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Influence of OJT Program to the Knowledge, Skills and Attitude of THM

Students

Introduction to the Study

This chapter is divided into five parts: (1) Background and Theoretical

Framework of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem and the Hypothesis,

(3) Significance of the Study, (4) Definition of Terms, and (5) Delimitation of the

Study.

Part One, Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, gives the

reasons for choosing the problem and the theoretical framework upon which the

study was anchored.

Part Two, Statement of the Problem and the Hypothesis, states the main

and specific objectives of the research.

Part Three, Significance of the Study, cites the benefits that may be

derived from the results of the investigation.

Part Four, Definition of Terms, defines conceptually and operationally the

important terms used in the research.

Part Five, Delimitation of the Study, specifies the scope and coverage of

the investigation.
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Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study

There is the recognition that on-the-job training is an important example of

an "investment" in human capital. Like any investment, there are initial costs. For

on-the-job training, these costs include the time devoted by the worker and co-

workers to learning skills that increase productivity plus the costs of any

equipment and material required to teach these skills. Like any investment, the

returns to these expenditures occur in future periods. For on-the-job training,

these future returns are measured by the increased productivity of the worker

during subsequent periods of employment. (Barron, John M., Mark C. Berger,

and Dan A. Black). 1997. "Introduction." In On-the-Job Training, Kalamazoo, MI:

W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research). Entering the employment

market is now becoming a big challenge for graduates of higher education

institutions. A transition from university to work environment can be very stressful

for new graduates who are not well prepared. They may have lofty goals for their

careers but these usually do not live up to their expectations. This mismatch

between their expectations and the real world should be bridged during their

studies through some forms of industry engagement like on-the-job trainings. On-

the-job training is essential to every young and future professional for it broadens

their understanding towards their future field of endeavor. It gives students

opportunity to apply their knowledge and at the same time to learn more of what

their industry is in real speaking.


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Knowledge of the student is being enhance through school lessons

moreover as they are being send through their OJT program knowledge school

based is being apply into the real environment where as students are be able to

experience of what is really happening in the real picture of the industry.

Students has already the knowledge and overview of what their industry is but

what is really important there is the proper application of the information they

have including the principles being taught inside a four wall of a classroom.

One of the most effective methods to develop the skills of the students is

through on-the-job training. As student is exposed to the different fields they

learned and enhanced their skills as they become familiar and made known to

the actual operation of the business operation and facilities, equipment and

technology used. Skills that has been develop and learned through on-the-job is

also one the investment to be used in the future jobs by the students.

According to Kenyon, 1999, OJT is thus a competitive weapon to make

workers “performance-ready” faster so they can keep pace with dynamic

changes in their jobs. The rapid deployment capability of OJT is all the more

appealing so that workers’ skills are tapped “just-in-time” to meet organizational

needs. That need is only intensified by the increasing use of short-term,

contingent, flexi time, and flexi place workers who must be made productive as

quickly as possible if their temporary employers are to receive the greatest

benefits from their efforts. According to Kovach & Cohen, 1992, OJT can relieve

employee anxiety and reduce avoidable turnover. If left to learn jobs through

“sink or swim” (unplanned) methods, employees may feel anxious about not

knowing what they are expected to do, how they are expected to do it, or why
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they need to do it. If no organized effort is made to socialize them or introduce

them to their job duties, they may become turnover statistics. Of course, most

managers want to avoid turnover because it increases training costs and disrupts

production. One classic, and often cited, research study suggested that training

is a frequently overlooked—albeit important— factor in job satisfaction. According

to Albrecht & Zemke, 1985, OJT may lead to high-quality customer service.

Customers’ perceptions often result from moments of truth in which they come in

contact with an organization’s employees. According to Eline, 1998; ISO 9000,

1992; Von Hoffman, 1998, OJT may be a means by which to continuously

improve product or service quality. Total Quality guru W. Edwards Deming (1986)

enshrined “instituting OJT” as one of his famous fourteen points for total quality,

and training figures prominently in ISO Quality Standards. OJT can lead to the

continuous improvement of product or service quality, thereby contributing to the

goals of a total quality initiative.

The influence knowledge, skills, and attitude are the dependent variables

while the independent variable is OJT training program.


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Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study.

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

OJT Training Program Influence Knowledge,


Skills, and Attitude

Figure 1. Influence Knowledge, Skills and Attitude as affected by OJT Program

Statement of the Problem and the Hypotheses

The study aims to ascertain the influence of OJT to the Knowledge, Skill,

and Attitude of CapSU Sigma Students.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following:

1. What is the level of influence of OJT to the knowledge of CapSU Sigma

THM students?

2. What is the level of influence of OJT to the skills of CapSU Sigma THM

students?

3. What is the level of influence of OJT to the attitude of CapSU Sigma

THM students?

4. Are there significant differences on the influence of OJT among the

levels of knowledge, skills, and attitude of CapSU Sigma THM students?


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5. Are there a significant relationship on the influence of OJT among the

levels of knowledge, skills, and attitude of CapSU Sigma THM students?

In view of the aforementioned statement of the problem, the following

were hypothesized:

1. There is a significant difference on the THM OJT Program among the

levels of influenced knowledge, influenced skills, and influenced attitude of

students.

2. There is a significant relationship on the THM OJT Program among the

levels of influenced knowledge, influenced skills and influenced attitude of

students.
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Significance of the Study

With this study the researcher would be able to learn the On-the-Job

training program to the Tourism and Hospitality Management Students of Capiz

State University, Sigma Campus as influenced with their knowledge, skills and

attitude in the field.

Students. The students who are enrolled in their practicum course will

reinforced this change that will effectively prepares them for future job and will

give them the understanding and deeper awareness to the knowledge, skills and

attitude that the OJT program affect them which in some point they can adjust on

the real world that sooner they will conquer. The result of the study will help them

improve or maintain specific areas to become professionals in their field after

graduation.

Teachers. To the teachers that will have a full understanding on how OJT

Program provide knowledge to students as well as on how it affect to its skills

and attitude which they can guide and give the students inputs that can help

them adjust from their personal experience and through this study it will also

provide information regarding the status of the students that would encourage

them to help the students by giving prompt, specific and helpful feedback.

Tourism and Hospitality Management Department. The finding of this

study could help the Tourism and Hospitality Management Department identify

the OJT training in relation to their knowledge, skills and attitude. Such an effort

would ensure the employability of the graduates and competent enough to in

dealing customers in the Hospitality Industry.


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School Administration. To the Capiz State University, Sigma Campus

Administrator, the study will help the institution to have an up to date data about

how OJT program influence the knowledge, skills and attitude of the students

help them revise the program if necessary and adapt the current trends and

practices in hospitality industry to show students what is like to be working in

advance.

Parents. To the parents of the students who are enrolled in the practicum

course this will give them assurance that what they paid was worth it and OJT

program that was given by the institution are helpful for their son/daughter on

their future job.

Future Researchers. This will benefit and help future researchers as their

guide in developing another different study and made this as one of their

resources in undertaking related field.


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Definition of Terms

The following are the conceptual and operational meanings of the terms

used in the study.

Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes (KSA) –refer to the abilities and

characteristics that enable a jobholder to accomplish the activities described in a

task statement that describes what the jobholder does (Quinones, Ehrenstein,

1997).

