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Feasibility Study, Detail Engineering Survey, Hydrological Analysis and Design of …………….

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

This report has been prepared in accordance with the agreement made between Government of
Nepal, Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads (DoLIDAR),
Strengthening the National Rural Transport Programme (SNRTP), and The Consulting Firm
Impulse Consultants Pvt. Ltd. for Feasibility Study, Detail Engineering Survey, Hydrological
Analysis and Design of Hariya Khola Bridge at Pakala VDC-3 of Pyuthan District.

1.2 Proposed Bridge Site

The bridge site is across the Hariya Khola of Pakala VDCs in Pyuthan district, Rapti zone. The
location of the project site is as stated as
Latitude: 28.019902⸰ Longitude: 82.922747⸰

1.3 Objective of The Consulting Services

Objective of this job is to design a safe, reliable and cost-effective bridge using the appropriate
technology. The bridge is to be designed considering the availability of skilled manpower,
construction material, condition of accessibility and other prevailing working conditions.

1.4 Scope of the Consulting Services

The scope of the consulting services entails the followings:

(i) Desk study: A desk study includes collecting all data, maps and information relevant to
bridge design and reviewing for planning of further field survey and investigation works
as well as detailed design.

(ii) Detailed Engineering Study and Survey: Geology and topography, Selection of the
bridge site, Topographical Survey, Hydrological Analysis, and selection of bridge type,
length and span arrangement.

(iii) Design of bridge: Design of bridge comprises design of superstructure, design of


substructure, design of foundation, river training works and its parts.

(iv) Cost estimates: Cost estimate includes Abstract of Cost, Unit Cost and Rate Analysis,
Detail Quantity / Cost Estimates.

(v) Report and Presentation:

 Volume I – Main Report: THIS REPORT CONSIST FINDINGS OF DETAILED


ENGINEERING STUDY AND SURVEY, DESIGN OF BRIDGE AND COST
ESTIMATES.
THIS PORTION OF THE REPORT ALSO CONTAINS-

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 BOQ AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS: The Volume


includes Bill of Quantities (BoQ) and Special Provisions to Standard Specifications.
 Hydrological data: Catchments area characteristics, Rainfall Data, Stream / channel
characteristics. Analysis of hydrological data and determination of associated elements.

 Volume II – Drawings: THIS VOLUME COMPRISE INDEX MAP, TOPOGRAPHICAL


MAP, L-SECTION OF RIVER & C/S OF RIVER, GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF
BRIDGE, STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS WITH BAR BENDING SCHEDULES, PLAN,
PROFILE AND CROSS SECTIONS OF APPROACH ROADS.

 Volume III – Design Calculations


 Design of bridge elements: Design of superstructure, substructure and parts.

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2.0 FIELD WORKS

2.1 Site Selection Survey

A team is comprised Bridge Engineer, Geotechnical Expert, Hydrologist, Surveyor and others
supporting staffs visited the site for the detailed survey work. After the discussion / meeting with
the local beneficiaries and officials of the concerned office at the project area, the proposed bridge
alignment was fixed.

2.2 Topographical Survey

Tachometric survey was carried for the detailed engineering survey of proposed bridge site. A
total station and a measuring tape were used for detailed survey.

After consultation with the technical personnel of the concerned office and local beneficiaries and
as directed by the river morphology; an axis line joining left bank and at Right Bank was fixed.
Temporary Benchmark was fixed at a point in existing temporary crossing. The bridge site
detailing covers an area of 700 m along the length of river (500 m at Upstream and 200 m at
downstream) and 100 m on the both left and right banks along the existing approach roads. L-
sections of approach road and river were measured as per TOR.

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3.0 HYDROLOGICAL STUDY

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4.0 GEOTECHNICAL STUDY

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4.0 GENERAL FEATURES OF BRIDGE DESIGN

4.1 Quarry Materials Survey


Boulders, Gravels and sand are available in the same river within five kilometer of proposed
bridge site. Selecting good stones and breaking them manually or mechanically can prepare stone
aggregates.

