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EE 001- IE42FA1
1. Objective(s)

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

3. Discussions and Procedures

Practical 1: Power dissipated in a resistor circuit

Perform Practical:

Ensure the positive variable power supply control (PVPS) is at zero (fully counter clockwise).

Use the “Make connections” diagram to make the required connections on the hardware.

The rate of a change of charge of time is called current.

Power= Voltage x Current

i.e , P=VI

The unit of power I the Watt. It has the dimension of joule/second.

If a resistor is a part of an electric circuit, and it will take work to push a change through the resistor
against the opposition offered to the charge. The power used in the resistor ( we say “dissipated by the
resistor”) is given by the formula above, where V I the voltage across the resistor , and I the current
through it.

Open the DMM. This will display the positive power variable supply (PVPS) voltage

Open the MCM. This displays the current flowing in the circuit.

Take the measurements of current for voltage settings of 0V, 2V, 4V, 6V, 8V, and 10V.

Record your results in the table like the one shown below and then calculate the power dissipated by the
resistor. The table below shows typical results for the practical
Volts (V) Current (mA) Power (mW)
0 0 0
2 1.98 3.96
4 4.01 16.04
6 6.02 36.12
8 7.99 63.92
10 9.99 99.9

Plot a graph of current against voltage and power against voltage using the same axes with different
scales as shown below.

Graph showing current and power against volts for a resistor circuit

From your results obtained you should be able to deduce the law of the curve for power against voltage
which is

P= Constant x 𝑉 2

Ie. P α 𝑉 2
It can be noted that if the applied voltage is doubled from 2V to 4V that the power increases by 4 times.
This is also true when the voltage is doubled from 4v to 8v if the voltage is tripled then the power
increases by 9 times.

You should find that the power is proportional to the square of the voltage.

The relationship between the power and the current flowing in a circuit with a fixed resistance from
ohms law V α i

Therefore if P is proportional to 𝑉 2 it is also proportional to 𝑖 2

Ie. P α 𝑖 2

Summarising these results mathematically we can say

Power α (𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 2 )

Or Power α (𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 2 )

For a resistive circuit this can be obtained from this expression

And from Ohm’s Las as below

W=IR x I thus W= 𝐼 2 R

Ie. W α 𝐼 2

𝑉 𝑉2
And W= V x =

i.e. W α 𝑉 2


W=V x I

W= 𝐼2 x R

Practical 2: Power dissipated in a load resistor of a network

Ensure the power variable supply control (PVPS) is at zero ( fully counter clockwise)

Use the “Make Connections” diagram to make the required connection on the hardware.

Let us now investigate the power dissipated in a load resistor for a network having an equivalent source
EMF of E volts and an equivalent internal resistance of r ohms. This time we will keep the EMF constant
and vary the value of the load resistance. The circuit for this is shown in the practical diagram below.

Let us say that for the purpose of this experiment the equivalent source of EMF is 10V, and the
equivalent series resistance of the network is 470Ω . This is then the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the

In the initial setup 𝑅𝐿 = 100 Ω.

Open the DMM. This displays the positive variable power supply output (PVPS).

Set the output voltage of the power supply to 10V to correspond to the 10V value of E.

Load resistance (𝑅𝐿 )Q Current (I0 mA Power= (P=𝐼 2 𝑅𝐿 ) mW

100 18 32.4
220 14.8 48.1
330 12.8 54
680 9 55.1
1k 7.1 50.4

Open the MCM. This displays the current in the circuit.

Measure the resultant current I and record this value in your table as shown above.
Replace the 100Ω resistor ( 𝑅𝐿 ) with one of 220 Ω by removing links 5 and 6 and adding 7 and 8, then
measure and record the current.

Repeat the procedure for the remaining values o resistance given in the table.

For 330 Ω remove the link 7+8 adding 9+ 10, 680 Ω remove links 9+ 10 adding 11 + 12 adding 13+ 13.

When you have completed all the measurements the power dissipation in each load resistor using
calculate 𝐼 2 𝑅𝐿 , the table above shows typical results.

Plot a graph of Power against 𝑅𝐿 as shown below.

Mark a vertical line RL=r.

I.e, RL= 470Ω

The dissipated power should be approximstely 57mW

You should find your graph that the maximum power dissipated in the load is when the load resistance
is equal to equivalent series internal resistance of the source. In this case that is 470 Ω

We say that the load and source are matched when the conditions for the maximum power transfer are
met. To achieve maximum efficiency for a circuit, the source and load should be matched.

When the source and load are matched the voltage across the load is half the equivalent source EMF.
4. Data and Results

Practical 1

Practical 2
Team Photo of the Experiment:
5. Conclusion