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Q) How ALP is trained to work online as LP. What are the components of training?

They are given following training.

1) Handling training of locomotives:
This is given for one month period. This training is generally given by nominated loco
inspector to whom the driver has been allotted. During handling training, the driver works
under the supervision of loco inspector and makes himself conversant with the operation
of various cocks, handles, location of equipment etc. for day to day working.
2) Road learning training
i) The road learning training is given to each driver for the sections where he has to work.
ii) If the candidate is not confident of road learning, in the prescribed period, he may ask
for an extension of road learning period to his depot incharge. On getting such request,
road learning period is suitably extended. But, the declaration of having learned the road
has to be taken from each candidate.
iii) Training as co-driver:- It is normally a practice to allow the newly promoted driver to
work as co-driver for a month along with the experienced goods driver. This helps to get
the feel of driving and absorbing the driving technique by newly promoted candidate and
clarify his doubts. During this period of working as a co-driver, nominated loco inspection
keeps a watch on the performance of the driver and guides and counsels suitably.
Competency Certificate:
After completing their training as above, nominated loco inspector gives a certificate for
the driver that the handling, road learning and co-driver training has been done
satisfactorily and fitness to work train independently. After getting certification by loco
inspector, the candidate is once again interviewed by AEE(OP)/SR.DEE(OP) and Safety
Officer and if candidate is found suitable during such interview the competency certificate
is issued authorizing the candidate to work the train independently. For filling up the
vacancies of goods driver, due to non-availability of shunters suitable for promotion as
driver, Railway Board has given relaxation from time to time for promotion of assistant
driver to goods driver with the following conditions”-
1. Assistant driver should have 60,000 kms of foot plate inspection as assistant driver.
2. Assistant driver has completed 2 years of service on line.
With the above condition, Assistant Drivers are promoted only on ad-hoc basis. They have
to be regularized as a goods driver after following the proper procedure of selection as
explained above.

Q) How CMS be used to report unusual observed by loco pilots in sections?

After the completion of the trip the driver logs on to CMS for signing off. At that time he
has to go through some questionnaire that enquires about any unusual observation
regarding track, ohe or any other issues faced by him. The driver will enter all the
irregularities observed in OHE, track or signals or any other unusual occurrences and
mention the locations. This information can be used by respective department to locate and
attend the issues.
Q) Facilities available in a trip shed. Explain in detail?
The covered shed should be in good condition with sufficient air and light to protect from
extreme weather conditions like sun, heavy rains etc. There shall be provision of approach
road to the trip shed.
 There should be no water leakage from roof top in rainy season.
 There should be sufficient illumination for general inspection.
2. PIT
 The depth of pit from rail level shall be as per standard design.
 Proper cleaning and drainage of the pits should be ensured.
 Separate office with LAN connected system, proper material storage
 Staff Room with table, chairs, lockers etc.
 Two rooms for storing of lubricants, loco spares, brake blocks etc.
 Separate space/room for scrap material storage
 Safe drinking Water and toilet facility for staff.
 Proper storage of ready spare equipment in racks using FIFO.
 Proper record of ready spare equipment in register.
 Helmet ,Industrial shoes, Hand gloves ,Dress material or stitched dress
 Earthing rod and cable with clamp connection.
 Proper procedure of providing discharge rods
 Castle lock arrangement in isolator shall be working order.
 Provide additional pad lock in isolator for personal safety and staff will keep key
with him till working on loco roof.
 Availability of sand and water, fire extinguishers at appropriate locations.
 Training of staff.
 Ensure availability of first aid box and its timely recoupment.
 Display of safety slogans and provision of boards at various locations.
 Ensure proper earthing of equipment such as welding plant, electric panel etc.
12. TOOLS:
 Ensure availability of sufficient & proper tools like megger, temperature sensing
device etc and testing eqiupments.
13. SAND:
 Ensure availability of dry and sieved sand.
 Ensure all safety items and safety fittings are intact while dispatching the locos.
 Ensure proper working and maintenance of machine and plant available in trip shed
for smooth working.
 Portable welding plants- 02 nos.
 Speedometer data extraction unit (speed-cumenergy)– one of all makes.
 Meggar 500 V and 1000 V- 1 no. each
 Temperature sensing device (non-contact type thermometer) – 4 nos.
17. Other miscellaneous items:


Drivers are running the trains round the clock. As the mail/express/passenger
trains may run, late or goods trains do not run as per the time table, duty hours of the drivers
are likely to exceed the specified period of duty hours at a stretch. As the over hours may
result in drop in efficiency and alertness of drivers which may ultimately affect the safety
of train operation. Therefore, watch on the duty hours of drivers are kept. In this chapter,
the system of keeping watch on this factor is explained.
Factors affecting the duty hours of drivers:
The driver’s duty hours for goods train varies on number of operating factors. These can
be summarized as under:
i) Distance between crew change point
ii) Pre-departure detention of the crew
iii) Gradient and banking of the train in section
iv) Traffic density of mail/express/passenger trains
v) Unusual occurrence of the train in section or station
vi) Vacancies of the running staff.

The duty hours of the mail/express and passenger trains are generally well within the
specified time limit because they run as per time table. However, in rare case where trains
are diverted or trains are detained in section due to accidents etc. the drivers are provided
with suitable reliever. Therefore, main task remains to watch the duty hours of the drivers
of freight services. The duty hours may exceed the specified duty hours if watch is not kept
due to the reasons already given above. In such cases, the driver’s efficiency may drop
drastically and may commit some or other mistakes which will lead to unusual/accidents.
For keeping watch on the working hours of the drivers, crew controller on duty maintains
a log books where drivers name and sign on time is recorded / any driver which is
approaching a duty hours of 10, a relief driver is arranged by the crew controller. Section
controller (SCOR) may be advised to run the goods train of such drivers without stopping
for precedence in section so that the driver may reach the destination within 10 hours.
However, if this is not possible the relief should be arranged at the convenient station.
Driver may also demand for relief after completing the 10 hours duty period, therefore
crew controller should be alert in arranging the relief well in advance to avoid the detention
to the train.

Q) Brake feel test:

The driver is supposed to test the brake power of the train at the first opportunity after
starting the train. This is very important for safety of the train operation
because it gives the feel of brake power available on train which will help the
driver for controlling the train during its course of journey whether driver is
doing the test. This should be checked during foot plate inspection.

Q) Items to be checked while carrying out Foot Plate Inspection:-

All the railway officers and supervisors carry out foot plate inspection to review/judge
their system of maintenance, organization discipline, level of alertness etc. from time to
time. Foot plate inspection indicate the performance of all the department involved in
train running. Therefore, the officials who are carrying out Foot Plate inspection should
keep watch on the relevant aspect of train working particularly the areas connected with
their branch. As a TRO officials the main attention is given to punctual train running and
performance of the crew and loco. While there cannot be fixed number of items to be
checked while carrying out foot plate inspection, even though, guide line can be provided
so that foot plate inspection can be more meaningful and productive.
Some points to be kept in mind during foot plate inspection by Traction Rolling
Stock operating officials is given below:-
While starting the foot plate inspection, the name of the crew and train detail like load,
brake power certificate (BPC) etc should be noted down.
A) Observation of loco:- Performance of loco should be judged during foot plate
inspection. For this purpose the loco log book should be gone through and observation of
driver recorded in log book may be noted for remedial action. Observation of loco to be
taken can be summarized as under:-
1) Inspection of loco log book and observing the nature of defect booked by driver and
action taken by trip shed/homing shed.
2) Type of speedometer and its working condition.
3) Condition of head light, flasher light and marker light.
4) Condition of horns/wipers.
5) Condition of safety fittings of locomotive as observed visually.
6) Condition of fire extinguishers and its date of filling.
B) Observations of the crew:-
1) General working and trouble shooting knowledge of driver/asst. driver.
This can be ascertained to some extent by asking some questions regarding loco, traffic
rules, safety rules etc.
C) Driving technique:- This can be observed by keeping watch on the following
activity of driver.
1. The method of starting/ stopping the train:- whether driver is keeping watch on the
current, voltage given to traction motor at the time of start. Is he keeping watch on
pressure level in loco? Is the starting is without or with wheel slip during start? Similarly,
whether the driver is able to stop the train with minimum destructive of vac./air pressure.
Whether train is stopping at proper place or not etc.
2. Coasting of driver:- This can be observed by the technique of driver for coasting the
train to the maximum extent without loosing time in section at the down gradient.
3. Negotiating the gradient:- There are cases where the train stalled in UP gradient due to
bad driving by a driver. Such case can be avoided if driver takes necessary precautions
like keeping the brakes released, keeping the train in good momentum as per the speed
restriction etc.
4. Negotiating the caution order:- Ability to negotiate the caution order at exact speed
without over speeding or without being too slow.
5. Calling out the signal aspect and road knowledge:- Whether calling out of signals by
driver/assistant driver is correct and loud. Road knowledge of the driver can be assessed
by asking questions regarding gradient, signals location etc.
6. Whistling at LC gates and curves:- Whether driver/asst. drivers are whistling properly
at specified locations.
7. Exchanging the signal with station staff:- The crew of the train is supposed to
exchange signals with the station staff through which the train is passing. During foot
plate inspection this aspect is to be observed.
8. Testing of brake power of train at first opportunity:- The driver is supposed to test the
brake power of the train at the first opportunity after starting the train. This is very
important for safety of the train operation because it gives the feel of brake power
available on train which will help the driver for controlling the train during its course of
journey whether driver is doing the test? This should be checked during foot plate

Q) Paper Line clear

The Loco Pilot shall not take his train from a station unless he has in his
possession as his authority to proceed, a Line Clear Ticket duly signed by
the Station Master.

When owing to failure or non-provision of electrical block instruments the authority to

proceed is a Line Clear Ticket it shall, except under special instruction, be in a standard

Each such ticket shall bear a serial number which shall be recorded in the Train Signal
Register, the numbers for the Down direction being clearly distinguished from those for
the Up direction.
The ticket referred in sub-rules (1) and (2) shall be printed on white paper with blue font.
To distinguish Paper Line Clear Ticket for up and down directions, water mark arrow
pointing “up” and “down” shall be printed on the ticket.

Q) Actions to be taken to avoid roll back of train on up gradient if gets stopped?

In case the train is stopped on an upgradient, at the time of starting, the LP should apply
loco independent brake, release the train brake just before starting, take three notches and
release the loco brakes. If the train starts moving after clearance of 100 mtrs, he should
gradually notch up to attain permittent speeds.

When stopping the trains on raising/down gradients loco pilot must keep loco and train
brakes applied to avoid rolling down.

In case engine is shut down/OHE fails and train stopped on UP/Down gradient longer than
15mins, wooden wedges, and brakes should be used. LP should also immediately stop his
train by placing A9 in emergency position, if MR pressure drops less than 5kg/cm2

In case problem with LOCO/OHE LP must inform TLC/TPC/SCOR within 20minutes of

experiencing the problem as to whether assisting engine is required or not.

Q) Ruling gradient:

The steepest uphill gradient in one direction on a section of railway line, which determines
the load that can be pulled by one locomotive over that section, according to the power
rating of the locomotive. A typical ruling gradient could be 1:50 (2%). The ruling gradient
can differ in the other direction on the same section.

Q) Engineering Allowance :

A number of speed restrictions may have to be imposed for a short duration either on
account of defects in track and related equipment or to facilitate repairs to the track and
OHE and signalling installations. Requirement of time for such repairs is assessed well in
time before a new timetable is introduced and this time is separately provided for in the
timetable and is called 'Engineering Allowance' (EA)
Q) GDR Check:

An independent organization headed by Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety

(CCRS) headquartered at Lucknow is functioning under the Ministry of Civil Aviation.
CCRS is assisted by nine CRSs on the railways and they are deemed to be the
custodians of safety on Indian Railways.
Sanction is required from the CRS in respect of –
1. Introduction of electric traction on any railway or section of a railway.
2. Bringing into use any new type of electric locomotive or EMU or to operate any in
service at speeds higher than those already sanctioned.
Types of cases in which CRS enquiry is conducted:
i) A statutory inquiry by a Commissioner of Railway Safety is obligatory in every accident
to a passenger-carrying train which is attended with loss of human life or grievous hurt or
with serious damages to Railway property of the value exceeding Rs. 25 Lakhs.
ii) Commissioner of Railway safety may also inquire into any accident which, in the
opinion of the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or the Commissioner of Railway
Safety requires the holding of an injury at that level
iii) Workman’s train or ballast trains carrying workmen shall also be treated as passenger
trains and in the event of a workmen getting killed or grievously injured as a result of an
accident to the train. CRS’ inquiry shall be obligatory.