Organizations create knowledge through the collaboration between tacit

and explicit knowledge, rather than distinctly from any of the two knowledge

aspects. Nonaka et al. (ibid, p. 9) uses the term “knowledge conversion” when

describing the interaction between tacit and explicit aspects of knowledge. The

quality and quantity of tacit and explicit knowledge is greatly enhanced through

the knowledge conversion process (Nonaka, 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995;

Nonaka et al., 2000). The knowledge conversion process, presented as the SECI

model by Nonaka (Nonaka, 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Nonaka & Konno,

1998; Nonaka et al., 2000) constitutes of four separate modes classified by the

interacting knowledge conversion. The four modes are: Socialization,

externalization, combination and internalization.


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In this study, knowledge, skills and attitude referred to the variables to be

studied.

Knowledge - is defined in occupational therapy as course of academic

preparation specifically related to the services required by the medical condition

(Foto, 1996). Tests of knowledge are frequently focused on outcomes such as

performance on exams, attainment of course objectives and job attainment

(Krichbaum et al, 1994).

In this study, referred to the knowledge of THM OJT Program in which the

mean score in the researcher-made questionnaire are (4.21 – 5.0) very high,

(3.41 – 4.20) high, (2.61 – 3.40) moderately high, (1.81 – 2.60) low, (1.00 – 1.50)

very low.

Skills – are defined as clear recognizable behaviors that can be observed

in relation to expected behaviors (Bloch, 1977).

In this study, referred to the skills of THM OJT Program in which the mean

score in the researcher-made questionnaire are (4.21 – 5.0) very high, (3.41 –

4.20) high, (2.61 – 3.40) moderately high, (1.81 – 2.60) low, (1.00 – 1.50) very

low.

Attitude - can be defined as a learned predisposition to respond in a

consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object

(Thomas, 1988). It is further stated that attitudes are based on evaluative

concepts regarding characteristics of the referent objects and give rise to

motivated behavior. (Allen, 1986)


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In this study, referred to the attitude of THM OJT Program in which the

mean score in the researcher-made questionnaire are (4.21 – 5.0) very high,

(3.41 – 4.20) high, (2.61 – 3.40) moderately high, (1.81 – 2.60) low, (1.00 – 1.50)

very low.

On-the-Job Training (OJT) is often described as a time when theory is

applied to real-life setting; we believe that the relationship between theory and

practice is more complex than that. Thus, OJT is a chance to develop the

relationship between theory and practice for each should inform the other.

(Spears, 1995).

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will utilize the Causal - Comparing. Using the Slovin’s formula

the participants of this study are the 79 out of the population of 102 THM BSHRM

1st year and 2nd year students, BSTM 4th year graduating students who were

enrolled in Hospitality and Tourism courses of Capiz State University, Sigma

Campus academic year 2017-2018 and academic year 2018 - 2019. This study

measured the quality of students’ knowledge, skills, and attitude as influenced by

the OJT training program. Stratified random sampling technique is used and

researcher-made questionnaires will be distributed to the respondents.

Dependent variables are the knowledge, skills and attitude while the independent

variable is the OJT Training Program of the THM Student. The statistical tools

that will be used in the analysis of data are the mean, and standard deviation for

descriptive statistics, and Pearson r for inferential statistics. The alpha level of

significance was set at 0.05.


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Research Design and Methodology

This chapter is divided into three parts: (1) Purpose of the Study and

Research Design, (2) Method, and (3) Data Analysis Procedure.

Part One, Purpose of the Study and Research Design, restates the

objectives of the study, explains the research design, and presents the variables

utilized in the study.

Part Two, Method, describes the participants involved in the study, the

data-gathering instrument, and the procedure followed in the conduct of the

study.

Part Three, Data Analysis Procedure, discusses how the data were

statistically treated and analyzed.

Purpose of the Study and Research Design

The main purpose of the study is to examine and determine the level of

knowledge, skills and attitude of students as influenced by the efficacy OJT

training program. The survey-correlation method of research was used in the

study. According to Fraenkel & Wallen (2005) survey is used as descriptive

method to further analyze the quality and accuracy of the study objectives.

Surveys can be useful when research wants to collect data on phenomena that

cannot be directly observed. Surveys are used extensively in library and

information science to assess attitudes and characteristics of a wide range of

subjects.
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On the other hand, correlation research investigates relationships between

two or more sets of data. This design likewise helps determine the extent to

which different variables are related to each other (David, 2002).

The dependent variables of the study were the knowledge, skills and

attitude while the independent variable was the OJT program.

The statistical tools that were used in the analysis of data are the mean,

and standard deviation for descriptive statistics, and T – Test, and Pearson r for

inferential statistics. The alpha level of significance was set at 0.05.

Methods

Participants

The participants of the study were the first year and second year of the

BSHRM course and fourth year BSTM course OJT students of Tourism and

Hospitality Management Department of Capiz State University, Sigma Campus

for School Year 2017 – 2018 and 2018 – 2019 that undergone On-the-Job

Training. From the population size of one hundred twenty (120), a sample size of

seventy-nine (79) students was computed using the Slovin’s Formula. The

participants were selected using the stratified random sampling. Stratified

random sampling was used by drawing the sample from the population and then

drawing separate random samples from each stratum (Sullivan, 2008). They

were chosen at random using the stratified proportional sampling by means of

randomly choosing the students. This means that all the participants were

chosen if they are randomly available during the survey. The sample size of the

student-respondents in every grade level was shown in Table 1.


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Table 1

Distribution of Respondents by Course

Course N N

Tourism Management 37 37

Hospitality Management 83 42

Total 120 79

Table 2. Respondents Profile

f %
Age
19 yrs old 15 18.9
20 yrs old 12 15.1
21 yrs old 10 12.6
22 yrs old 10 12.6
23 yrs old 6 7.5
24 yrs old 6 7.5
26 yrs old 10 12.6
27 yrs old 10 12.6
Sex
Female 41 74.4
Male 38 25.6
Course
BSTM 37 44.9
BSHRM 42 55.1
No. of Hours
400 hrs. 37 46.9
200 hrs. 42 53.1
Establishment
Airline
Hotel 42 53.1
Travel Agency 37 46.9
Cruise
Total 79 100.0
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Data-gathering Instrument

A researcher-made questionnaire was used to gather the data needed for

the study.

Knowledge Questionnaire. This is 15-item researcher-made questionnaire.

It will be divided into five (5) scoring grades wherein 5 is the highest rated as 5 in

very high, 4 is high, 3 is moderate high, 2 low, and the lowest is 1 rated as very

low. The suggestions and recommendations for the improvement of the

questionnaires will incorporate in the modification of the instrument. After the

questionnaire was faced and content validated, the questionnaire will be pilot

tested to forty – one (41) students who were not included in the study.

To describe the level of knowledge of THM students who undergo OJT

program, the scale below is use:

Scale Description

4.21 – 5.0 Very High

3.41 – 4.20 High

2.61 – 3.40 Moderately High

1.81 – 2.60 Low

1.00 – 1.80 Very Low


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Skills Questionnaire. To determine the skills that the THM students

acquire during their OJT program, 15-item researcher-made questionnaire was

used. The scoring grade is divided into five (5) wherein 5 is the highest rated as

very high, 4 is high, 3 is moderate high, 2 low, and the lowest is 1 rated as very

low. The suggestions and recommendations for the improvement of the

questionnaire were incorporated in the modification of the instrument. After the

questionnaire was faced and content validated, the questionnaire was pilot tested

to forty – one (41) students who were not included in the study.

