geologists when they were on the Moon. Schmitt studied these rocks to learn more about the Moon. Schmitt and his fellow astronauts spent hours collecting rock samples. Schmitt flew to the Moon on Apollo 17. On the Moon.t I I I I I À Life Harrison (Jack) Schmitt Harrison (Jack) Schmitt helped train astronauts flying to the Moon. This was the last human flight to the Moon. He taught the astronauts what kind of rocks to look for and bring back to Earth.They brought 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock samples back to Earth—the most ever gathered. I I I I I I I .

Where can I find a good reference Web site to learn more about rocks? Encarta Homepage www. and fossils? Windows to the Universe www. scientists who study rocks. and • Click on "Geology" to learn aboutthe three types of rock.encarta. •The Internet offers some great Web sites dedicated to rocks. Some terms to try include "mineral" and " • Type any rock-related term into the search engine.ucar. . • Science centers and museums are great places to learn about rocks.Surfing Our Earth How can I find more information about rocks? • Libraries have many interesting books about rocks. the rock cycle." How can I find out more about

You will need: • a glass jar • a pencil • a piece of thread •salt Fill the jar half full with warm water. salt crystals grow very quickly. Do not let the thread touch the bottom of the jar. Attach the thread to the pencil. As the water evaporates. Stir salt in the water until no more salt will dissolve. Can you see the crystal cubes? . You can grow them yourself. However.Science in Action Grow Your Own Crystals Most crystals take thousands of years to grow. salt crystals will form on the thread. Rest the pencil across the top of the jar so the thread hangs into the water. Use a magnifying glass to look at the crystals.

What Have You Learned? How old is the oldest rock that has been found? How much rock falls to Earth each year from space? What are rocks that fall to Earth from space called? What are rocks made from? .

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12.18 weathering rock cycle 8.20 Moon 9.17. top layer crystals: solid substances with flat surfaces and regular shape dense: crowded close together hardness: ability of a substance to resist being scratched lava: melted rock that comes out of an erupting volcano minerals: solid materials in the natural environment that were never alive quarries: places where stone is dug.10.13 .basalt: a hard rock formed in very hot conditions crust: Earth's hard.17 minerals 5.8.15. wind.8 igneous rock 6.19 heat 5.13.15 erosion 8 fossils 18.20 gemstone 14 geode 15 geologists 4.12.17 pressure 6.13. 14. 15.6. or ice soil: tiny pieces of rock that form the top layer of the ground in which plants grow structure: the way the parts that make something are arranged Index crystals 11. or blasted for use in building sediment: very small pieces of rock and dirt deposited by water. cut.11. 12. Harrison 19 sedimentary rock 6.19 metamorphic rock 6.20 Sehmitt.

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