Q) Crew Reuirement for Goods loco:

The requirement is calculated as following:-

a) Average Fortnightly performing hours of
Last 6 months (used only for working goods trains) = A
b) Required Fortnightly working hours per goods driver (104) = B
c) Bare requirement of goods drivers = (A / B) = C
d) Additional req. due to traffic fluctuation @ 10%=0.1xC = D
e) Revised Bare requirement = C+D = E
f) Leave Reserve @ 30% on bare req. = 0.3xC= F
g) Revised bare req. + Leave Reserve = E+F = G
h) Trainee Reserve (TR) @ T% on G = O.OTxG= H
I) Total Crew requirement = G+H = I

Q) Crew Reuirement for Goods loco:

(a) Available hours per fortnight = 104 hrs.

(b) Available average duty hours = 7 hrs 25 min.
•per crew per day (104/14)
(c) Available loco crew hours per = 7 hrs 25 min -1 hrs 45 min
crew per day for loco operation [30 min prior to sign ON+
+15min after sign OFF + 1 hr.PDD ) = 5 hrs. 40 min
(d) Bare min. requirement of Crew to man loco for 24 hrs. = (24hrs / 5 hrs 40 min.)
= 4.24 crew
(e) Various allowance to be added, other than Leave Reserve
(I) Allowance for Traffic Fluctuation = 10%
(to meet peak requirement, spare running, growth in traffic
volume over gestation period of crew requirement)
(II) Trainee Reserve = 5%
(Refresher course, Promotional course , conversion course,
Air Brake training 3- phase loco training Safety camp/ seminar etc. )
(III) Total = 15%
(f) Total requirement of crew per single
Power outage without leave reserve = 4.24 + 15% of 4.24
= 4.24 + 0.64
= 4.88
(g) Leave reserve @ 30% for leave (LAP, LHAP etc.)
Sparing staff for Misc duties viz. Selection suitability test etc.
Attending inquiries, joining time, court attendance, attending PNM) = 0.3 x 4.88
= 1.46
(h) Total Crew Requirement = 4.88 + 1.46
= 6.34 crew per loco
= at least 6 crew per loco

Running staff review should be carried out after every six months i.e. on 15th Jan. and 1st
July by STA (Senior technical assistant) of the division.

Q)Factors taken into account before processing the proposal?

1. Before preparing review, loco pilot's links of all the sheds should be got prepared and
vetted by personnel branch.
2. Statement of avg. hours on road and no. of goods
3. Trains ran during last six months for each section should be ready duly approved by
Sr.DOM/DOM. A list of shunting' points and DMTs running to be prepared and signed by
4. Mail/Express/Passenger Loco pilots requirement to be worked on the basis of loco
pilots/crew links.
5. For goods crews - the requirement should be worked out as per power plan signed by
Sr.DME(P) and Sr. DOM. 7.67 Crews are to be demanded for one freight POL. Separate
crews to be demanded for the activities which cannot been covered in power plan e.g.,
Light engine and Empty coaching rakes running etc.
6. Running staff review duly signed by Sr. DME/Sr DEE should be put up to Sr. DAO for
7. After accounts vetting sanction of DRM be taken and Sr. DPO will issue circulars of
revised sanction.
Q) Checks mades by LP/motor man before taking lococmotive/EMU for working?

1) Loco log book inspection :

This should be gone through minutely and information if any regarding defect
or any special working instruction for the loco to be found out. After getting satisfied
with the log book that there is nothing wrong in energizing the loco the following
procedure may be followed.
2) Checking of the safety fittings of the locomotive :
All the safety fittings of the loco should be checked. If the loco is stabled on the pit,
the under frame safety fittings must be checked and it should be ensured that all the
safety fittings are intact.
3) Building up the emergency reservoir pressure and raising the
pantograph :
After checking the safety fittings, the battery should be switched ‘ON” with HBA switch
and baby compressor (MCPA) should be started. When the emergency reservoir pressure
builds up to 7 to 8 kg.cm2, then it must be ensured that loco is under the OHE. After this
panto should be raised with the help of ZPT key. A sound “chu” will be heard when
pantograph touches the OHE which gives indication that OHE is alive. BL key and MPJ
should be fitted in its position.
4) Putting the isolating cocks of brakes in proper position :
The isolated cocks of the loco brake and train brake in the working cab should be in open
position and in rear cab it should be in closed position. This should be ensured before
closing DJ.
5) Inspection of switch board / relay boards :
i) Programme switches
ii) Relay condition
iii) H.T. Compartment : A round of the loco corridor should be taken to check the visual
condition of the H.T. compartment
6) Closing of DJ :
Now the DJ of the locomotive can be closed after raising the panto with the help of ZPT
key by pressing BLDJ and then pressing BLRDJ, voltmeter should read 25KV. MR
pressure to be 8 to 9.5 kg/cm2 upon BLCP on.
7) Testing of loco brake:
After building up the MR pressure and releasing the hand brake the loco (if it is in
applied condition), the loco brake must be tested and it should be ensured that the same is
adequate. If the skids have been put under the wheels of the loco, the same should also be
8) Traction testing of the loco:
After moving the MPJ in forward and reverse position, the pilot lamp LSB should
extinguish. After this the MPJ should be kept forward and with the help of MP, two or
three notches are taken by keeping loco brakes applied so that loco does not move.
9) Checking of emergency brake:
After taking two or three notches above, air pressure should be destroyed by applying
emergency brake. The brake should get applied on loco and at the same time notch
should come to zero automatically.
10) Checking of Headlight, marker light, flasher light:
Working of headlight, marker light, flasher light should be checked from both the cabs.
After carrying out these checks and inspection loco is ready to be worked.

Q) Integrated Lobby:

A Lobby is like a control office in the field. It is established with the twin aim of reducing
engine detention and crew detention in a yard or a crew or engine changing station by
realistic ordering of trains and Crew/Guard booking. It is advantageous to have a combined
crew and guard booking lobby so that both are available simultaneously. The lobby
supervisors/staff can take forecast of a train running from the Deputy controller/section
controller along with details regarding the names of crew, Guard and their signing in time,
loco particulars, last C&W examination etc.
They can verify the dates of Loco schedules from the chart available with them and keep
liaison with the Power Controller/TLC. They also keep watch on “expect” of train
formation, examination, readiness etc. and by constant chasing, planning and updating of
information, trains are ordered on realistic expect, Trains may be put back or cancelled, it
required and crew booking and engine allocation changed promptly.
Some overlapping crew/guard may also be kept in lobby to take care the last minute
absenteeism. Shunters may also be kept in the lobby big yards / junctions to attach, detach
and run round locos or to pull the train yard up to the Crew changing points so as to avoid
wastage of main line loco pilots The pre departure detention to the crew, crew hours
balancing, rescheduling of loco and yard detentions to loco can be thoroughly monitor by
the lobby and remedial measures taken.

Q) (SFC) Specific fuel consumption on IR

It is generally measured in terms of litres/ 1000 Gross Ton Km which depends upon load,
average speed, grade & curvature of section, type of diesel locomotive, efficiency and
age of diesel engine etc.
The target for level section is 2.5 lit/ 1000 GTKM for goods operation & 4 lit/ 1000
GTKM passenger for Passenger operation.
Q) Working in Ghat Sections