To determine the level of skills acquired by THM students during their OJT

Program, the following scale was used:

Scale Description

4.21 – 5.0 Very High

3.41 – 4.20 High

2.61 – 3.40 Moderately High

1.81 – 2.60 Low

1.00 – 1.80 Very Low

Attitude Questionnaire. It was 15-item researcher-made questionnaire was

made to determine the attitude of THM students who undergo OJT program. In

this questionnaire, students will respond to the questions by rating it from five (5)

which is the highest rated as very high, 4 is high, 3 is moderate high, 2 is low,

and the lowest is 1 rated as very low. The suggestions and recommendations for

the improvement of the questionnaire were incorporated in the modification of the


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instrument. After the questionnaire was faced and content validated, the

questionnaire was pilot tested to forty – one (41) students who were not included

in the study.

To determine the level of attitude of THM students who undergo OJT

program, the following scale was used:

Scale Description

4.21 – 5.0 Very High

3.41 – 4.20 High

2.61 – 3.40 Moderately High

1.81 – 2.60 Low

1.00 – 1.80 Very Low

Data-gathering Procedures

Permission to conduct the study was sought from Tourism and Hospitality

Management Department of Capiz State University Sigma Campus. The

researchers purposely gathered the instruments to measure the variables being

quest in their research. The researchers devised a self-made survey

questionnaire and data needed for the study were consist of a pre – test and a

post - test, which was validated by the experts to test the validity of each item.

The researchers intended to look for standardized questionnaire in order to get

better results in accordance to the norm standard of each variable. The

instruments were borrowed through the help of the researcher’s adviser. Once

the permission was granted, the questionnaire to the respondents data gathered

was analyzed, interpreted and tabulated using appropriate statistical tools.


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Data Analysis Procedures

The following statistics was employed in the analysis of the obtained data:

Mean - This was used to describe the level of the influence in knowledge,

skills and attitude of THM students in their OJT Program

Rank - This was used to determine the relationship of factors which

knowledge, skills and attitude of students, such that the first is ranked higher than

the rest.

Standard deviation - This test was used to determine the level of influence

in knowledge, skills and attitude of THM students in their OJT Program on the

scores obtained.

T-Test - This test was used to determine the significant difference

knowledge, skills, and attitude influence of OJT training program.

Pearson Correlation Coefficient/Pearson’s R – This was used to measure

the degree relationship between linearly related variables.

Results

This chapter is divided into two parts: (1) Descriptive Data Analysis, and

(2) Inferential Data Analysis.

Part One, Descriptive Data Analysis, reports the descriptive data and their

respective analyses and interpretations.

Part Two, Inferential Data Analysis, presents the inferential data and their

respective analyses and interpretations.


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Descriptive Data Analysis

Level of Enhanced Knowledge

Table 3 presents the level of influenced knowledge of the students.

Generally, the level of influenced knowledge of the students is “very high” (M =

4.49, SD = ..29)

Table 3. Mean and Standard deviation of Influenced Knowledge

Mean Description SD

Enhanced Knowledge Pre Test 4.07 High .42

Enhanced Knowledge Post Test 4.49 Very High .29

The result implies that the students who undergone OJT program are able

to familiarize themselves on the different communication methods being used by

their practicum agency as to how they will interact and respond to clienteles and

guests concerns up to the point of providing alternative courses of action to a

rising eventualities using their own initiatives and knowledge. In addition to the

above stated statement, students are learning on field how to manipulate

equipment’s being used for the entire operation of the company such as the

computerize systems, machines and the like to make the business matters at

ease and manageable. Furthermore, through on field trainings students are able

to know the different planning tools, methods, strategies and techniques being
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used by the practicum agency and at the same time assess whether those

implementations creates a positive impact to the operation of the company.

Students who undergone OJT programs are also able to understand the different

perspectives in social work practice and other practices as part of the work

ethics, social norms and culture of the practicum agency which may have an

impact to their working environment and even to their work outputs as they settle

for a job later on. Knowledge was enhanced through the shared insights and

instructions of people working at the practicum agency prior to every task

assigned to students, exams in relation to the training, conducive working

environment, necessary facilities to make the training at ease and professional

interaction between the students and the employees and between the students

and their fellow trainees.

The result supports the finding of Calyaneratne (2007) knowledge: how to

do things Knowledge is what you know and is sum total of learning - theoretical

and practical - that an individual acquires over a period of time. Knowledge of the

subject, environment, general matter, form the building blocks for the ability to

understand, internalize and deliver on the performance objectives. Knowledge

however is highly overrated.


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Level of Influenced Skills

Table 4 presents the level enhanced skills of the students. Generally, the

level of enhanced knowledge of the students is “very high” (M = 4.44, SD = .32)

Table 4. Mean and Standard deviation of Enhanced Skills

Mean Description SD

Influenced Skills Pre test 4.05 High .44

Influenced Skills Post test 4.44 Very High .32

The result implies that the students after OJT program are able to produce

desirable results out of their given tasks and prior responsibilities by making use

the materials available on their working environment, time allotted for them to

finish a certain tasks and energy required to carry over the assignment assigned

to them without wasteful manner present. In addition to that, students learned to

promptly address uncertainties because they were oriented properly on what to

do if a specific issues may arise as early as possible and with their thinking skills

they can address the problem using their initiatives so no need to call their

seniors attention anymore. Furthermore, students are able to present their

finished output accurately which means they were able to produce results that

are correct and base on what is expected from them by their practicum agency.

Skills was enhanced through the facilities of the practicum agency which make
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the students experience on hand manipulation of it, face to face contact with the

agency’s clienteles as to practice students communication skills and

interpersonal skills and on the spot dealing of uncertainties arising as to enhance

students analytical skills and problem solving skills.

The result supports the finding of Calyaneratne (2007) Skill, how well to do

things skills are those capabilities and competencies that are gained through

experience and learnt through practice. Technical skills, communication skills,

analytical skills, and presentation skills are some such skills that will help the

employees in their communication and delivery of performance.

Level of Enhanced Attitude

Table 5 presents the level enhanced attitude of the students. Generally,

the level of enhanced knowledge of the students is “very high” (M = 4.61, SD =

.28)

Table 5. Mean and Standard deviation of Influenced Attitude

Mean Description SD

Influenced Attitude Pre test 4.26 Very High .43

Influenced Attitude Post test 4.61 Very High .28

The result implies that the students who finished their On-the-Job-Training

program creates and develop positive attitude towards criticism which maybe a

means of feedback on students task performances, perceived attitudes and

showed personalities which is more likely to be reactions of people that

surrounds them such as their faced clienteles, fellow trainees and superiors who
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will be their evaluators for their performance in the entire training program.

Furthermore, out of that criticism they will develop sense of acceptance of their

mistakes which leads them to perform better next to achieve the task in the way

the company believe it is done not the way they believe it is over. Students

shows initiative in doing their assigned task and at the same time value the job

by showing interest on it, this clearly shows that students are able to react

optimistically on whatever kind of job they were assigned to and show openness

in doing the task. On the other hand, students are able to develop a pleasant

working environment and sense of unity to works in cooperation with others

employees and trainees which may lead to a harmonious relationship with each

other. Attitude was enough through the proper and meticulous guidance of

concerned people at the practicum agency, correcting students’ unprofessional

way of dealing by not tolerating their irresponsible actions and intolerable

behavior and employees, serving as a role model to every trainees as to how

they should react and respond to every circumstances where professionalism still

exist.