Table 4.1: Material Source and Haulage Distance

SN Materials Source Haulage


1 River Gravels River Vicinity 5 Km
2 Sand River Vicinity 3 Km
3 Steel, Timber, Cement
4 Boulders, Stones River Vicinity 2 Km
5 Aggregate River Vicinity 5 Km
6 Others

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5.0 DESIGN OF BRIDGE

5.1 Selection of Bridge Type

Selection of Suitable type of bridge is very difficult subject. It depends upon specific site
condition. The proposed bridge site of Hariya Khola has following characteristics:
 Rain fed river
 Span requirement 25m long
 Moderate river slope and low depth of water.
Based on these characteristics of the proposed bridge site, suitability of different types of bridges
i.e. RCC, Arch, and Truss bridges can be analyzed. According to the Codes and general practice
for the span 25m simple RCC T beam bridge can be design since we have no complication in
formworks.

5.2 Suitability of Bridge Foundation

While studying the geotechnical report the bearing capacity is nearly 400KN. Also from the
hydrological analysis the scour depth is minimum. The appropriate foundation type for this site is
open foundation.

5.3 Probable Bridge Type

After giving due consideration to various relevant factors, RCC T Beam Bridge with following
parameters is recommended for construction at the given site.

1. Type of Bridge : RCC T-beam (3-girder system)


2. Type of Sub-Structure : RCC Abutment
3. Type of foundation : Open foundation
4. Span length : 25 m (effective)
5. No. of span : 1
6. Total length of the bridge : 25.6m
7. Carriageway width : 6.00 m
8. Foot path : 1.2 m (Both side)
9. Total width : 8.4m
10. Approach slab : 3.5 m
5.4 Level of Bridge Components

After calculation of linear waterway width, maximum flood level and clearance under bridge;
levels of bridge components can be deduced as below:

5.5 Protection Works

As the river channel is meandering and bed slope is found mild slope, gabion is provided to guide
the flow and protect the banks from erosion. The river channel is found enough to pass the general

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flood. But it is recommended to provide necessary bank protection; Rip Rap, gabion walls or
embankments after observation of bank erosion and flooding during the following monsoon after
the construction of Bridge.

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6.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF BRIDGE

6.1 Clearance under the Bridge

Adequate vertical clearance is required to provide to the bridge from the design HFL with afflux
to the lowest point of the bridge. According to IRC-5-1998, the required clearances are presented
in Table No 6.1.

This Khola basin is mid hill region, the possibility of flooding logs is found. So sufficient
clearance is provided.

6.2 Geometric Characteristics of the Approach Road

As the requirements of district road (according to NRS 2045) are higher at present than those of
feeder roads (according to Road Classification and Design standards for Feeder roads, IInd Rev.
BS 2050), requirements of the district road have been adopted.

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7.0 REFERENCES
Following Codes, books and documents were referred while designing and preparation of this
report.

 IRC-5-1998; Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges; Section I-
General features of design, (seventh Revision) by Indian Road Congress, 1998
 IRC6-2014; Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges; Section II-Loads
and Stresses by Indian Road Congress, 2000.
 IRC-21 2014; Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges; Section III-
Cement concrete (plain and reinforced) Third revision by Indian Road Congress, 2000
 IRC-78-2000 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges; Section VII-
Foundation and substructures (1st revision) by Indian Road Congress.
 K. S. Rakshit (1992), "DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES",
Central book Agency Calcutta, India.
 N. K. RAJU (2009), "DESIGN OF BRIDGES", Oxford and IBH publishing co. Delhi.
 D. J. VICTOR (2007), "ESSENTIALS OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING", Oxford and IBH
publishing co. Delhi,
 JAIN, A.K. (2002), “REINFORCED CONCRETE”, Nem Chand & Bros, Roorkee.
 SINHA, S.N. (1998), “REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN”, Tata McGraw-Hill, New
Delhi.
 SWAMI SARAN (1996), "DESIGN OF FOUNDATION AND SUB STRUCTURES" Khanna
publishers Delhi.
 ARORA, K.R. (2003),” SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING”,
Standard Publishers Distributers, New Delhi.
 DUTTA, B.N. (2007),” ESTIMATING AND COSTING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING”, USB
Publishers Distributers Pvt. Ltd.
 MURTHY, V.N.S. (1991), “SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING”, Vol. II,
“FOUNDATION ENGINEERING”, Sai Kripa Technical Consultants, Bangalore.
 TERZAGHI, K. and Peck R. B. (1967), “SOIL MECHANIC IN ENGINEERING
PRACTICE,” John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, USA.

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