The Subsidiary Rules for working on sections having steep gradients may be referred to as
Ghat Rules and the sections to which they apply as Ghat Sections.
1. Sr. DOM/DOM shall issue special instructions for local features prevailing on Ghat
Sections over their Divisions.
2. Divisions shall embody special instructions in SWRs instruction for working trains on
sections having short grades steeper than 1 in 200.
These instructions should be consistent with General & Subsidiary/Ghat
(b) All other Subsidiary Rules apply to the working of Ghat Sections, except those modified
or superseded by the Ghat Rules.
(c) Certificate of Competency. - The under noted staff, who are directly concerned with
train movements, must qualify in S.R.Gs.
The following shall not assume duties on graded sections until they are granted a certificate
of competency by their executive officers:-
1.LP/ALP 2. Shunters 3. ALP-passed Shunters. 4. Train controllers. 5. SM and Yard
Masters. 6. ASM, Train Despatchers & Yard Foreman. 7. Guards.
The certificate of competency shall be valid for a period of three years only or such long
period as may be laid down by special instructions.
(d) A Shunter or a LP, before being allowed to learn road on Ghat Sections, should qualify
in Ghat Rules.
(e) A LP on having learnt the Ghat Section will not be allowed to work independently,
unless a Loco Inspector/Fuel Inspector/Staff Inspector, after travelling with him declares
the Loco Pilot conversant with the section.
Engine Brakes. - Every engine working on Ghat Section must be filled with the automatic
vacuum/Air brake in good working order and must be itself braked either by the vacuum
brake, steam brake or air brake. The hand brake of all engines must be in proper working
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Q1. (A). Advantage of 3-phase loco over conventional loco: 2. LOCOTROL: manual system of ensuring coordination
High starting torque is a traction requirement, DC motor is between front and middle locomotives in a long haul train
better in this parameter, AC motor can be intelligently used to has limitations and possibilities of errors. Also, the two
attain same performance, (1). Power/Weight (KW/Kg) ratio traction units are not able to work fully in synchronized
AC 3-phase:0.3, DC: 0.1, (2). Maintenance requirements:- mode i.e., powering, releasing and applying brakes together
*More wear & tear in DC Motor *Early overhaul without use of a second crew in the middle loco set. Use of
requirements*High voltage-Low current design*High RPM, (3). distributed power system involving use of locotrol type
Losses: *DC Motor has more Copper losses as Rotor, stator system should be adopted universally on all locomotives.
both are wound, (4). Manufacturing cost, (5). Life Cycle cost However since existing locotrol is not a portable device.
(6):, Regeneration feasibility, (7). Digital electronics based real Railways may have to draw a strategy to confine long haul
time traction control system to obtain precise control over the locomotives in a close circuit for alternatively portability of
tractive effort and speed, (8). Fast acting wheel slip/ slide locotrol may have to be case portable locotrol
control system, (9). On board fault diagnostics systems to is not practicable, locotrol may be made a part of
eliminate elaborate trouble shooting by engine crew and also to locomotives.
help maintenance staff to trace faults, (10). Simulation mode of 3. Infrastructure: IR should expeditiously construct longer
operation to facilitate a complete functional testing of the loop at a distance of 50 kms to avoid any detention of
locomotive without raising pantograph, (11). An exclusive coaching trains enroute and to maintain order of
harmonic filter circuit to reduce harmonics in the OHE precedence.
generated by loco current, (12). Static auxiliary converter, to 4. Training of staff: to develop a confidence among the staff
supply auxiliary 3 phase motors. The auxiliary converter, it is necessary that they are properly trained for running of
depending on the traction load, operates at an optimal frequency long haul trains. On the basis of experience gained a
to minimise power consumption by auxiliaries, (13). Fire separate module on running of long haul train will be
detection and alarm system for the machine room, 14). Anti- developed by ZTS and taught to loco pilots, guards, and
collision post arrangement in cabs to minimise damage and station staff.
enhanced safety for the engine crew in case of accidents, (15). 5. It is understood that points zone on IR are track circuited
Ergonomically designed and spacious driving cabs to provide and are connected to the block instruments. This facility
comfort and relief to crew, (16). Use of inertial filters and will ensure prevention of any possible rear and side
pressurized machine room to prevent entry of dust into sensitive collision due to blockage of fouling mark and beyond area.
equipments in the machine room, (17). Electronic brake system however, for the station where point zone has not been
for precise and fast control of braking effort, blending between track circuited or b in case of failure of track circuit or
electrical brake and pneumatic brake on the locomotives, (18). block instrument at the station, line clear to following trains
Automatic spring applied, pneumatically released parking brake will not be granted unless long haul train has cleared the
system, (19). Under slung compressors to eliminate oil fumes signal overlap of home signal.
and oil spillage inside the machine room. Soft start for 6. Identified sections for long haul run will be provided
compressors is provided to improve reliability.*Electronic additional, special T/G board for long haul trains.
speedometer and paperless speed recording system. An over 7. Communication: pre-tested walkie-talkie sets of adequate
speed alarm system is built in.*Electronic Energy meter.*In dc power will be supplied to the driver and guard for reliable
motor locos the unavoidable jumps in the tractive effort due to communication during run and to the TXR during the
notch control limits the adhesion values to a maximum of 33- course of formation. Whistle code as per GR&SR shall also
35%. With step-less control in three phase motors, the despatch- be used by drivers for communication between driver and
able adhesion would be 38% and under ideal conditions, guard.
adhesion of 42% is possible. 8. During the running if walkie-talkie communication fails the
(B). Constant Speed Operation: in WAP5, WAP7, and WAG9 long haul movement will be terminated at next station.
controls in the cab that can lock the train to travel at a certain Long haul trains shall not be operated during
speed (the speed at the time the control button is set). The communication failure.
button is known as BPCS button. The computerized loco 9. It should be ensured that RB/DB of leading locomotives are
controls then manage the TE and BE and attempt to keep the in working condition.
speed to within +/-2 kmph of the desired speed. In this mode the 10. In case of loaded-loaded or loaded-empty combinations
driver does not have to do anything further except to respond to hauled by electric locomotives, at least 5 compressors of
the alerter system within the stipulated intervals, and to use the leading MU unit will be in ON condition. Locomotives in
horn as appropriate. the middle of the python rake are not permitted to charge
………………………………………………………………… the brake pipe. Leading locomotive will work the train and
Q2. Introduction of Long Haul Train: A composition of more trailing locomotive will be just a piped vehicle that can
than one standard train formation is defined as Long Haul train. provide additional power when required.
The constituent trains may be empty or loaded. The running of 11. Before restarting the train after brake application, it shall be
long haul trains will help in reducing the congestion in busy ensured that the BP pressure in the leading loco is 5kg/cm2
sections thereby increasing the throughput. It has added and the brake van is 4.7 kg/cm2.
advantage of increasing the speed of rolling stocks as a result of 12. Guard of leading train will travel in its brake van or the
reduction in number of trains. middle locomotive cab and the guard of trailing train will
(A). Precautions necessary for success of long haul remain in the trailing brake van.
operation: …………………………………………………………………..
1. Introduction of twin pipe on goods train: single pipe Q2. Action taken by crew & Guard of goods train after
system has problem of brake pressure fading and derailment:
propagation delay in application and release of brakes. In On a double line section where trains on the two lines run in the
case of emergency braking release is seen to take longer opposite direction
than 950sec. in initial trial. This would become a limitation [a] As soon as the Driver comes to know that his train has met
in unrestricted adoption of long haul. Hence, BCN type, with an accident, he shall at once switch on the flasher light and
BOXN type & Flat wagons and locomotives should be switch ‘off’ the head-light and thereafter either go himself or
converted to twin pipe. send his Assistant Driver or some other competent person to
protect the adjacent line in front. The Guard shall himself first which are as follows- (1). Suggestions pertaining to loco,
immediately proceed ahead to assist and ensure protection of the *uniform cab design, *air-conditioned, sound proof and
adjacent line in front and if a competent person is available send ergonomic cab, *VCD operational cases should be analysed and
him to protect the train in the rear crew counselled, *device to limit the speed to 15kmph during
[b] In case it is not known whether the adjacent line is shunting, *provision for voice recorder in cab, (2). Suggestions
obstructed or not * The Guard shall either himself go back or pertaining to rest facilities, *proper resting facilities should be
send a competent person to protect the train. If the Guard has provided in lobby, *breath analyser should be made part of
deputed a competent person to protect the train, he shall go to CMS, *calendar rest should be provided to running staff instead
the Driver for consultation. *The person going back to protect of 22/30 hrs. (3). suggestions pertaining to operation, *retro
the train shall continuously show his hand danger signal to stop reflective board indicating type of signal, *numbering in signals
any approaching train, and in addition to his hand signal, shall should be in reducing order from distant to home, *to reduce the
take detonators and place them upon the line on which the validity of LR from 6 month to one month, *long working hours
stoppage has occurred, as follows: – *One detonator at 600 of crew should be minimised by providing relief, *links to be
metres from his train, to be placed on the way out and three made such that there are not more than 2 or 3 continuous night
detonators, 10 metres apart, not less than 1200 metres from his duty, *state of mind of LP should be monitored by LI, *crew
train or at such distance as has been fixed by special should be counselled not to work under pressure, *proper time
instructions. * When the Guard has gone back to protect the tabling to be ensured so as margin between journey is available,
train, he shall show a hand danger signal to stop any *circular on safety to be issued in regional language, *driver
approaching train until he is recalled, and shall himself return to should work on one traction only either diesel or electric,
his train to ascertain the cause. *On a section of double or *unified G&SR should be published for all Indian Railway,
multiple lines, if assistance has been asked for, or on a single *sections having more than 10 hrs running duties should be
line section or during temporary single line working on a section made short, *caution order issued by station should also include
of double line or multiple lines, the Driver shall at once show a PSR, *low cost simulator are to be provided in lobbies*once a
danger signal to the front, and proceed to protect the train in month counselling of LP to be done HQ, (4). Miscellaneous
either by going himself or by sending his Assistant Driver or suggestions, *retirement age to be reduced to 55 years,
some other competent person; and [h] Should any train be seen *maximum duty hrs of M/E drivers should be reduced to 6 hrs
approaching, the person going to protect the train shall as they encounter 1 signal every min on an avg. during run,
immediately place one detonator on the line, as far away from *administration should be friendly to running staff so that they
the disabled train as possible and will continue to show his hand can avail time of rest at home, (5). Foot plating officer should
danger signal to stop any approaching train. silent his/her mobile phone, *100% housing are provided to
…………………………………………………………………. drivers as they reside up to 50-60 km, *families of running staff
Q3. Checks necessary for crew controller before permitting to be counselled by LI, *joint signal siting over all zonal rlys
sign on: should be done specially confusing signals and remedial actions
1). ensure that the staff reporting for duty are sober and not should be taken, *driver should be protected from being arrested
under the influence of alcoholic drinks. All incoming staff will in case of accident or CRO
be subjected to breath-analysis before being allowed to (B). Role of family-*allow proper or complete rest*should not
perform the duty. 2) ensure that all running staff posses the valid indulge him in any tense matter.
competency certificates. 3) Display of temporary speed ………………………………………………………………..
restrictions in prominent manner at the booking offices. 4) Q5. Fires in Electric Rolling Stock:
Notify the driver regarding existence of Short Neutral Section to (A). Preventive Maintenance and Inspection:
avoid raising of both pantographs. 5) Arrange relief for running 1. The presence of a large quantity of oil in the transformers and
staff whenever asked for by the Traction Loco Controller (TLC) tap-changers of electric locos and EMUs makes it possible
to avoid running staff performing more than the prescribed for even minor fires to spread and assume serious
hours of duty at a stretch. 6) Ensure that the outgoing locos are proportion. Leakage of oil from exhausters and
provided with full complement of tools, emergency telephones, compressors results in accumulation of oil on the loco
fire extinguishers and other essential consumable stores. 7) flooring causing spread of fires. An essential step in
Ensure filling of sand in sand-boxes of locos and availability of prevention of fires in locos is, therefore, to control the
dry and clean sand at all outstations and booking points. 8) leakage of oil from exhausters, compressors and pipe lines
Investigate and report cases of time lost on loco account and to arrange periodic cleaning of the locos to remove
whenever reported by the Traffic Controller; depute accumulated oil. Always use funnel of proper shape for
Driving/Loco Inspector whenever required to investigate and tapping of oil to prevent spillage.
collect more details as required. 9) Arrange inspection of 2. The arcing horns should be properly attended to during
incoming and outgoing locomotives and ensure in coordination inspections. The arc-chute should be properly secured and
with the maintenance staff that booked repairs are carried out. the securing arrangement periodically checked. The arc-
10) report to TLC the details of locos to be attended to at chute should also be cleaned during inspections.
outstation sheds and the defects which require attention at shed; 3. In addition to periodic cleaning of the bogies and underframe
the cases of unusual occurrences should also be reported, 11) to remove oily dust, it is also important that rheostatic and
prepare position of issue and return of Combined Driver's and regenerative braking, where provided, is kept in working
Guard's report in the proforma, 12) ensure that the staff are order and drivers trained to make use of these on graded
availing adequate rest at headquarters and outstations. 13) sections, obviating the need for heavy mechanical braking
Ensure proper upkeep of "sign ON" and "sign OFF" register and as far as possible thus preventing sparks from brake blocks.