The results supports the finding of Calyaneratne (2007) Attitude, how the

employee comes across to others while carrying out his tasks Attitude isn’t about

“good” or “bad,” but it describes your outlook and perspective on how you think.

Thoughts drive actions. Actions drive results. While knowledge and skills are

important, the ability to put them to use is defined by the attitude of the TM who

possess them. The attitude that a TM develops that will help him in leveraging his

knowledge and skills to perform in the work place. Attitude is the most critical
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ingredient of success to the KASH model – Remember Attitude determines

altitude.

Inferential Data Analysis

Difference of the Influenced Knowledge, Skills and Attitude among the OJT

Program

Table 7 presents the Causal Comparing of OJT Program among the

Levels of Influenced Knowledge, Skills and Attitude.

Influenced Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude


T- Test

Mean t df Sig. (2- tailed)

Pair 1 Knowledge ( Pre Test) 4.0745 .-5.648 41 .000

Knowledge (Post Test) 4.4931


Pair 2
Skills (Pre Test) 4.0564 -4.572 41 .000

Skills (Post Test) 4.4448


Pair 3
Attitude (Pre Test) 4.2626 -4.701 41 .000

Attitude (Post Test) 4.6190

Data revealed that there is a significant difference in the level of the

influenced knowledge of students on the OJT Program t (-5.648) = .000, p < .05,

there is a significant difference in the level of the influenced skills of students on

OJT Program t (-4.572) = .000, p. < .05 and there is a significant difference in the

level of the influenced attitude of students on OJT Program t (-4.701) = .000, p. <

.05.

The result implies that the students that undergone OJT Program

influenced their level of knowledge, skills and attitude for the training gives the
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students a sort of enlightenment and further understanding of what their future

career will look like including the needed skills to become a well-equipped,

competitive and industry ready in the future. Furthermore, the different teaching

techniques and working ethics makes the students develop good traits and

positive attitude toward their jobs and even leads to a more productive employee

who will produce desirable output for more efficient and effective industry

operation.

The result of this study works alongside the study of Tyler (1991) the

important outcomes for an educational effort seem to be knowledge gained, skills

acquired and the attitude or motivation to use the information in a career setting.

In the paper job competency expectations for hospitality and tourism employees:

perceptions of educational preparation shows the practitioner perceptions of

desired knowledge, skills, and attitudes. It further demonstrates the overall

impressions of practitioners concerning levels of preparation for entry-level

positions in the industry. Finally, present conclusions and suggestions for central

collaborative initiatives aimed at improving the preparation of individuals from

secondary and tertiary institutions for successful entry into hospitality and tourism

industry employment (Tesone, 2005.)

Consequently, the null hypothesis which states that there is a significant

difference on the THM OJT Program among the levels of the influenced

knowledge, influenced skills, and influenced attitude of students is rejected.


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Difference of the Influenced Knowledge according to the OJT Program

The T - Test result on the difference in the level of the influenced

knowledge in according to the OJT Program and is displayed in Table 8. When

course t (-5.648) = .000, p > .05 is considered, there is a significant difference in

the influenced knowledge of those students who undergone OJT Program.

Table 8. T _ Test results on the Influenced Knowledge in according to the

OJT Program

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean t df Sig. (2 – tailed)

Pair 1 Knowledge ( Pre Test) 4.0745 -5.648 41 ..000

Knowledge ( Post Test) 4.4931

This implies that the knowledge they acquired at school has been

influenced as they were exposed in the field of their future job, which shows that

significant of undergoing OJT before they graduate on their following major

courses.

Studies of Foto (1996) knowledge is occupational therapy as course of

academic preparation specifically related to the services required by the medical

condition. And according to Krichbaum et al, (1994) the tests of knowledge are

frequently focused on outcomes such as performance on exams, attainment of

course objectives and job attainment


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The null hypothesis which states significant difference on the THM OJT

Program among the levels of the influenced knowledge, influenced skills, and

influenced attitude of students is rejected.

Difference of the influenced Skills in according to the OJT Program

The T - Test result on the difference in the level of the influenced skills in

according to the OJT Program and is displayed in Table 9. When course t (-

4.572) = .000, p > .05 is considered, there is a significant difference in the

influenced skills of those students who undergone OJT Program.

Table 9. T – Test results on the influenced Skills in according to the OJT

Program

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean t df Sig. (2 – tailed)

Pair 2 Skills ( Pre Test) 4.0564 -4.572 41 .000

Skills ( Post Test) 4.4448

This implies that the skills that they have been develop and learned

through on-the-job training helps them to become familiar and made-known to

the actual operation of the business and its facilities which will also be an

investment for their future jobs.

According to the study of Bloch (1977) skills is a clear recognizable

behavior that can be observed in relation to expected behaviors.

The null hypothesis which states significant difference on the OJT

Program among the levels of the influenced knowledge, influenced skills, and

influenced attitude of students is rejected.


28

Difference of the Influenced Attitude in according to the THM OJT Program

The T - Test result on the difference in the level of the influenced attitude

in according to the OJT Program and is displayed in Table 10. When course t (-

4.701) = .000, p > .05 is considered, there is a significant difference in the

influenced attitude of those students who undergone OJT Program.

Table 10. T - Test results on the Enhanced Attitude in according OJT

Program

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean t df Sig. (2 – tailed)

Pair 3 Attitude ( Pre Test) 4.2626 -4.701 41 .000

Attitude ( Post Test) 4.6190

This influenced that the attitude was influenced during the on-the-job

training of those students, in a way that they can now longer carry out their

selves among their co-workers or superiors. The influenced attitude helps in

leveraging knowledge and skills to perform in their future work place.

According to the study of Thomas (1988) attitude can be learned

predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with

respect to a given object. Likewise, on Allen (1986) it is further stated that

attitudes are based on evaluative concepts regarding characteristics of the

referent objects and give rise to motivated behavior.


29

The null hypothesis which states significant difference on the OJT

Program among the levels of the influenced knowledge, influenced skills, and

influenced attitude of students is rejected.

Pearson’s r result reveals that there is a positive significant relationship

between influenced knowledge and influenced skills of the students r = .438**

with p = .004, the same relationship is also between influenced knowledge and

influenced attitude of the students r = .462** with p = .002, and the relationship

between influenced skills and attitude of the students r = .532** with p = .000.

Table 11. Result of Pearson’s r in the relationship among the influenced

knowledge, skills and attitude of OJT program.

Correlations
Post Test Knowledge Skills Attitude

Knowledge Pearson Correlation 1 .438** .462**

Sig. (2-tailed) .004 .002

N 42 42 42

Skills Pearson Correlation .438** 1 .532**

Sig. (2-tailed) .004 .000

N 42 42 42

Attitude Pearson Correlation .462** .532** 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .002 .000

N 42 42 42

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

This study reveals that there is positive interrelation between the variables

of influenced knowledge, skills and attitude of an effective OJT Program. This

explains that each variable has a domino effect on each other as base on the
30

result and performance of the student during its on-the-job training. OJT Program

is a training method that influences the enhancement of knowledge, skills and

attitude for students that was exposed and experience on the actual work place.