see that every running staff reporting for duty in his office signs 4. Rating of the fuses particularly of low voltage dc circuits are
in this register. 14) Supervise call boy and Box Porter and to be checked periodically to eliminate the possibility of
instruct them suitably for calling the crew and sending the boxes fires due to short circuits / overloads etc. Always ensure
respectively. that the proper sizes and types of fuses are used for
………………………………………………………………… replacement. Check calibration of MCBs during POH. Use
Q4. (A). Precautions taken by driver to avoid SPAD: On MCBs and fuses of only approved suppliers as laid down
SPAD suggestions are given by Railway board pertaining to by RDSO.
locomotive, rest facilities, operation, training etc. Some of
5. Ensure that all the protective relays are in good working order switch off the CB and lower the panto, *the train shall then
and are properly calibrated. Do not bypass any protection brought to stop at once after cutting of electric supply to the
on the rolling stock. affected circuit ,LP shall take necessary action to put out fire*if
6. A loose connection is a potential source of fire. Proper fire cannot be extinguished by above means the LP shall advise
tightness of all the connections is, therefore, to be ensured the TPC through the emergency telephone to arrange for the
and this point is to be given particular attention during affected section of OHE to be made dead*the guard shall give
inspections. Coaches commissioned after POH or new possible assistance to the LP in putting out fire*call help from
coaches after commissioning should be thoroughly checked outside to prevent fire propagation to coaches
up for loose connection as during the first few days, loose …………………………………………………………………
connections will show up. Ensure that all the connections Q6. Protection of Train in Case of Loco Failure and / or
secured with a nut and bolt are provided with a set of plain OHE Supply Failure:
and spring washers. 1. When overhead supply fails, the Driver shall endeavour to
7. Insulation failures can result from surface flash overs due to proceed on the momentum of the train. And see whether he can
presence of dirt and dust. It is, therefore, essential that reach the next station otherwise he will stop the locomotive
proper cleaning of terminal connections, bus bars, close an emergency socket. To help the Driver, arrow marks are
insulators and equipment is done during schedules as laid painted on the faces of OHE masts indicating the direction in
down to remove oil and dust. which the nearest emergency socket lies. If power supply is not
8. Fires in control equipment cubicles are a problem and usually restored within 5 minute after stopping the train, he should
lead to considerable damage. A particular difficulty is the make use of his portable telephone to ascertain from the TPC
detection of fire and, therefore, the fire is likely to get a through the emergency telephone socket the time when the
good hold before it is noticed. Ensure that proper supply is expected to be restored. If it is likely to be more than
maintenance of the equipments inside the cubicles is done 15 minutes then the Driver should apply air and hand-brakes on
and the equipments are carefully looked at during the loco and pin down brakes on 10 wagons immediately behind
inspection for any developing faults. the loco in the case of goods trains and all available hand brakes
9. Batteries constitute some fire or explosion risk when they are in the case of passenger trains.
being given a heavy charge. Heavy charging can be either If the Driver is unable to stop the train close to the emergency
due to malfunction of the charging equipment or telephone socket, and is likely to take more than 15 minute to
carelessness when charging from the shop floor rectifier. It ascertain the time of restoration of the overhead power supply
is therefore important to check that the ventilation provided from TPC he must first protect the train against rolling as
in the battery box is not choked. The staff should, therefore, indicated above and then contact the TPC.
be made aware of the danger of overcharging. The same instructions shall be observed in case of electric loco
10. Use only approved quality of cables and furnishing material failure when it becomes necessary to make the loco dead and
for repairs. Proper care should be taken while laying down call for assistance.
the new cables so that no damage to the insulation is 2. In addition, the precautions prescribed in General and
caused. Subsidiary Rules for protection of trains when stopping out of
11. In order to monitor healthy condition of insulation of wiring course should be observed.
and equipment, insulation resistance should be measured 3. If after power, is restored, the Driver experiences tripping
periodically in sheds and during POH in shops, and records again, he shall not energize the locomotive until he has
kept. personally satisfied himself that there is no abnormality on his
12. In the event of fire it is essential that the main circuit breaker locomotive.
is tripped and the battery fuses of locomotives and EMUs 4. The locomotive will not be left unmanned in such an
are immediately removed to eliminate the continued eventuality.
feeding of the fault by the battery. ……………………………………………………………….
(B). Firefighting Appliances for Electric Rolling Stock Q7. Goods power plan: Every six months, the running of
1. Every electric locomotive should be provided either with 2 goods traffic on a Railway is reviewed for each division. Actual
number of 4 kg capacity or 4 number of 1.25 kg capacity Halon number of goods trains run are observed. Moreover, the goods
type fire extinguishers to IS: 11108, one in each cab and train to be run during next six months is assessed. While
remaining in each corridor. The fire extinguishers shall be fixed planning the goods train, availability of goods locomotives on
on brackets at approved points in the cabs and corridors. The railway is taken into account. Zonal railway power plan is
ATFR on duty will be responsible for ensuring that the locos issued by the office of Chief Operating Manager (COM) of the
leave with the full complement of fire extinguishers. Sufficient Railway.
number of spare fire extinguishers should be available with the Information available in a power plan: a) Number of trains to
ATF(R) to replace defective and damaged fire extinguishers. be run on division section-wise in UP and DN direction, b)
In exceptional circumstances CEE may authorize change in Requirement of power for inferior services i.e., shunting work,
complement and / or type of the fire extinguishers. railway material train, and PQRS work of engineering
2. On EMU: 2 number of 2.5 kg. Capacity Halon type fire department etc. c) Outage of the locomotive on a division.
extinguisher should be provided in each of the cabins occupied Outage is the average number of locos available for a calendar
by motorman and Guard and also one number of Halon type day of 24 hours. d) Target utilization of the locomotives. It may
extinguisher of the same capacity should be provided in each vary from one division to other depending on the operating
motor-coach of EMU. As in the case of other passenger trains, conditions. e) Requirement of power to be moved LELA or
the Operating Department will be responsible for custody of the dead due to various reasons.
fire extinguishers and their issue to the Guard at the originating Procedure for calculation of requirement of running staff as
station of each EMU rake. per Power Plan: Before going ahead with the actual
3. All the staff of electrical department connected with the calculation, the following information are to be collected. 1)
running and operation of trains should be duly trained for Average sectional running time: Based on the traffic movement
firefighting and use of fire extinguishers within the locos and on division, the average running time for the last six months is
EMUs. to be found out. 2) Pre-departure detention of the crew: The
(C). Duties of Loco Pilot in case of observing fire in loco: *in time period from the sign on of crew to actual departure of the
the event of fire in the electric loco the LP shall immediately train is known as pre-departure detention of the crew. PDD
should not increase more than 30 mins. by proper coordination 7. Depreciation and interest
between TRO and Optg. Dept. This data is also required for the Factors affecting Line Haul Cost: 1). Repair & maintenance
last six months for calculation purpose. It is essential to mention cost of loco [demand C-510 to C-590] (-Running repair in
that higher the pre-departure detention more will be the bursting shed-POH in workshop – IOH - Special repair - other repair
of ten hours. duty cases and requirement of running staff. - miscellaneous charges), 2). Repair & maintenance cost in
Therefore, division should make an all out effort to minimize TRD [demand 7E - 400] (-normal maintenance and repair –
the pre-departure detention of crew, 3). Post Arrival PSI - other plant and equipment for electric traction), 3).
Detention: This is the time which the crew takes after arrival of Fuel Cost [demand 10H-300] (-cost of electricity used for
train to sign off at destination/crew change point station. This electric traction), 4). Operating expenses other than fuel
time is generally 30”. Shunters may take over charge of loco [demand 8F-300] (-Running staff, supervision of running
from incoming driver to reduce this detention. Actual post staff, loco crew, shed & yard staff, lubricants, store, misc.
departure detention of the train for last six months should be expenses), 5). General supervision charges, 6).
calculated and average figure is taken into account for Depreciation charges (demand 14M).
calculation purpose. How to reduce LHC (traction)
Goods Crew Requirement: Crew Requirement based on driver 1. Controlling OHE expenses, maintenance & Bill
reqd. to man a loco:(a) Available hours per fortnight = 104 2. Controlling operation expenses,
hrs.(b) Available average duty hours = 7 hrs 25 min.•per crew 3. Enhancing Loco reliability
per day (104/14).(c) Available loco crew hours per = 7 hrs 25 4. Store management
min -1 hrs 45 min crew per day for loco operation [30 min prior 5. Release material management
to sign ON+15min after sign OFF + 1 hr.PDD ) = 5 hrs. 40 min LHC Cost Comparison
(d) Bare min. requirement of Crew to man loco for 24 hrs. = Diesel Electric
(24hrs / 5 hrs 40 min.)= 4.24 crew.(e) Various allowance to be Year
Coaching Goods Coaching Goods
added, other than Leave Reserve (I) Allowance for Traffic 2009-10 276.75 211.53 161.89 131.40
Fluctuation = 10%(to meet peak requirement, spare running, 2010-11 309.51 232.24 174.41 136.03
growth in traffic volume over gestation period of crew 2011-12 317.67 228.86 176.75 148.49
requirement) (II) Trainee Reserve = 5%(Refresher course, …………………………………………………………………
Promotional course , conversion course, Air Brake training 3- Q9. Energy saving techniques in electric train operation:
phase loco training Safety camp/ seminar etc. ) (III) Total = *Ensure release condition of load and loco before starting.*
15% (f) Total requirement of crew per single Power outage Empty/loaded device in each wagon should be kept in position
without leave reserve = 4.24 + 15% of 4.24 = 4.24 + 0.64 = 4.88 according to load.* Ensure free movement of the train.*
(g) Leave reserve @ 30% for leave (LAP, LHAP etc.) Sparing Maximum possible coasting should be done.* Avoid frequent
staff for Misc duties viz. Selection suitability test etc. Attending application of A-9 & use rheostat / regenerative braking. *
inquiries, joining time, court attendance, attending PNM) = 0.3 Switch off the blowers during long coasting and at halt.* Loco
x 4.88= 1.46. (h) Total Crew Requirement = 4.88 + 1.46= 6.34 should be shut down in yard station & pulling point if halt is
crew per loco= at least 6 crew per loco. more than 30 minute with consult of sec. controller and re-
……………………………………………………………… energies before 10 minute. It save about 120 units /hour.* In
Q8. Line Haul Cost: It is the total all-inclusive unit cost, multiple or double headed operation rear loco may be shutdown
incurred by Railways, to haul 1000 GTKMs of trailing load. according to permissible load.* Loco should also be shutdown
Directorate of Statistics & Economics / Rly. Bd. Publishes 2 in case of power block or traffic block.* Empty goods train &
separate Booklets every year. 1. Summary of End results Freight coaching trains up to 10 coaches may be work in one block up
Services Unit Costs (for LHC – Goods) and 2. Summary of End gradient of 1/200 for which energy can be save up to 18%. As
Results Coaching Services Profitability / Unit Costs (for LHC– because out of two block, isolating one, energy can be save
Coaching). about 30 unit/hour.* One block can be isolate in banking Loco if
Total Traction Expense gradient is 1/200 or less. * Accelerate at Max. Rate and run at
Line Haul Cost = ------------------------------------ lower speed.* Judicious usage of shunting contactors.* Train
GTKM (in thousands) should be run at clear path to minimize the nos. of halts and nos.
 It is calculated of signal checks.
1. Service wise (for coaching and freight separately) and ………………………………………………………………….
2. Traction wise (for Electrical & Diesel traction separately) Q10. SEC:
 It consist Energy conservation: Energy conservation is using energy in
1. Traction Cost. a Judicious and Efficient way and without making waste.
2. Track & Signaling Cost. Why Energy Conservation: Resource Depletion: they are
3. Other Transportation cost. going to deplete, Save Money: energy conservation measures
4. Provision & Maintenance Cost of Coaches and wagons are better investments, Reduce CO2: Pollution cause diseases,
 Traction Line Haul Cost Climate Change: Drought, Severe storms and heat deaths,
1. Repair & Maintenance Cost of Loco & OHE. Adverse effect on humans and the environment, Extraction of
2. Operating Energy Cost - Fuel. Uranium and Coal affect miners, Acid Rain: SO2 and NOx
3. Other Operating Expenses. cause acid rain, Global Warming: is taking place all over the
4. Depreciation of Loco & OHE. world.
5. Interest Charges on Loco & OHE Specific energy Consumption: It is a ratio of energy
Other Transportation consumption to Gross load hauled. It is measured in kWh/1000
1. Cost of maintenance of structures (other than. track), GTKM
2. Operating staff and train passing staff Energy Consumption X 1000
3. Depreciation and interest are included on the applicable SEC = ……………………………………….
items Total Weight X Distance travelled
4. Calculated per Train Kilometre and per VKM Contributory Factors: 1). Type of locomotive, 2). Type of
5. Provision and Maintenance of coaches includes load, 3). Maximum Speed, 4). Expertise of loco pilots, 5).
6. Repair and maintenance of coaches Promptness of SMs and controllers, 6). Track condition, 7).
Weather condition, 8). Gradient, 9). Line capacity, 10). Caution Q12. Train Parting: Division of a train either due to opening or
orders, 11). Detentions / Halts, 12). Signals visibility, 13). breakage of coupler at the time of starting of train or en route
Appreciation, rewards etc. while train is in motion. It comes under “J” type of accident i.e.
 For mail and express train 17, 18.5 and 21 kWh/1000 Equipment Failure and; 1). J-3 Parting of train carrying
GTKM for max speed up to 105 kmph, 110 kmph & 120 passengers, 2). J-4 Parting of a train not carrying passengers.
kmph respectively. The Reason of Train Parting: 1). Fast notching up, 2). Sudden
 Step by TRO: 1). Calculation of Coaching load on factual application of brakes, 3). Bad driving on gradient, 4). Improper
running position and reconciliation at HQ’s Statistical road knowledge etc., 5). Not ensuring releasing of brake, 6).
branch, 2). Strictly follow of coasting boards, 3). With Poor Maintenance of P Way, 7). Improper maintenance of
empty rake switch off Trailing Loco, 4). Judicious Braking, rolling stock.
5). Release trains with partial brake binding, 6). Precautions for Drivers: 1). Best Knowledge of the gradient of
Counselling of Pilots who consume more, 7). Re-generative section, 2). Maintain constant speed, avoid brakes, 3). Reduce
braking, 8). Spread awareness & knowledge regarding power slightly just before approaching top of the hump, 4).
energy conservation, 9). Display Duties and instructions of similarly increase power slightly just before approaching dip.
respective person regarding Energy Conservation, 10). Guide Lines to Driver to Reduce Partings: 1). Attach the train
Analyzing energy consumption, 11). Incentive/reward to engine with a little bump, 2). before starting push back the load
encourage the staff, 12). Simulation for best performance, a little, 3). Control train well in advance of caution spot, 4). Do
13). Avoid unnecessary speed restriction, 14). Proper coasting before brake application, 5). If Emergency brake
braking initiation, 15). Coasting before braking, 16). Best applied allow release time of four to six minutes, 6). Monitoring
Performance Chart for comparison. Further Suggestion: and counselling, 7). Brake release time for various types of
1). Better loco design, 2). Guaranteed Loco Energy brake application in case of 58 Box-‘N’ trains are as under Last
Performance, 3). Planning new routes with EC in mind, 4). Wagon,
Avoid energy inefficiency. Last Wagon Partial
Emergency Full Service
 Every month each railway compiles the information of loco Release After application
utilization &its accountal as per the format known as Release time in
4-6 2-3 1-2
statement 4A for electric locomotives. minutes
……………………………………………………………… 8). Instruct Drivers to wait for mentioned timing.
Q11. Stalling: When a loco is unable to pull the load even with Indications during Train Parting: 1). MR and BP pressure
maximum utilization of available tractive effort due to steep will drop suddenly, 2). Sudden jerk will be experienced, 3). AFI
gradient or any reason, it is called load has been stalled. LP play will shoot up, 4). LSAF will glow, 5). GR will return to “0”and
an important role in avoidance of stalling, if he properly utilizes it will not progress further, 6). AFL will glow, 7). Experience
his driving skills knowledge. reduced load on locomotive.
Reason for stalling: 1). Overloading on gradient, 2). under ………………………………………………………………
powering of locomotives, 3). Location of a signal just before a Q13. TSL WORKING
rising gradient, 4). Neutral section on or just before a rising 1. Whenever an accident to a train or track or other obstruction
gradient, 5). Oil or grease on rail-wheel contact area on prevents the use of one of the lines on a double line section, the
gradient, 6). Speed restrictions being imposed in direction of up traffic may temporarily be worked over single line under one of
gradient. the following systems:- 1.1 By obtaining line clear on electric
Precautions to avoid stalling: 1). No over loading, 2). speaking instruments. 1.2 By the installation of single line block
Adequate powering of locomotives, 30. Providing bunkers, 4). instruments and shunting limit boards demarcating the block
Resetting of location of signal & neutral sections which are a section in the wrong direction if the affected line is likely to
cause of stalling in locations mentioned above, 5). Sanding to remain out of use for a substantial period.
create friction between rail & wheel. 2. When it is desired to introduce TSL working on double line,
Role of LP avoid stalling: 1). Knowledge of section: Learn on electric speaking instruments, the Station Master at one end
properly about road, signal, gradient and geographical of the affected section shall, on receipt of reliable information in
complication of section etc., 2). Examine the conditions of load: writing that one line is clear, take steps to introduce TSL
While taking over the charge, 3). Brake Power Certificate working on that line in consultation with the SCOR and the
should be examined and it should be ensured that BPC is valid, Station Master of the station at the other end of the section. 3. If
4). Moreover continuity of the air pressure from engine to last there is reason to suspect that the line over which TSL working
vehicle should be ascertained, 5). While starting the train two or is to be introduced is also fouled or damaged, TSL working
three notches should be taken, the train should start rolling with must not be introduced until a responsible Engineering official
a traction motor current of about 400 amps. 6). If the train is not of the rank not less than that of an Inspector has inspected that
moving ensure release of brake, 7). The train should start rolling section and certified that the road is safe for the passage of
at two or three notches it will move by taking 400A or less trains. 4. TSL working shall be introduced between the nearest
amount of current, 8). If started in jammed condition may result stations provided with crossover between the up and down lines
in stalling of the train on the gradient, 9). LP should constant on either side of the obstruction. If there is an IB hut between
Watch on traction motor current, 10). Notch by notch gradual the above two stations, the same shall be treated as closed and
Progression result in smooth tractive effort without causing any the commutators of the block instruments at such block huts
wheel slipping, 11). At gradient operate sanders, 12). Good road shall be kept locked in ‘ train on line’ (TOL) position
knowledge. throughout the period TSL working is in force. The
Precautionary Measures: 1). Ensure Working of Sanders and commutators shall be also locked in that position, with Station
filling up of dry sand, 2). Counselling, 3). Proper investigation Master’s key, wherever possible. The signals at such block huts
of every case of stalling, 4). Critical point, 5). Extra sand, 6). shall be kept in the ‘on’ position throughout and these shall be
Seasonal precaution, 7). Special care of “C” category and newly passed by the Loco Pilots on a written authority in the
promoted LPs. 8). Identify of LP involved in stalling, 9). Banker prescribed form issued by the Station Master of the adjoining
policy, 10). Signaling. block station in operation. 5. All trains will be worked in
……………………………………………………………….. accordance with the rules for the use of electric speaking
instruments on single line and line clear shall be obtained on the
telephone attached to block instruments or station to station
fixed telephones wherever available or fixed telephone such as required.9. Arrange inspection of incoming and outgoing
railway auto phones and BSNL phones or control telephone or locomotives and ensure in coordination with the maintenance
VHF set. 6. At all stations on the portion of the section on which staff that booked repairs are carried out.10. Report to TLC the
TSL working has been introduced, the commutators of the block details of locos to be attended to at outstation sheds and the
instruments pertaining to both obstructed and unobstructed lines defects which require attention at shed; the cases of unusual
shall be kept in TOL position throughout the period TSL occurrences should also be reported11. Prepare position of issue
working is in force. The commutators shall be locked also in and return of Combined Driver's and Guard's report .12. Ensure
that position with Station Master’s key, wherever possible. At that the staff are availing adequate rest at headquarters and
these stations, if the train is running on the right line, the LSS outstations. 13. Ensure proper upkeep of "sign ON" and "sign
G&SR. OFF" register and see that every running staff reporting for
………………………………………………………………. duty in his office signs in this register.14. Supervise call boy
Q14. Precaution to be taken while changing the cab: It has and Box Porter and instruct them suitably for calling the crew
been seen that some mistakes are done in changing the cab of a and sending the boxes respectively.
locomotive which results in problem like brake failure, pressure (B). Duties of Traction Loco Controller (TLC) TLC will 1.
not building up etc. therefore, important items which are to be maintain a list of passenger fit locos and watch the running of
given attention during changing the cab of a locomotive with passenger trains, report after necessary investigation all cases of
single loco or multiple loco is given as under: time lost on loco account as well as time made up by drivers; 2
(A). Cab changing in single loco: Following should be done plan in consultation with the PPIO of the shed and move the
step by step.1. Application of loco brake with SA9 or loco locos to the shed for scheduled inspections and unscheduled
brake.2. Switching off the DJ and lowering the pantograph.3. repairs and obtain forecast of locos likely to be made fit by the
Removing the ZPT key, BL key and MPJ from the cab. 4. sheds and plan the movement of such locos for clearing traffic,
Closing the isolating cock of loco and train brake in the cab and in coordination with the Traffic Controller; 3. Maintain liaison
putting the handle of loco brake and train brake in released with contiguous divisions in respect of "balancing" of crews; 4.
position.5. Going to the next cab and putting the BL key, ZPT Watch the detention to electric locos as well as electrical
key and MPJ key in position. ZPT key should be put at running staff in yards and sections and take remedial action in
appropriate position to raise the pantograph.6. DJ should be coordination with the Traffic Controller 5. watch train operation
closed and MPJ handle should be moved to forward position.7. in order to avoid excessive waiting duty for running staff and
The isolating cock of SA9 and A9 i.e. loco brake and train brake take remedial action as required in coordination with the Traffic
should be opened and the brake should be released by moving Controller; 6. Guide staff in trouble shooting if they are stuck up
the handle of the loco brake in released position. on line; 7. send back to the homing shed of foreign Railway
(B). Cab changing in multiple loco: Following additional loco due to scheduled inspection; 8 study cases of running staff
points are to be checked/done in case of multiple loco when the performing more than prescribed hours of duty at a stretch and
cab is changed from one loco to other loco. (The items 1 to 7 as take necessary remedial action to avoid recurrence; 9. Prepare
explained above are followed in case of cab changing in the locomotive charts.
multiple loco also).1. The position of the MU2B valve in the (C). Duties of Chief Loco Inspector (CLI) In addition to the
loco which will work as trailing should be kept in trail position. duties assigned by Sr. DEE/DEE/AEE (OP), he will carry out
Similarly, lead and trail cock should be open in leading loco and trials and checks on speed, signal visibility, riding quality of
closed in trailing loco.2. The position of the MU2B valve in locomotives; test staff of other departments as prescribed for
leading loco should be kept in lead position.3. In trailing loco, their knowledge of rules applicable to operation of Electric
loco brakes handle and train brakes handle bolt should be kept Locomotives and report to SR. DEE/DEE/AEE (OP), if any
in isolated condition. The loco brake and train brake of rear cab irregularities are noticed 2. Inspect locomotives particularly in
of leading loco should also be in isolated condition. The loco regard to safety items and take necessary action to get the
brakes and train brakes isolating cock should be open in defects attended by the home or outstation shed. A nominated
working cab (leading cab) of the locomotive. Loco Inspector designated as Senior/Chief Loco Inspector will
CC+6= axle load in tons (22.32), 6 tonne permitted overload, collect and scrutinize the speedometer charts regularly- 100%
2tonne loading tolerance. for passenger locos and 25% for goods locos and bring
CC+8= axle load in tons (22.82), 8 tonne permitted overload, 2 irregularities to the notice of Sr. DEE/DEE/AEE/(OP) for
tonne loading tolerance. appropriate corrective action. The assigned SLI/CLI shall keep a
……………………………………………………………….. watch on duty hours of the Running Staff and report the matter
Q15. DUTIES: to Sr. DEE/ DEE/AEE (OP) for taking suitable corrective
(A). Duties of Traction Crew Controller: 1. ensure that the measures.
staff reporting for duty are sober and not under the influence of Method of classification of safety category of running staff:
alcoholic drinks. All incoming staff will be subjected to breath- There are certain guidelines which are followed for deciding the
analysis before being allowed to perform the duty.2 .ensure that safety category of the driver. These guide lines are explained in
all running staff possess the valid competency certificates.3. this chapter. Total Marks for deciding A, B and C category to
Display of temporary speed restrictions in prominent manner at Drivers is given as under:
the booking offices.4. Notify the driver regarding existence of ‘A’ category -- 80 and above, ‘B’ category -- 60 to 79,‘C’
Short Neutral Section to avoid raising of both pantographs.5. category -- below 60
Arrange relief for running staff whenever asked for by the Performance Assessment Parameters for grading of Drivers into
Traction Loco Controller (TLC) to avoid running staff 'A'. 'B' & 'C'
performing more than the prescribed hours of duty at a stretch.6. 1). Driving Technique (a. Performance before starting, b.
Ensure that the outgoing locos / EMUs are provided with full Performance after starting, c. Engineer man ship, d. Whistles
complement of tools, emergency telephones, fire extinguishers under different conditions)
and other essential consumable stores.7. Ensure filling of sand 2). Knowledge of safety & Operating Rules ((a). Road learning
in sand-boxes of locos and EMUs and availability of dry and Knowledge & location of following, (b). Location of signals &
clean sand at all outstations and booking points.8. Investigate their signaling points, (c). Knowledge of safety Rules &
and report cases of time lost on loco account whenever reported Regulations, (d). Knowledge of Rules Books & latest correction
by the Traffic Controller; depute Driving/Loco Inspector slips, (e). Knowledge of working under abnormal conditions)
whenever required to investigate and collect more details as
3 Technical Knowledge & Trouble shooting ((a). Technical Types of cases in which CRS enquiry is conducted:
Knowledge, (b). Knowledge with regard to C & W fitments, (c). i) A statutory inquiry by a Commissioner of Railway Safety is
Trouble shooting capabilities) obligatory in every accident to a passenger-carrying train which
4 Personal Habits ((a). Discipline, (b). General attributes, (c). is attended with loss of human life or grievous hurt as defined in
Record keeping & paper work, (d). Hygiene) section 320 of the Indian penal Code or with serious damages to
5 Accident record, 6 Negative marks for Alcoholism,7 Grand Railway property of the value exceeding Rs. 25 Lakhs.
Total, 8 Signature of the Loco pilot, 9 Signature of the Loco ii) As defined in Section 320 of the Indian Penal Code,
Inspector following are the various injuries that should be considered as
……………………………………………………………… grievous. 1) Emasculation / permanent privation of sight, 2)
Q16. Signals: Permanent privation of hearing,3) Privation of a member or
(A). OUTER SIGNAL: In 2-aspect signalling where outer joint,4) Permanent disfiguration of head or face,5) Fracture or
signal is provided, will be the first stop signal of the station and dislocation of bone or tooth, 6) Unable to follow ordinary
shall be placed not less than 400 metres in rear of the point upto pursuits for > 20 days (hospitalization). iii) Commissioner of
which the line may be obstructed after the line clear has been Railway safety may also inquire into any accident which, in the
given to the station in rear. On single line there should be at opinion of the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or the
least 580 metres between Outer and Home, so as to cater for Commissioner of Railway Safety, requires the holding of an
Block overlap and Signal overlap i.e. (400 + 180m) where injury at that level. The Chief Commissioner of Railways safety
advance starter or Shunt Limit Board is provided for shunting to do so. iv) The inquiry shall be obligatory only in those cases
facility in the face of an approaching train where the passenger skilled or grievously hurt were traveling in
(B). HOME SIGNAL: The Home Signal shall be located in the train. If a person traveling on the footboard / roof of
rear of all connections, and close to the first set of facing points passenger train is killed or grievously hurt or a person in run
clear of lock bar, or the fouling mark (if the first point is over at a level crossing or elsewhere on the railway rack, such