There is a positive relationship between the influenced knowledge and

influenced skills, as shows that they are applying and practicing what they have

learned during their training and certainly if students know what the job is all

about they can perform the job well at the same time since they have the skills

required to finish the task. On the other hand, if students knows the job but don’t

have the required skills at all in doing it then it is still useless in the sense that

they just know what the job is but not enough skillful to make the job right.

Influenced knowledge and influenced attitude was interrelated for what they have

learned also reflect on their attitude toward their work, co-workers and work

environment and if students knows what is right and wrong to do then they can

act and react accordingly since they already had the knowledge that every

actions there will always a corresponding consequences that follows. The

influenced skills and influenced attitude has a significant relationship as applying

their skills that was learned during OJT that they grow to be more optimistic and

it provides be more confident while doing their task. The studies result implies

that it effectively prepares them for future job and will give them the

understanding and deeper awareness to the knowledge, skills and attitude that

the OJT program affect them, that will be much aware of their future work place

and job.
31

The result is similar to the findings of Bentley (1990) Role of training may

be seen as “ensuring that the organization has the people with the correct mix of

attributes, through providing appropriate learning opportunities and motivating

people to learn, and thus enabling them to perform to the highest levels of quality

and service”. Training must be therefore managed as a frontline business

activity. The investment in people both developing and maintaining the

appropriate skills becomes a vital part of the organization’s strategy for the

future. Like any investment, investment in training should produce an effective

and measurable payback. Effective training enhances skills, attitude and

behavior of people and hence, their performance.

Therefore, the null hypothesis which stated that there is a significant

relationship on the OJT Training program the levels of influenced knowledge,

influenced skills and influenced attitude of students is rejected.


32

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter consists of three parts, (1) Summary of the Problems,

Methods, and Findings; (2) Conclusions; and (3) Recommendations.

Part One, Summary of the Problems, Methods and Findings, gives the

summary, method used, and findings of the study.

Part Two, Conclusions, presents the generalizations obtained from the

results and findings of the study.

Part Three, Recommendations, presents possible areas for future

investigation and applications of findings to target groups.

Summary of the Problem, Methods, Findings

The study aimed to ascertain the influence of enhanced knowledge, skills

and attitude by the efficacy of OJT program for the THM students of Capiz State

University, Sigma Campus.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following:

1. What is the level of influence of OJT to the knowledge of CapSU Sigma

THM students?

2. What is the level of influence of OJT to the skills of CapSU Sigma THM

students?

3. What is the level of influence of OJT to the attitude of CapSU Sigma

THM students?

4. Are there a significant difference on the influence of OJT among the

levels of knowledge, skills, and attitude of CapSU Sigma THM students?


33

5. Are there a significant relationship on the influence of OJT among the

levels of knowledge, skills, and attitude of CapSU Sigma THM students?

In view of the aforementioned statement of the problem, the following

were hypothesized:

1. There is significant difference on the OJT Program among the levels of

the influenced knowledge, influenced skills, and influenced attitude of students.

2. There is significant relationship on the OJT Program among the levels

of influenced knowledge, influenced skills and influenced attitude of students.

The participants of this study were the seventy nine (79) students of

Tourism and Hospitality Management Department, academic year 2017 – 2018,

and 2019 – 2020 who were enrolled on the OJT program of the department.

The data needed for the study was gathered using the researchers

devised a self-made survey questionnaire which was validated by the experts to

test the validity of each item. The researchers intended to look for standardized

questionnaire in order to get better results in accordance to the norm standard of

each variable.

Mean and standard deviation were used level of the influenced of THM

students in their OJT Program on the scores obtained. All test used two-tailed at

5% alpha level.
34

Findings

1. Generally, the students had “very high” levels of influenced knowledge,

influenced skills and influenced attitude influenced by the OJT Program.

2. A very highly significant difference existed on the levels of influenced

knowledge, influenced skills and influenced attitude of the OJT program.

3. Positive and highly significant relationship existed among the levels of

influenced knowledge, influenced skills and influenced attitude of students by the

OJT program.

Conclusions

Based on the aforementioned findings, the following conclusions were

drawn:

1. As revealed, the students had “very high” influnced knowledge. The

trainees acquired more information additional to what they already have learned

during their classroom discussion. They become more aware of what it feels like

to do the actual work. The OJT program helps them to be more familiar on the

different equipment in the workplace is manipulated and also enhances their

knowledge on how to interact with different variety of individual.

2. The “very high” influenced skills explains the students who undergone

the OJT Program become more productive as they become used to the different

task while they are having the program. The training influences the students skill

is in finishing the assignment given in more accurate way in a short period of

time.
35

3. The attitude helps an individual to influences their skills and knowledge.

The “very high” influenced attitude explain that the students who undergone the

OJT Program in different agency improve their attitude towards work. The

training helps the students to be more optimistic and provide students be more

confident while doing their task during the OJT program.

Recommendation

Based on the findings, conclusions, and implications for the theory and

practice, the following are recommended:

1. Maintain the knowledge that the students acquire during their OJT

Program. The teachers can maintain the influenced knowledge of the students by

having follow-up classroom discussion as well as a narrative report. This way it

can help the teachers to assess whether the students maintained their enhanced

knowledge.

For the students, they can search in the internet about what are the new

trends in their chosen field. It can give help them maintain the knowledge that

they have learned during their OJT as well as it can give them new ideas about

the industry that they may choose for their work in the future.

For the dean of THM department, maintain the support that the students

need in their OJT. Supporting the students in any way that the dean can is a big

help for the improvement of the students in their chosen field.


36

2. Practice the influenced skills that they learned after their On-the-Job

Training. The professors can let the students have a part-time job in the

establishments that the school have a connection or a partnership with while

students are waiting for their graduation.

The students can practice their influenced skills by participating in different

activities or events of some establishment that has a partnership of the

department that needs a work force. Students can engage themselves in

different activities that the school provide for them to practice their skills.

3. Apply the attitude that the students learned after their on-the-job training.

Students can apply the attitude that they have learned during their OJT in their

day-to-day living. Making it as a part of their lives will help them to improve more

and it makes them ready for the future job that they may choose.

4. Continue the effectiveness of the OJT Program of THM. The department

of THM can continue its OJT program by providing the students an establishment

that complement to the need of students. The THM department can check first

some establishment that accepts students for training and ask them what they

can offer to the students to make them ready for their future career.
37

References

Bakarman, Amhed A., PhD. Attitude, Skills and Knowledge: (ASK) a New Model for
Design Education P.1

Barron, John M., Mark C. Berger, and Dan A. Black. (1997) "Introduction." In On-the-
Job Training. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Bentley, T. (1990). “A Study of the Attitude, Self Efficacy, Effort and Academic
Achievement of CTU Students towards Reasearch Method and Statistics,
2012” P. 7 http://ssweb.cityu.edu.hk/

Kennedy Joseph. (June 2009). The Impact of Training and Development on Job
Performance. P. 5-6

King. H, (1968), “A Study of the Attitude, Self Efficacy, Effort and Academic
Achievement of CTU Students towards Reasearch Method and Statistics,
2012” P. 7 http://ssweb.cityu.edu.hk/P. 125

Sevillia S. Felicen, Rasa,Lhea C., Sumanga, Jourell Edward Buted, Dexter R. (June
2014) Internship Performance of Tourism and Hospitality Students: Inputs to
Improve Internship Program., P. 44 – 45

Quinones, M.A. and Ehrenstein. A. (1997) Training fir a Rapidly Changing


Workplace Application of Psychological Association. P. 154

Gov Central, Government Jobs, Security Clearances, and Pay Scales.(2016) from
http://govcentral.monster.com/

Dimuthu Nuwan Calyaneratne. (2007) KASH – Knowledge, Attitude, Skills and


Habit, from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140720171032-298278620
kash-knowledge-attitude-skills-habits

Hand, Theresa Hartshorn. (1997) The Promotion of Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes
in the Area of Computer Technology in Occupational Therapy Students from
http://library3.sage.edu/.archive/thesis/MGT-h2665-har-the.pdf
38

Appendix A

RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE
39

Researcher-Made Questionnaire on Enhanced Knowledge, Skills and


Attitude of Students as Influenced by the Efficacy of THM OJT Program.