trailing) so as to protect the adjacent line. If it is found an inquiry in not obligatory. v) Workman’s train or ballast
necessary to increase the distance between the signal and the trains carrying workmen shall also be treated as passenger trains
first facing point beyond 180 metres, other arrangements for and in the event of a workmen getting killed or grievously
route holding must be made like lock retaining bar, with injured as a result of an accident to the train. CRS’ inquiry shall
successive interlocking or track circuits or SM’s route control. be obligatory.
(C). DISTANT SIGNAL: On single line or double line, the Procedure for acceptance of Report
distant signal shall be placed at an adequate distance i.e. Normal 1. Where the Commissioner of Railway Safety receives notice
breaking distance in rear of the first stop signal of the station or under section 113 of the Railways Act, 1989 (24 of 1989) of the
gate stop signal, which shall not be less than 1 km. occurrence of an accident which he considers of a sufficiently
(D). STARTER SIGNAL: The starter signal shall be placed at serious nature to justify such a course, he shall as soon as may
not less than 400 metres in advance of the Home Signal. Where be, notify the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety, the
a starter signal is provided for each converging line, it shall be Railway Board and the Head of the Railway Administration
so placed as to protect the adjacent running line or lines. Where concerned of his integration to hold an inquiry and shall, at the
only one starter is used for two or more converging lines, it shall same time, fix and communicate the date and place for the
be placed outside the connections on the line to which it applies inquiry. 2. As soon as CRS receives intimation about the
(E). ADVANCED STARTER: Unless approved under special occurrence of a serious accident, he proceeds to the site,
instructions, an advance starter shall be placed outside all conducts inspection of the accident site and collects all
connections on the line to which it applies. It shall be placed not particulars relevant to the accident. He then fix’s date time and
less than 180 metres from the outermost point on single line. On place for the injury, which is given publicity, in the medical
double line this distance may be reckoned from the starter if this Officers of the local Magistracy and police are separately
is not adequate enough, may be from the outermost point or advised of the inquiry. Members of public are invited to give
fouling point. evidence in the inquiry in person or to write to him. 3. The
(F). CALLING ON SIGNALS: A calling on signal is a concerned DRM will make available necessary office
subsidiary signal and has no independent existence. It is accommodation, secretarial assistance etc, to facilitate the
provided below a stop signal governing the approach of a train. inquiry. ADRM and concerned branch officers, like Sr. DSO,
“CALLING ‘ON’ signal can be a miniature semaphore arm type SR. DSTE, SR. DEE, SR. DME will render suitable
or colour light type in two aspect or multiple aspect territory. administrative and technical assistance to the CRS in conducting
…………………………………………………………….. the inquiry including ensuring availability of subordinated with
Q17. Levels of accident inquiry: relevant records, examination of evidence etc. 4. After
Depending upon the seriousness of an accident and the gravity completing the recording of evidences and collecting the
of its percussions, inquiries are ordered and conducted at either material and data, the CRS will return to his headquarters and
of the following levels for in-depth investigation: compiles the preliminary report. The copies of the preliminary
1. Non-Railway (1.1 Commission of inquiry,1.2 Commission of inquiry report will be furnished to the CCRS, Railway Board
Railway Safety (CRS),1.3 Magisterial of inquiry,1.4 Police and the concerned GM. If the CRS finds that the accident was
investigation.), 2. Railway (2.1 Major fault inquiry, 2.2 Minor caused by sabotage or train wrecking, he shall submit this
joint inquiry, 2.3 Departmental inquiry,) confidential report to the Director, intelligence Bureau, Ministry
1. Non- Railway: of Home Affairs, and Government of India. 5. CCRS, after
1.1 Commission of inquiry- ordered by Central Govt if in its considering the preliminary report, will convey his approval and
consideration under the commission of inquiries act 1952, 1.2 comments. The concerned HODs will study the preliminary
Commission of Railway Safety (CRS) – ordered by report and offer comments indicating whether the report is
Commissioner of Railway Safety, 1.3 Magisterial of inquiry - acceptable or any part thereof requires review. The chief Safety
District Magistrate who may be appointed in this behalf by the Officer will coordinate in getting the comments from different
local Government., 1.4 Police investigation - District HODs and obtaining the approval of the GM before forwarding
Magistrate or Magistrate directs to do so them to the CRS, CCRS and Railway Board. After receiving
2. Railway: 2.1 Major fault inquiry – GM orders, 2.2 Minor comments from the CCRS and the GM, the CRS will review the
joint inquiry – DRM orders, 2.3 Departmental inquiry – preliminary report and draw up his final report.
concerned HOD ……………………………………………………………….
Crew action when they see flasher light on, on opposite
Q18. Main Terms Used in 4A Statement: train: on seeing first acknowledge by switching on and off the
1) Average authorized stock: - This indicates the flasher light 3 times. The Driver of an approaching train, who
average no. of engine for the month. sees the flasher light or hears the short sharp whistles or
2) Average total no. on line: - This indicates the av. No. detonates the detonators placed for protection, shall bring his
of engines actually on line. train to halt in shortest possible time utilizing the emergency
(3) Average no. under or awaiting repair Ineffective fig. of braking systems. After bringing his train to a halt the Driver of
ele. Loco is calculated on hourly basis. An engine remaining the approaching train will give all possible assistance to the
under or awaiting repair for full day is equivalent to one Driver of the affected train.
(4) Average no. effective: - This is the availability of the loco ………………………………………………………………..
for traffic use. Therefore, average no. effective = Av. Total no. Q2. Functioning of VCD: The cycle has a preset period
on line minus Av. No. UR. normally set at 60 seconds. This cycle is automatically restarted
Average No. in use: The locomotive which are used by traffic or whenever the vigilance unit detects one of a number of external
any other department are to be accounted as per the use on inputs derived from other vehicle control functions under the
different services. The type of services which has been driver’s control from the active cab, the presence of which
classified for the locomotive use is given as under:- automatically infers that the driver has taken some positive
(i) Passenger service: - The locomotive used for action and is therefore vigilant.* The control functions include
passenger/mail/express services are accounted as loco used on Notch-up / Notch-down by the master controller (MP)*
passenger services. This is calculated as under: Operation of the sander, horn, Train Brake (A-9), Loco Brake
(ii) Mixed services: There are certain types of trains like parcel (SA9)* Operation of the Vigilance Push Button/pedal
trains, plantain special etc. These are counted as mixed services switch*Cycle time (T0) of 60 seconds.*The crew has to
and they are calculated as under:- acknowledge the device within T0 time by pressing a push
Total locos on mixed service = Total engine hrs on mixed button.* The vigilance cycle time (T0) starts again.* If the
services in a calendar day above acknowledgement is not received within T0 time, the
(iii) Goods services: Engines utilised for running goods service VCD shall begin flashing a warning light for a time period (T1)
are accounted as engine used on goods service and it is Sec.* If by the end of period T1, an acknowledgement by the
calculated as under:- crew has not been actuated, the VCD shall actuate an audible
Total locos on goods service = Total engine hrs on goods alarm for a time period (T2) sec. The warning light shall also
services continue to flash during this period. *If, by the end of period T2,
(iv) Shunting services: - There are certain engines in the yard or an acknowledgement is not received, the VCD system shall
sidings earmarked for shunting works only. Such engines are initiate penalty brake application, which shall continue for a
counted under shunting services. However, if the train engine is period T3 seconds, even if a reset acknowledgement is received
utilised for carrying out shunting work for that train, the during this (T3) time period. *The audible warning shall be
shunting engine hours are to be counted in pass/mixed for goods silent (stop) during the T3 time period. However, the flashing
services for which the train engine has been used for carrying warning light shall continue to flash as in period T2. * At the
out shunting work (v) Departmental services: There are number end of time period T3, warning flashing light shall extinguish
of usage of engine for departmental work of division. Such and device can then reset by setting master controller to off
engines are counted as departmental service. Following types of position and pressing reset push button.
services are counted as departmental services. a) Engine used ………………………………………………………………
for moving ballast trains and rails for engineering department. Q3. Panto Entanglement: - Out of this 50% of failures are on
b) Engines used for carrying out track maintenance work such account of panto entanglement. Therefore in view of this
as PQRS etc. c) Engines used as pilot engines which run for maintenance of OHE as well as pantograph plays a very
protection of trains. (vi) Banking services: Engines are required important role. Reduction in the cases of panto entanglement
to bank the heavier load on a steep gradient to avoid stalling of can be achieved by taking suitable remedial action.
the train. There are certain grade section in division where all (A). Reasons for Panto Entanglement-Panto entanglement
the goods train above certain load requires the help of a banking generally occurred due to following reasons-
engine. At such places a full time (round the clock) banking 1. OHE Defects
engine is provided. Engine hours used for banking a train is • Due to mal adjustment of turn outs & X-Over OHE
counted in the type of train it has been used. If a banking engine • Inclined dropper broken.
has been used for banking a goods train. The various terms • Bracket / Stay tube insulator failed and cantilever
used for preparation of 4A statement has already been explained hanging. “L” bracket of steady arm broken.
in the previous chapter 3.0.1. Now it is possible to prepare the • Non adjustments of OHE after track slewing.
4A statement. This statement is prepared every month and sent • In span dropper opened from catenary wire.
to Railway Board as format. • Adjustment / leveling of section insulators.
……………………………………………………………… • Centenary wire parting.
Q19. Short Notes: • Contact wire parting from RRA Clamp.
………………………………………………………………. • ATD SS wire rope failure.
Q1. Use of FLASHER LIGHT in following Conditions: 1). • Twisting (inclined) of PG clamp in jumpers.
When there is no tension in OHE for some time. 2). When you • Excessive sag on OHE
find obstructions on adjacent track. 3) Put ON flasher light if • Slipping of steady / drop arm hook clamp.
proceeding on wrong line. 4) If train stops due to emergency • Catenary wire snapped in side PG clamp.
operation of brakes not initiated by crew, the LP should assume • Swivel clip opened.
some portion of his train got derailed and should put ON flasher • Failure of 9 T insulator.
light to warn the driving crew of incoming train on opposite • Contact wire parting from joints.
track. It can be put off by verifying derailment not infringing • Leaning of OHE masts.
nearby track. 5). Train parting.6). Sudden heavy jerks/lurch. 7). • Non provision of GI sleeve on anti-falling rods at
Loco failure. 8). Rail fracture or weld fracture. 9). Derailment. T/Out, X-Over & Neutral Section.
10). Train brought to stand on gradient 2. Pantograph Defects
• Grooving / loosening of the wearing strip.
• Not free movement of both plungers and improper 7. Easier trouble shooting as status/ fault massages are displayed
lubrication. to crew in the cabs
• Damaged/cracked panto horn. 8. Easier to identify recurring problems by error log and event
• Missing split pins & fasteners from plungers. recording analysis
• Cracks / breakages on main springs. 9. Easier and least maintenance
• Sharp edges of wearing strip. 10. Improved reliability
• Improper leveling of panto pan. 11. Vigilance control and flexibility
• Transverse flexibility. ………………………………………………………………….
3. External Causes, such as a) Storms b) Bird hitting, c) Tree Q5. Running Allowances: Running staff are paid running
branches/foreign material hanging on OHE & roof of the allowance instead of TA. Certain percentage of the running
loco motive. d) Vandalism & theft causing damage to OHE. allowance is taken into account as pay for fixation of pension,
e) Overshooting of locomotive beyond engine stop limit. f) leave salary etc. The following allowances are paid to Running
Non observance of temporary caution order Staff: 1. Mileage (Kilometerage) Allowance: This is paid when
4. Loco Crew Related staff is engaged in running of train as per actual Kms of driving
• Loco going beyond stop limit and damaging Panto-pan performed. 2. Allowance in lieu of mileage: If the running staff
and 9 Ton Insulator is utilized for stationary duty in crew booking lobbies or
• Closing of loco Circuit Breaker on low pressure. inspectorial duties, the mileage in lieu of working at stationary
(B). Loco pilot do in case of panto entanglement: The officer duty is paid. 3 Waiting Duty Allowance: When running staff are
or supervisor of the Electrical Department arriving first at site of called for duty and keeps on waiting for duty due to
a breakdown, particularly those involving entanglement of administrative reasons, in such case, running staff gets the
pantographs with the OHE, should make a very careful note of mileage at the rate of 5 Kms per hour of waiting duty. 4.
all relevant details pertaining to the break-down and also Allowance for Ghat Section: Class I Ghat Section:- If the
prepare a sketch indicating the particulars. section is having a ruling gradient of 1 in 40 or steeper. Class II
• He will also arrange for preservation of such evidence Ghat Section :-If the section is having a ruling gradient of 1 in
as may be useful subsequently for investigating the cause of 80 or steeper but less than 1 in 40. The running staff working in
the breakdown. Ghat section, gets the mileage computation 5 times the actual
• Items to be checked on the pantograph and OHE are distance traveled in case of Class I ghat section and 3 times the
indicated in the Annexures 9.02 and 9.03. actual distance traveled in case of Class-II ghat section.
• Maintenance Staff, after ensuring that OHE is dead, …………………………………………………………………..
and earthed in association with OHE staff will climb on the Q6. . Speed Restrictions:
roof of the locomotive. Permanent Speed restrictions:
• They will remove the HPT links of the damaged 1. Drivers and Assistant Drivers must be fully conversant with
pantograph and earth it and will secure the pantograph with permanent as well as temporary speed restrictions. Permanent
wire rope from the base frame of the pantograph in such a speed restrictions are indicated in the working time table. 2.
manner that it does not come in contact with OHE during Temporary speed restrictions will be made known to the
the run. running staff at their booking office as under:
…………………………………………………………………. a) Every Driver should study "Temporary Speed Restrictions"
Q4. FDCS is RELAY BASED CONTROL SYSTEMS -Relay bulletin issued by the Division and sign the prescribed register
based protection and control systems consist of following four in acknowledgment of having read and understood the same. b)
parts a.DJ control circuit: Temporary speed restrictions imposed by the Engineering,