Dear Respondents,

I am presently conducting a study entitled “Enhanced Knowledge, Skills


and Attitude of Student as influenced by the Efficacy of THM OJT Program”.

Please help us accomplish this study by supplying all the data required. Rest
assured that all information provided will be strictly for purposes of this study and
will not be disclosed for any other purposes without your prior consent.

The Researcher

Direction: Please answer every question truthfully. Kindly check or provide

the needed information for the items below.

Personal Profile

Name (optional): _______________Age: ____ Sex: ___ Female ___ Male

Course: _________________ No. of Hours: ___________________

Establishment:
___ Airline ___ Travel Agency
___ Hotel ___ Ship
___ Restaurant

Direction: Please check (/) and rate yourself honestly based on what you
actually do given the statements using the following scales.

5 – Always
4 – Often
3- Sometimes
2- Rarely
1-Never

A. Enhanced Knowledge

STATEMENT 5 4 3 2 1
1. I know how to familiarized with communication
methods and equipment used in the practicum agency
2. I know how to adopt easily to change, new
40

situations, and new work environments


3. I know how to give an adequate time and energy to
learn in my practicum
4. I know how to open myself in building self-
awareness
5. I know about the working knowledge of rules,
regulations, and policies relevant to the practicum
agency
6. I know how to determine the knowledge of
assessment and planning tools, methods, and
techniques
7. I know how to be competitive enough to my job
assignment
8. I understand in working with different types of
customers or clients
9. I understand of the process of planned change
10. I understand the perspective in social work practice
and other practice perspectives, theories, and models
relevant to the practicum setting
11. I know how to acquire learnings out of diverse
cultural practices
12. I know how the practicum improve my academic
development
13. I understand that experiences in practicum helped
me shape my career decisions
14. I understand and open to new learning
experiences
15. I understand the operating procedures and
techniques

B. Enhanced Skills

STATEMENT 5 4 3 2 1
1. I can quickly do my job.
2. I can finish my task productively.
3. I can produce desirable results without wasting
materials, time and energy.
4. I can work effectively and efficiently.
5. I can pass desirable outputs within the given time to
me.
6. I can deliver the required volume/amount of work
output efficiently
7. I can present my finished output accurately
8. I can achieve what the company expected me to do
so
41

9. I can show interest to the assigned responsibility


10. I can convey the appropriate details to the
concerned personnel
11. I can promptly address uncertainties
12. I can be alert to think clearly and notice things
easily.
13. I can use my initiative to work with my duties and
responsibilities
14. I can work with integrity and honesty
15. I can show decency in everything I do

C. Enhanced Attitude

STATEMENT 5 4 3 2 1
1. I report to the office with regular punctuality and
finish my duty as scheduled.
2. I am reliable and instill a sense of responsibility in
handling the task assigned to me.
3. I enjoy a comfortable working relationship with my
superior or peers.
4. I apply the virtue of integrity and honesty in all
aspects of my work.
5. I have positive attitude towards criticism and towards
my superior.
6. I talk to my superior and ask for advises every time I
encounter difficulties.
7. I am persistent in learning more about my job.
8. Every time I commit mistakes, I make sure that I
correct it right away
9. Show initiatives and interest in work over and above
assigned task.
10. I handle with the demand of additional unexpected
workload in limited time.
11. I show respect for guests, superiors, and
colleagues.
12. I observe establishment’s rules and regulations.
13. I am curious and aggressive.
14. I am confident upon making correct decisions and
remain calm under pressure.
15. I work pleasantly and cooperative with other
employees and trainees.
42

D. Efficacy of THM OJT Program

STATEMENT 5 4 3 2 1
1. It enhance the value of professionalism and obtain
more knowledge regarding my future career.
2. It enhance my learning experience that combines
classroom instructions with actual industry career
experience.
3. It enhance my understanding regarding front and
back of the house operations.
4. It enhance my communication skills and cultural
sensitivity.
5. It enhance my work ethics through interdisciplinary
instructions.
6. It enhance my versatile skill set to face a fast
changing work place.
7. It enhance my career’s point-of-view optimistically.
8. It enhance my self-competitiveness in dealing job
instances.
9. It enhance my job understanding through a series of
industry exposures and trainings.
10. It enhances my self-motivation to work sooner due
to positivity instilled by the program.
11. It enhance my self-confidence through face-to-face
clientele interactions.
12. It enhance my interpersonal skill set to work at ease.
13. It enhance my emotional attribution to work under
stress and pressure.
14. It enhance my working attitude through achieving job
contentment.
15. It enhance my job satisfaction through job
enjoyment.
43

Appendix B

Statistical Data Analysis


44

Reliability

Notes
Output Created 09-Feb-2017 12:42:52
Comments
Input Active Dataset DataSet2
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 92
Data File
Matrix Input
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values are
Handling treated as missing.

Cases Used Statistics are based on all cases


with valid data for all variables
in the procedure.
Syntax RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=VAR00001
VAR00002 VAR00003
VAR00004 VAR00005
VAR00006 VAR00007
VAR00008 VAR00009
VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013
VAR00014 VAR00015
/SCALE('Enhanced
Knowledge Questionnaire') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA
/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.016


45

Notes
Output Created 09-Feb-2017 12:42:52
Comments
Input Active Dataset DataSet2
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 92
Data File
Matrix Input
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values are
Handling treated as missing.

Cases Used Statistics are based on all cases


with valid data for all variables
in the procedure.
Syntax RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=VAR00001
VAR00002 VAR00003
VAR00004 VAR00005
VAR00006 VAR00007
VAR00008 VAR00009
VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013
VAR00014 VAR00015
/SCALE('Enhanced
Knowledge Questionnaire') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA
/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.016


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.015

[DataSet2]

Scale: Enhanced Knowledge Questionnaire


46

Case Processing Summary


N %
Cases Valid 92 100.0
Excludeda 0 .0

Total 92 100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items


.917 15

Item-Total Statistics

Corrected Item- Cronbach's


Scale Mean if Scale Variance Total Alpha if Item
Item Deleted if Item Deleted Correlation Deleted
item 1 57.5870 46.663 .435 .918
item 2 57.4348 45.787 .629 .912
item 3 57.3587 46.233 .584 .913
item 4 57.4239 46.027 .594 .913
item 5 57.4457 45.481 .654 .911
item 6 57.5761 45.610 .672 .910
item 7 57.4130 44.795 .646 .911
item 8 57.5109 44.494 .676 .910
item 9 57.5435 44.405 .678 .910
item 10 57.5761 46.203 .619 .912

item 11 57.5000 44.099 .711 .909


47

item 12 57.3804 45.447 .672 .910

item 13 57.2174 44.062 .723 .908

item 14 57.1630 47.215 .482 .916

item 15 57.3261 45.365 .590 .913

RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=VAR00001 VAR00002 VAR00003 VAR00004


VAR00005 VAR00006 VAR00007 VAR00008 VAR00009 VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013 VA R00014 VAR00015 /SCALE('Enhanced Skills
Questionnaire') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA /SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes
Output Created 09-Feb-2017 12:45:23
Comments
Input Active Dataset DataSet2
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 92
Data File
Matrix Input
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values
Handling are treated as missing.