1). Faults include ICDJ, Signal and Electrical Departments are communicated to the
2). DJ tripping in 0.6 seconds (Faults in GR ckt) running office through messages and are displayed' on the
3). DJ tripping after 5.6 seconds (Faults in auxiliary control notice boards at the booking points. c) Caution orders as
circuit), b). Monitoring of auxiliaries c). Traction Control prescribed in the General and Subsidiary Rules will be issued
Circuit (Wheel Slip Protection etc.) d). Control of the signalling for all temporary speed restrictions.
circuit Relay based protection and ……………………………………………………………….
4). control systems Q7. Automatic signalling
a) Frequent and specialized maintenance of relays A. Double Line *The line shall be provided with continuous
b) Calibration needed for Time Delay Relay Relays track circuiting or with axle counters.*The line between two
c) Complex control cabling, large amount of cabling adjacent block stations may, when required, be divided into a
d) Difficulties in trouble shooting series of automatic block signaling sections each of which is the
e) Wear and Tear of Large Quantity of moving parts portion of the running line between two consecutive Stop
f) Records of DJ tripping and other occurrences are signals, and*The entry into each of which is governed by a Stop
maintained manually: signal, and The track circuits or axle counters shall so control
i. Inconsistent records the Stop signal governing the entry into an automatic block
ii. Incomplete information signalling section that –*(i) the signal shall not assume an 'off'
iii. Inaccurate failure investigation aspect unless the line is clear not only up to the next Stop signal
Advantages of FDCS: This system has the following in advance but also for an adequate distance(Unless otherwise
advantages over the conventional control system: directed by approved special instructions, the adequate distance
1. Elimination of a numbers of relays (Time delay relays, shall not be less than 120 metres) beyond it, and the signal is
sequential relays, indication relays, no volt relay Q30 and over automatically placed to 'on' as soon as it is passed by the train.
voltage relay Q 20) ………………………………………………………………
2. Elimination of notch indication system. Q8. Features of crew friendly cab:
3. Enhancement of availability of locomotive better, comfortable & adjustable seats; more leg space ; better
4. Reduction in numbers of interlocks required door locks, windows sliding arrangement ; better amenities such
5. Reduction in size of master controller as air-conditioning, toilets, drinking water, tea making
6. Reduction in control wiring 7.Fault diagnosis, indication and arrangements, temperature control etc. ; better Cab lighting,
recording better signal track visibility ; ergonomic features improving
access to various controls and ease of handling ; superior
aesthetics, colour scheme, finish, interior décor; injury free strategic advantages to both Indian Railways and its customers,
features ; aerodynamic profile ; noise, vibration, dust proofing, some of them are: Extension of the current business practice of
safety features like driver’s view, headlight, large size rear view bulk movement of freight traffic in trainload formations to
mirror, auto-flasher etc.. piecemeal traffic to increase the market share by clubbing and
……………………………………………………………… moving together similar type of stock in 'Hub and Spoke'
Q9. A Regenerative braking: is an energy recovery arrangement. Global tracking of consignments in real-time,
mechanism which slows a vehicle or object down by converting whether in rakes or in individual wagons Facilitate acceptance
its kinetic energy into another form, which can be either used (customer's orders), billing and cash accountal of freight traffic
immediately or stored until needed. This contrasts with from identified nodal customer centres which may not
conventional braking systems, where the excess kinetic energy necessarily be the handling terminals. Foundation for a
is converted to heat by friction in the brake linings and therefore complete logistics management system furnishing real time
wasted. information on the chain of physical distribution, an essential
Dynamic braking is the use of the electric traction motors of element in reducing inventory costs, is being laid through FOIS.
a railroad vehicle as generators when slowing the locomotive. It ………………………………………………………………
is termed rheostat if the generated electrical power is dissipated Q13. CMS: Centre for Railway Information Systems New
as heat in brake grid resistors, and regenerative if the power is Delhi, an IT development unit for Indian Railways, has
returned to the supply line. Dynamic braking lowers the wear developed a software named 'Crew Management System',
of friction-based braking components, and additionally wherein bookings of this sensitive category of people, which
regeneration can also lower energy consumption. Dynamic was done manually till now and monitored at various levels by
braking can also be used on railcars multiple units. Inspectors and Officers, is arranged through software. Crew
……………………………………………………………… Management System (CMS) is a unique system in which
Q10. A Brake Continuity test :on air brakes MUST invariably accuracy and monitoring is automatically maintained.
be conducted in the manner detailed below, in the following The CMS system is being implemented in the Railways Lobbies
circumstances: At the Originating station.1) When a fresh at 306 lobby (Location where Railways crew are booked)
locomotive or additional locomotive is attached.2) Whenever locations with touch screen along with biometric devices for
any vehicle is attached or detached.3)When brake pipe is Sign-On/Off of crew from their duties.
disconnected to rectify any defect .The test is conducted by the The Crew Management System software has a unique feature of
guard upon receiving acknowledgement that the brake pipe is booking the crew through SMS.
charged. The guard applies brakes in a documented method and System generated alerts are also sent to the required personnel
the driver acknowledges this when a specific drop in pressure is With the help of the Crew Management System software, sign
observed in the gauges located in the locomotive. In the absence on/sign off of crew members has become extremely easy. At the
of a guard, an employee from the Carriage & Wagon lobby, they are provided with Kiosks, where they use their
department performs the test. At major stations and at crew thumb impression to sign on/sign off. This has removed the
change points, Carriage & Wagon department employees need of their signing in registers or remembering passwords. It
perform a similar test and hand over the Brake Certificate to the is very user friendly and easily adaptable by the crew.
driver by observing the pressure drop from an SLR coach or BA (Breathalyzer) capabilities are being added to Kiosks
pantry car nearest to locomotive. For passenger trains, the guard Benefits of Crew Management System:
signs the Brake Certificate and sends it to the driver through the All crewing information is readily available through a common
C&W employee. The driver will NOT start the rake unless he data platform.
receives this certificate. The guard and driver also communicate • All offices are synchronized at all times.
over the walkie-talkie the pressure readings that are observed. • Graphical User Interface for planning as well as for running
……………………………………………………………… daily operations with full checking mechanism.
Q11. Adhesion: it is the grip or force of attachment produced • Time saving: crewing and payroll data need only be entered
by friction between wheels and is required to keep the once.
wheels from slipping. Coefficient of adhesion is the ratio of • A combined system for crewing and payroll saves time and
“maximum value of tractive effort which can be transmitted to money
the wheel” divided by the “effective value of load on the driving CMS database holds all the necessary information about each
axle”. crew member including: basic data such as name, address,
Factors affecting adhesion: 1.effect of speed= adhesion is gender, nationality, date of birth and phone numbers
maximum at start and then reduces with speed.2.rail condition Personal skills such as language speaking and professional skills
and weather condition= wet rails reduces adhesion. Oily rails such as the types of Crew and trainers' qualifications.
drastically reduces adhesion. Sanding helps. Dry leaves and coal ………………………………………………………………
dust also reduces adhesion. 3. Reduction of adhesion on curves= Q14. Composite C/BB/K brake block is a rigid moulded
the angle subtended between the wheel flange and the gauge friction material, grey-black in colour, having a random fibre
face of the rail is called the angle of attack. Increase in angle of asbestos base and containing metallic particles. It is
attack by 1 degree as on curves reduces the adhesion by half. 4. manufactured only in the form of brake blocks, integrally
Effect of weight transfer.5.effect of draw bar pull.6. Effect of moulded to a back plate. This material was originally developed
traction motor nose. 7. Effect of vertical shocks. 8. Effect of to have the ability to withstand the heavy braking demands of
performance characteristics of TM. 9. Effect of TM combination Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) stock, operating suburban
in series or in parallel. 10. Method of traction control. 11. passenger services. Its use has since been extended to a range of
Enginemanship duties from low speed shunting locomotives to high speed
Method to improve adhesion= 1. Bogie design. 2. TMs in passenger trains. C/BB/K has a higher and more stable
parallel, 3. Field weakening of slipping TMs. 3.stepless control coefficient of friction than the conventional cast iron block
4.sanding 5.crep control which it replaces, resulting in lower application forces and
……………………………………………………………… permitting the use of smaller cylinders. It is a conformable
Q12. FOIS: This led to CMC's freight operations information block designed to eliminate thermal cracking of tyres, which
system (FOIS), an integrated information and management had hitherto been a barrier to the widespread use of composition
system for controlling and monitoring the multifarious activities blocks. C/BB/K Block has several fold advantages in life over
in freight operations. The FOIS has been designed to give major cast iron blocks and thus significantly lengthens service periods.
It is particularly beneficial in those situations where hot cast 5) Unless otherwise directed by approved special
iron dust would present a safety hazard. Spark-free blocks are instructions, the adequate distance shall not be less than 120
essential in oil refineries, chemical works and ordinance metres.
factories. The composition block has much to offer in the 6) Under special instructions, one of the
braking of passenger rail, minimising braking shocks by its automatic stop signal between two stations in the automatic
smoother action and permitting higher load/tare factor. Indian territory in each direction may be made as modified semi-
Railways have been successfully using composition brake automatic stop signal;
blocks for EMU rakes for over three decades, even in monsoon 7) The mid section modified semi-automatic stop
conditions. signal will be interlocked with the signals of the station
……………………………………………………………… ahead. Indications whether the signal is in normal automatic
Q15. Composite vs. Cast Iron Brake Block: mode or modified automatic mode shall be available to the
Advantages of Composite Brake block over Cast Iron Brake SM of both end.
block are: 8) When mid section signal working with ‘A’
1. Coefficient of friction between brake block and wheel sign extinguished, the Advance starter signal of the station
is more. in rear be taken ‘OFF’ only when the line is clear up to an
2. Less braking distance adequate distance beyond the mid-section semi-automatic
3. Less weight stop signal.
4. Less wheel tear and wear Similarly the mid-section modified semi automatic signal
5. Better braking and control shall assume ‘OFF’ aspect automatically or be taken ‘OFF’
Disadvantages: when the line is clear up to an adequate distance beyond the
1. Costly Home signal of the station ahead.
2. Less heat dissipation due to poor heat conductivity ………………………………………………………………
3. Chances of getting cracks higher Q17. Effect of Gear Ratio on Tractive Effort
4. Frequent replacement required due to high wear and A gearbox links the traction motor shaft to the train axle in order
tear to step down the rotational speed since motors run much faster
5. Frequent adjustment between wheel and brake block than axles! As power = force x speed, and assuming that there
required are no losses in the gearbox, as the rotational speed at the axle is
……………………………………………………………… reduced, the force or torque at the axle is increased.
Q16. Absolute Block System and Automatic Block System: Consequently, re-gearing is often used as a means of obtaining a
Ans: Absolute Block System Section to Be Divided in two: revised traction characteristic to suit alternative service patterns.
A. Station Sections. Under unitary control of concerned Station The effect of changing gear ratio is to change the train speed at
Master. which full load can be applied continuously without thermal
B. Block Section. Under dual control of both adjoining damage to the motors.
concerned Station Masters. No train may enter in to block Therefore:
section without mutual agreement and operation between both 1. Increasing the gear ratio reduces the minimum speed (hence
the concerned. (Line Clear & Authority to Proceed) increases torque) at which a given locomotive can operate
Essentials of Absolute Block System L/C may not be granted safely.
unless 2. Reducing the gear ratio, increases the maximum speed at
i. On double line the line is clear , not only up to the first which a given locomotive can operate without mechanical
stop signal at the block station at which such line clear damage to the motors.
is given , but also for an adequate distance(AD 400 ………………………………………………………………
MTS IN TWO ASPECT L.Q. OR CLS & 180 MTS IN Q18. Effect of Wheel Diameter on Tractive Effort
MA/UQ – CLS AND MLQ) beyond it. As the wheels wear down, the tractive effort characteristic will
ii. On single line the line is clear of the trains running in change! A change in the wheel diameter is effectively a change
the same direction not only up to the first stop signal at of gear ratio, and consequently as the wheels get smaller the
the Block station at which line clear is given but also starting TE will increase. However, as this also means that the
for an adequate distance beyond it. And is clear of the axle speed becomes higher for any given train speed, the TE at
trains running in the direction towards the block station higher speeds will fall off more rapidly. When train
to which such L/C is given. performance is being predicted, it is normal to assume the
The Automatic Block System: average half-worn wheel diameter.
Double Line: ………………………………………………………………
1) The line shall be provided with continuous Q19. Items checked by crew at major halt:
track circuiting or with axle counters. Pre-departure inspections for a train include testing the brake
2) The line between two adjacent block stations system continuity for the entire rake, locomotive inspection by
may, when required, be divided into a series of automatic the crew (checking fuel and oil levels, inspecting the traction
block signalling sections each of which is the portion of the equipment, the bogies, etc. The guard ensures the availability of
running line between two consecutive Stop signals, and safety equipment, last-vehicle indications and warning lamps,
3) The entry into each of which is governed by a etc. En route at important stations where the train stops, the
Stop signal, and wheels/axles and bogies of the rake are checked: visual
4) The track circuits or axle counters shall so inspection to check for defects, trailing or hanging equipment,
control the Stop signal governing the entry into an automatic etc., using a mallet to test the bogie fittings, using contact or
block signalling section that – non-contact thermometers to detect hot bearings or axles. At
(i) the signal shall not assume an 'off' aspect unless the line many stations, track-side fluorescent or halogen lamps are
is clear not only up to the next Stop signal in advance provided to help in this inspection.
but also for an adequate distance beyond it, and ………………………………………………………………
(ii ) the signal is automatically placed to 'on' as soon as it is Q20. Effect of TM combination in series or in parallel:
passed by the train. Wheel-slipping of one axle causes the speed of that TM to
increase, in turn increasing the back-emf, thus reducing the
current. Now if TM groups are in series, the current-reduction in
slipping TM will also cause current-reduction in other TM in precautions to be observed for the movement of the loco. CRS
series with it, so developing slipping in additional TM. Whereas in turn will then forward the same to the Secretary (Works),
TMs in parallel will not be affected by slipping of one TM. Railway Board along with his recommendations. Engineering
Hence 6-P combination of TMs give better adhesion than 2S-3P Directorate at the Railway Board will finally communicate the
or 3S-2P combination. sanction based on the safety certificate issued by CEE, CE,
……………………………………………………………… CSTE, COPS and CME and comments of the concerned CRS
Q21. Merits and demerits of Diesel and Electric Loco: for the provisional running of the rolling stock.
Ans: Advantages include: Based upon the results of trials RDSO will issue a Final Speed
1. Lower running cost of locomotives and multiple units Certificate indicating the maximum speed for which the new
2. Higher power-to-weight ratio, resulting in stock is considered fit, mentioning therein special precautions to
a) Fewer locomotives be observed, if any. Based upon this certificate, the user
b) Faster acceleration Railway will issue a speed certificate signed jointly by CE,
c) Higher practical limit of power CEE, CME and CSTE and send the same to concerned
d) Higher limit of speed Commissioner of Railway Safety (CRS).
3. Less noise pollution (quieter operation) ………………………………………………………………
4. Lower power loss at higher altitudes Q24. Duty Hours and Running Allowances to Running
5. Lack of dependence on crude oil as fuel Staff:
Disadvantages include: Various types of allowances paid to running staff.
1. Significant cost of electrification 1. As we know, there are four category of Railway staff as given
2. Increased maintenance cost of the lines under:
3. Overhead wires further limit the clearance in tunnels 1. Continuous
……………………………………………………………… 2. Intensive
1. Q22. Static vs Arno: 3. Essentially intermittent
Limitations of ARNO convertor- 1.Poor efficiency due to 4. Excluded.
rotary converter 2.It consumes 30 KVA 3.Wide variation in The duty hours for running staff is counted from sign ON to
output voltage & frequency due to OHE variations (- sign OFF. The running staff are classified as continuous. The
20%,+30%) 4.Causing over heating & counter torque duty hours for the running staff is as under:-
production 5.Possibility of auxiliary motors failure and i) Max. Hrs to be utilized in a fortnight. = 104 hours
weakening its insulation due to DOL starting 6. Lower system ii) No. of periodical rest in a month = 4 rests of 30 hrs each or 5
reliability due to usage of EM contactors and time delay relays rests of 22 hrs each including a night in bed.
7. Switching surges due to DOL switching of loads 8.Power 2. Normally, running staff are not put on duty for more than 10
losses during start-up of ARNO (split-phase method) 9.High hrs at stretch. They can claim rest after performing 12 hours
system start-up time due to delayed switching of auxiliary duty provided they have given 2 hours notice.
motors. 3. Running staff should not perform night duty for more than 6
Advantages of SIV- 1.High efficiency (>92%) 2.Balanced and consecutive nights. They should not be out of headquarters for
stable 3-phase output voltage 3. (voltage –415V ± 5% & more than 3 or 4 days continuously.
frequency – 50Hz ± 3%) 4.No overheating/counter torque 4. Periodical rest should include the full night rest. This rest
problem (Due to output voltage & current THD<5%) 5.Soft should normally be given in a week.
starting feature eliminates auxiliary motor failures on account of HQ rest to running staff:
switching surges and harmonics 6.Higher system reliability due 1. The Headquarter rest is given as under: i) For duty less than 8
to elimination of EM contactor and time delay relay 7.Extensive hours = 12 hours rest
fault diagnostics & monitoring, with real time clock and fault ii) For duty more than 8 hours = 16 hours rest
downloading features .8.Direct interface with microprocessor Outstation rest for Running staff:-
based loco controller & indication for Loco pilots 9.Inbuilt 1. Outstation rest is given as under:-
protection like over load, single phasing, Earth fault and short i) For duty hrs of 8 hrs or more = 8 hrs rest
circuit 10.Inbuilt battery charger and automatic restart feature in ii) For duty hrs less than 8 hrs = half an hour rest for each hour
case of transient fault of duty (Normally Min. 6 hrs. outstation rest is given).
……………………………………………………………… 2. While giving the HQ or outstanding rest as above, 2 hrs call
Q23. Commissioning of New type of Rolling Stock: Role of time is also added.
CRS: 3. Running staff accompanying dead/trial engine:-
Sanction is required from the CRS in respect of – When accompanying such engines, they may be allowed 2/3 rd
1. Introduction of electric traction on any railway or section of a of the time spent in journey, but if they travel in engine while on
railway. trial they will be entitled to full credit of whole time spent on
2. Bringing into use any new type of electric locomotive or journey.
EMU or to operate any in service at speeds higher than those ………………………………………………………………
already sanctioned. The term "New Type" includes: Q25. Paper line clear: The permission obtained on paper by a
a) Any alteration made in the existing rolling stock which will block station from a block station in advance for a train to leave
have an effect on the riding characteristics of the rolling stock, the former and to proceed towards the later.
Generally, the points to be considered are axle load, unsprung ………………………………………………………………
mass, primary and secondary suspension systems and load Q26. DPWCS (Dynamic Power Wireless Control System): It
transfer arrangements between body and bogies and bogies and allows multiple locomotives to be used at different locations
wheel sets. over entire train consist. Such a system leverages the existing
b) Any alteration in the traction electrical system which is likely rolling stock and allows much longer trains to be run by minor
to interfere with signalling system. up gradation of the locomotives.
On receipt of the Provisional Speed Certificate by RDSO, an  Provides coupling between locos through RF communication.
application is made by the Chief Engineer of the concerned  Makes it possible to couple maximum of 4 locomotives to the
Railway to the concerned CRS for obtaining sanction. This is Lead locomotives which can be connected in between or at the
accompanied by Safety Certificate issued by CEE, CE, CSTE end of the train.
and CME. This certificate details restriction imposed and
 It contains: due to orders of the superiors, the superiors even at officer’s
 “Control and Communication Unit” – One No. level should be held accountable.
 “Driver Interface Units” – Two Nos., one in each cab ………………………………………………………………
 “Brake Interface Unit” – One No. Q28. Trip inspection of loco or EMU: safety and reliability
Function of DPWCS: 1). The system ensures authorized items
Login, 2). The system considers BP continuity for Grouping, 3). Ans: Trip inspection: The trip inspection is mainly required for
Intelligent Neutral section negotiation is possible on all remote topping of oils, distilled Water in batteries and attention to
Loco. 4). Pantograph lowering at trailing Locos corresponding various minor defects which have been recorded in the log
to the Lead is possible. 5). Train parting is identified and the book, During Trip Inspection the engine examiner should
same is indicated on the DIU. 6). Dynamic Brake is 1. Carry out detailed checks in regard to any unusual
synchronised on the Trail Loco. 7). On communication Failure occurrence reported by the Drivers in the loco log-book
the trailing Loco should come to zero notch. On resumption the 2. Visually inspect the auxiliaries for satisfactory starting
self-test shall be performed to ensure the identity and of trail and operation.
loco and indication to be provided at DIU. 8). If the Lead loco 3. Feel by hand the temperature of axle roller bearings.
fails it is possible to work the train from the Lead at a restricted 4. Visually inspect mechanical components like springs,
speed through DIU. 10). It is possible to shutdown/energies dampers etc. and the brake rigging to detect any
remote locos from the lead locomotive through Driver interface abnormality.
unit. 11). Possible to control traction notches or Braking notches Safety items of the under frame of locomotives
from Lead locomotive through Driver interface unit. 12). i) Rail guard and cattle guard should be proper with no sign of
System is capable of identifying fault during the operation and damage or deformation.
displaying on DIU. 13). Complete synchronizing of Remote ii) Equalising beams, equiliser safety bracket and tie bolt should
Locomotive with the Lead Locomotive. 14). BP Continuity be without any crack. The bolts of the safety bracket
check before grouping two locomotives. 15). Automatic Neutral should not be loose or deficient.
Section Negotiation in remote locos. 16). Manual Traction iii) Helical springs of the locomotive should be without crack.
Control for remote locos. 17). Sensing of Train Partings. 18). iv)Safety ‘J’ clamp and safety slings of brake rigging should be
Fail Safe Logics. 20). All parameters of Remote Locomotive in proper condition.
available at Lead Locomotive screen. 21). User Friendly v) Availability of axle box liners in position.
operation. vi) Brake block condition – it should not be tilted or broken.
……………………………………………………………… vii) Traction motor suspension lock pin should be intact.
Q27. How are communications or signals failures handled? viii) Traction motor gear case fixing bolt should not be loose or
In case of signalling equipment or block equipment failure (e.g., deficient.
power failure, floods), if communications can be established Safety items of loco body
between adjacent stations (by telephone on the public network 1) Effectiveness of hand brake.
or control telephones of the railway network, or in the past, by 2) Condition of screw coupling.
telegraph or bell code), paper line clear tickets may be issued to 3) Lock pin of CBC and clavis condition
trains to proceed. Such paper authority is given along with issue 4) Proper securing and fittings of Buffer
of private numbers by station masters to establish proper 5) Availability of foot steps
authorization, authentication, non-repudiation of the action. 6) Effectiveness of horns
Paper or verbal authority to proceed (with issue of private 7) Speedometer recording-cum-indicator unit in Cab-1 and Cab-
numbers) can also be given by section controllers if 2 are in working condition.
communications have broken down between adjacent stations. 8) Availability of fire extinguisher
If there is a total breakdown of communications, the station 9) Portable telephone in working condition
master of a station can still issue a paper authority to proceed to 10) Battery box bracket
the first scheduled train departing a station, subject to a 11) Flasher are working in both cabs
restriction to run at or under 15km/h and a requirement to sound 12) Marker lights at both cabs are working
the horn or whistle freely to alert any possible oncoming train 13) Both head light with proper focus
1.In a single line station, in case of any defect in block 14) Availability of earthings poles and cables
instrument whereby paper line clear ticket has to be introduced, 15) Panto pan and leveling rod condition
signal and telecom inspectors should reach the station ……………………………………………………………….
immediately, within one hour of occurrence of such failure. 2. Q29. Items checked by crew at major halt
In case the failure is not rectified within three hours, the Pre-departure inspections for a train include testing the brake
sectional T.I. or any other nearby supervisory station master system continuity for the entire rake, locomotive inspection by
should go to the station for assisting the staff there and to ensure the crew (checking fuel and oil levels, inspecting the traction
that all rules are meticulously adhered to and appropriate equipment, the bogies, etc. The guard ensures the availability of
authority for each and every train issued, taking care that there safety equipment, last-vehicle indications and warning lamps,
are no mistakes. 3. In such incidents, section controller should etc. En route at important stations where the train stops, the
also ensure that no crossing or precedence is arranged at a wheels/axles and bogies of the rake are checked: visual
station where such failure is continuing. 4. Similar precautions inspection to check for defects, trailing or hanging equipment,
to be taken during introduction of single line working in double etc., using a mallet to test the bogie fittings, using contact or
line sections. 5. In case of failure of block instruments in double non-contact thermometers to detect hot bearings or axles. At
line section, similar action should be taken for rectifying the many stations, track-side fluorescent or halogen lamps are
failure in three hours. Section controller should not allow provided to help in this inspection.
precedence at such stations till the instruments are put right. 6. ………………………………………………………………….
Further, in case the senior supervisors mentioned above do not Q30. DUTIES OF OFFICER'S ON ACCIDENT SITE:
reach the station where such failure occurred within the Ensure proper protection of the adjacent track and preserving
stipulated period and there is mishap, they should be held clue/evidence of accident.2. Ensure that the load is protected
equally responsible for the same. In case the non-attendance is against rolling down, by putting hand brakes and wedges. 3.
Check whether Medical van and Break Down train are required
and order accordingly. 4. Provide first aid to victims and
transport injured passengers to nearest hospital. 5. Collect
following particulars and inform the higher officials and
controllers from the site of accident. A) Time and date of
accident. B) Train No. and description of train/Trains C) Block
section/station location, Kilometer age of accident site. D) Brief
description of accident and site. E) Casualty/injury particulars if
any. F) Condition of derailed coaches/wagons if any and speed
restrictions to be imposed. G) Damaged condition of Track,
OHE, Rolling stocks, S&T fitting etc. H) In case of level
crossing accident- the type of road vehicle, casualty and
obstruction on track. I) Prima facie cause of the accident, if
known. J) In case of fire, the Coach/wagon No., material
involved in fire, additional fire extinguishers required, if any. K)
Any other relevant information.
Q31. Run-In: coupler - slack rapid change (compressed)
*rear section of a train traveling at faster speed than the front
portion, *Reason: sudden braking
Run-Out :( stretched)
*rear section of a train traveling at slower speed stretches than
the front portion, *Reason: sudden acceleration cause sudden
jerk results into breakage of coupling
Why do Run-in & Run-out occur? *Sudden application of
brakes, *Change in gradient,*Sudden change in speed, *in -built
gap between locked knuckles.

Q32. Integrated Lobby - These are lobbies set up in major
junction points to co-ordinate the train ordering activities.
Crew booking, Guard booking, Power everything is done in
the same lobby with an aim to minimise detention and
maximise the crew / power utilisation.
Q33. Attaching/detaching loco: when the leading locomotive/s
of a multiple unit consist is/are detached and the train is to
proceed with the locomotive remaining, the driver of the latter
must, before departure, make an application and release of the
train brakes and must be satisfied that the air brake is in good every such cases the original train examination
certificates must be transferred to the new leading locomotive.
………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………….