Cases Used Statistics are based on all


cases with valid data for all
variables in the procedure.
48

Syntax RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=VAR00001
VAR00002 VAR00003
VAR00004 VAR00005
VAR00006 VAR00007
VAR00008 VAR00009
VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013
VAR00014 VAR00015
/SCALE('Enhanced Skills
Questionnaire') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA
/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.015


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.021

[DataSet2]

Scale: Enhanced Skills Questionnaire

Case Processing Summary


N %
Cases Valid 92 100.0
Excludeda 0 .0

Total 92 100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items


49

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items


.926 15

Item-Total Statistics

Corrected Item- Cronbach's


Scale Mean if Scale Variance Total Alpha if Item
Item Deleted if Item Deleted Correlation Deleted
item 1 57.5000 46.648 .569 .924
item 2 57.5978 45.430 .663 .921
item 3 57.7826 45.117 .610 .923
item 4 57.5978 44.880 .658 .921
item 5 57.5652 45.062 .685 .920
item 6 57.6304 46.455 .601 .923
item 7 57.6522 46.427 .602 .923
item 8 57.6196 45.337 .689 .920
item 9 57.4130 45.168 .688 .920
item 10 57.6522 45.284 .702 .920

item 11 57.7391 45.624 .643 .921

item 12 57.6522 45.438 .665 .921

item 13 57.4783 44.912 .691 .920

item 14 57.3587 45.288 .641 .922

item 15 57.5000 45.615 .621 .922


50

RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=VAR00001 VAR00002 VAR00003 VAR00004


VAR00005 VAR00006 VAR00007 VAR00008 VAR00009 VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013 VA R00014 VAR00015 /SCALE('Enhanced Attitude
Questionnaire') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA /SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes
Output Created 09-Feb-2017 12:46:09
Comments
Input Active Dataset DataSet2
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 92
Data File
Matrix Input
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values are
Handling treated as missing.

Cases Used Statistics are based on all cases


with valid data for all variables in
the procedure.
51

Syntax RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=VAR00001
VAR00002 VAR00003
VAR00004 VAR00005
VAR00006 VAR00007
VAR00008 VAR00009
VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013
VAR00014 VAR00015
/SCALE('Enhanced Attitude
Questionnaire') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA
/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.031


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.035

[DataSet2]

Scale: Enhanced Attitude Questionnaire

Case Processing Summary


N %
Cases Valid 92 100.0
Excludeda 0 .0

Total 92 100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.
52

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items


.940 15

Item-Total Statistics

Corrected Item- Cronbach's


Scale Mean if Scale Variance Total Alpha if Item
Item Deleted if Item Deleted Correlation Deleted
item 1 58.9239 50.445 .678 .936
item 2 59.0761 50.159 .693 .936
item 3 58.9022 49.452 .742 .935
item 4 58.9239 49.038 .777 .934
item 5 58.9891 50.121 .705 .936
item 6 59.0652 49.776 .626 .938
item 7 58.9022 49.628 .765 .934
item 8 59.0326 49.395 .732 .935
item 9 58.9565 49.053 .750 .934
item 10 59.1304 50.708 .611 .938

item 11 58.9239 49.895 .682 .936

item 12 58.9239 49.610 .713 .935

item 13 59.1087 50.362 .588 .939

item 14 59.0652 50.809 .594 .938

item 15 58.9674 48.977 .744 .935


53

RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=VAR00001 VAR00002 VAR00003 VAR00004


VAR00005 VAR00006 VAR00007 VAR00008 VAR00009 VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013 VA R00014 VAR00015 /SCALE('Enhanced Efficacy of
THM OJT Porgram Questionnaire') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA
/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability
Notes
Output Created 09-Feb-2017 12:47:09
Comments
Input Active Dataset DataSet2
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 92
Data File
Matrix Input
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values
Handling are treated as missing.

Cases Used Statistics are based on all


cases with valid data for all
variables in the procedure.
54

Syntax RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=VAR00001
VAR00002 VAR00003
VAR00004 VAR00005
VAR00006 VAR00007
VAR00008 VAR00009
VAR00010 VAR00011
VAR00012 VAR00013
VAR00014 VAR00015
/SCALE('Enhanced Efficacy of
THM OJT Porgram
Questionnaire') ALL
/MODEL=ALPHA
/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.016


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.029
[DataSet2]

Scale: Enhanced Efficacy of THM OJT Porgram Questionnaire

Case Processing Summary


N %
Cases Valid 92 100.0
Excludeda 0 .0

Total 92 100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Reliability Statistics
55

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items


.955 15

Item-Total Statistics

Corrected Item- Cronbach's


Scale Mean if Scale Variance Total Alpha if Item
Item Deleted if Item Deleted Correlation Deleted
item 1 58.4457 62.426 .725 .952
item 2 58.5761 61.917 .690 .953
item 3 58.5326 61.417 .758 .951
item 4 58.6196 60.436 .802 .950
item 5 58.6957 61.555 .724 .952
item 6 58.6196 60.876 .760 .951
item 7 58.6522 60.647 .764 .951
item 8 58.6739 60.178 .770 .951
item 9 58.6196 61.271 .740 .952
item 10 58.5652 60.996 .738 .952

item 11 58.6304 61.093 .727 .952

item 12 58.6196 60.810 .766 .951

item 13 58.6196 61.095 .738 .952

item 14 58.5109 60.824 .768 .951

item 15 58.5761 60.313 .725 .952


56

Statistical Analysis

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=age sex course hours establishment


/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

Frequencies
Notes
Output Created 19-Feb-2017 22:07:05
Comments
Input Data C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM
Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav
Active Dataset DataSet1
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 78
Data File
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values
Handling are treated as missing.
Cases Used Statistics are based on all
cases with valid data.
Syntax FREQUENCIES
VARIABLES=age sex course
hours establishment
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.015


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.031
[DataSet1] C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav
Statistics

Age Sex Course No. of Hours Establishment


N Valid 78 78 78 78 78

Missing 0 0 0 0 0

Frequency Table
57

Age

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 19.00 14 17.9 17.9 17.9

20.00 46 59.0 59.0 76.9

21.00 14 17.9 17.9 94.9

22.00 3 3.8 3.8 98.7

23.00 1 1.3 1.3 100.0

Total 78 100.0 100.0

Sex

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Female 58 74.4 74.4 74.4

Male 20 25.6 25.6 100.0

Total 78 100.0 100.0

Course

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid BSTM 35 44.9 44.9 44.9

BSHM 43 55.1 55.1 100.0

Total 78 100.0 100.0


58

No. of Hours

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 2 months 33 42.3 42.3 42.3

300 hrs 35 44.9 44.9 87.2

400 hrs 10 12.8 12.8 100.0

Total 78 100.0 100.0

Establishment

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Airline 23 29.5 29.5 29.5

Hotel 11 14.1 14.1 43.6

Travel Agency 6 7.7 7.7 51.3

Cruise 38 48.7 48.7 100.0

Total 78 100.0 100.0

DESCRIPTIVES VARIABLES=knowledge skills attitude efficacy


/STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX.
Descriptive
Notes

Output Created 19-Feb-2017 22:08:13

Comments
59

Input Data C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM


Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav

Active Dataset DataSet1

Filter <none>

Weight <none>

Split File <none>

N of Rows in Working 78
Data File

Missing Value Definition of Missing User defined missing values are


Handling treated as missing.

Cases Used All non-missing data are used.

Syntax DESCRIPTIVES
VARIABLES=knowledge skills
attitude efficacy
/STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV
MIN MAX.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.015

Elapsed Time 0:00:00.032

[DataSet1] C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav


Descriptive Statistics
Std.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Deviation
Enhanced Knowledge 78 2.60 5.00 4.2450 .49560
Enhanced Skills 78 3.00 5.00 4.2111 .45016
Enhanced Attitude 78 3.00 5.00 4.2778 .45208
60

Efficicacy of THM OJT 78 2.67 5.00 4.3103 .53386


Program
Valid N (listwise) 78
ONEWAY efficacy BY knowledge2 /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /MISSING
ANALYSIS.

Oneway Knowledge
Notes
Output Created 19-Feb-2017 22:08:56
Comments
Input Data C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM
Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav
Active Dataset DataSet1
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 78
Data File
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values
Handling are treated as missing.
Cases Used Statistics for each analysis are
based on cases with no
missing data for any variable in
the analysis.
Syntax ONEWAY efficacy BY
knowledge2
/STATISTICS
DESCRIPTIVES
/MISSING ANALYSIS.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.047


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.204

[DataSet1] C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav


61

Descriptive
Efficacy of THM OJT Program
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std. Std. Lower Upper
N Mean Deviation Error Bound Bound Minimum Maximum
4.21+ 39 4.6547 .27988 .04482 4.5640 4.7454 4.07 5.00
3.41 - 35 3.9962 .49122 .08303 3.8275 4.1649 2.67 4.87
4.20
2.61 - 3 3.7111 .77268 .44611 1.7917 5.6306 3.00 4.53
3.40
1.81 - 1 3.6667 . . . . 3.67 3.67
2.60
Total 78 4.3103 .53386 .06045 4.1899 4.4306 2.67 5.00

ANOVA

Efficacy of THM OJT Program

Sum of
Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 9.570 3 3.190 19.077 .000

Within Groups 12.375 74 .167

Total 21.945 77

ONEWAY efficacy BY skills2 /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /MISSING


ANALYSIS.

Oneway Skills
Notes
Output Created 19-Feb-2017 22:09:43
62

Comments
Input Data C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM
Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav
Active Dataset DataSet1
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 78
Data File
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values
Handling are treated as missing.
Cases Used Statistics for each analysis are
based on cases with no
missing data for any variable in
the analysis.
Syntax ONEWAY efficacy BY skills2
/STATISTICS
DESCRIPTIVES
/MISSING ANALYSIS.

Resources Processor Time 0


:00:00.047
Elapsed Time 0:00:00.298

[DataSet1] C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav

Descriptive
Efficacy of THM OJT Program
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std. Std. Lower Upper
N Mean Deviation Error Bound Bound Minimum Maximum
4.21+ 38 4.6386 .30000 .04867 4.5400 4.7372 4.00 5.00
3.41 - 38 4.0351 .50457 .08185 3.8692 4.2009 2.67 4.87
4.20
2.61 - 2 3.3000 .42426 .30000 -.5119 7.1119 3.00 3.60
3.40
63

Descriptive
Efficacy of THM OJT Program
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std. Std. Lower Upper
N Mean Deviation Error Bound Bound Minimum Maximum
4.21+ 38 4.6386 .30000 .04867 4.5400 4.7372 4.00 5.00
3.41 - 38 4.0351 .50457 .08185 3.8692 4.2009 2.67 4.87
4.20
2.61 - 2 3.3000 .42426 .30000 -.5119 7.1119 3.00 3.60
3.40
Total 78 4.3103 .53386 .06045 4.1899 4.4306 2.67 5.00

ANOVA

Efficacy of THM OJT Program


Sum of
Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 9.015 2 4.508 26.146 .000

Within Groups 12.930 75 .172

Total 21.945 77

ONEWAY efficacy BY attitude2 /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /MISSING


ANALYSIS.
64

Oneway Attitude

Notes
Output Created 19-Feb-2017 22:10:04
Comments
Input Data C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM
Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav
Active Dataset DataSet1
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 78
Data File
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values
Handling are treated as missing.
Cases Used Statistics for each analysis are
based on cases with no
missing data for any variable in
the analysis.
Syntax ONEWAY efficacy BY attitude2
/STATISTICS
DESCRIPTIVES
/MISSING ANALYSIS.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.047


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.047

[DataSet1] C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav

Descriptive

Efficacy of THM OJT Program


65

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean

Std. Std. Lower Upper


N Mean Deviation Error Bound Bound Minimum Maximum
4.21+ 43 4.6326 .26562 .04051 4.5508 4.7143 4.07 5.00

3.41 - 32 3.9813 .47902 .08468 3.8085 4.1540 2.67 5.00


4.20

2.61 - 3 3.2000 .34641 .20000 2.3395 4.0605 3.00 3.60


3.40

Total 78 4.3103 .53386 .06045 4.1899 4.4306 2.67 5.00

ANOVA

Efficacy of THM OJT Program

Sum of
Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 11.629 2 5.814 42.270 .000

Within Groups 10.317 75 .138

Total 21.945 77

CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=knowledge skills attitude efficacy


/PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG /MISSING=PAIRWISE.
66

Correlations
Notes
Output Created 19-Feb-2017 22:10:35
Comments
Input Data C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM
Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav
Active Dataset DataSet1
Filter <none>
Weight <none>
Split File <none>
N of Rows in Working 78
Data File
Missing Value Definition of Missing User-defined missing values
Handling are treated as missing.
Cases Used Statistics for each pair of
variables are based on all the
cases with valid data for that
pair.
Syntax CORRELATIONS
/VARIABLES=knowledge
skills attitude efficacy
/PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG
/MISSING=PAIRWISE.

Resources Processor Time 0:00:00.032


Elapsed Time 0:00:00.046

[DataSet1] C:\Users\root\Desktop\THM Thesis\katcomorro\data.sav

Correlation

Efficicacy of
Enhanced Enhanced Enhanced THM OJT
Knowledge Skills Attitude Program
Enhanced Pearson 1 .753** .699** .694**
Knowledge Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
67

N 78 78 78 78
Enhanced Skills Pearson .753** 1 .796** .775**
Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 78 78 78 78
Enhanced Pearson .699** .796** 1 .806**
Attitude Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 78 78 78 78
Efficicacy of Pearson .694** .775** .806** 1
THM OJT Correlation
Program Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000
N 78 78 78 78
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
68

APPENDIX C

Accomplished Data-Gathering Instrument