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KNH 5043 Communication and Information Management

Management Information System (MIS)

Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr Al-Khalid Othman


(okhalid@unimas.my)
Course By the end of this section,
Outcomes participants should be able to:
1- Understand the
Concept of Information 3- Describe and
Appreciate the Principles
and Elements of
Management Information
System (MIS)
2- Differentiate the
Types of Information
System 4- Describe the
Concept of Health MIS
CONTENTS
KNH 5043 Communication and Information Management
Introduction to Information Foundation Concept of
Management System Health MIS
Basic Information Concepts  Types of Health Information
Characteristics of Systems
Information  The Critical Issues
Quality of Information affecting the Introduction
Information Needs of Health Management
Information Systems

Management Information The Role of


System Model Information Systems
Principles and Elements of in Healthcare:
MIS Current Research and
Information Requirements Future Trends
for MIS
Basic Information

What is Information?

What is Information System (IS)?

What is Information Management?

What is Management Information


The Concept
System (MIS)?
What is Health Management
Information System (HMIS)?
Basic Information Concepts

System Information System


A collection of components that work A system that provides information support to
together to achieve a common objective1 the decision-making process at each level of an
organization2

Health Information System Health Management


A system that integrates data collection, processing, Information System
reporting, and use of the information necessary for An information system specially designed to assist in the
improving health service effectiveness and management and planning of health programmes, as
efficiency through better management at all levels of opposed to delivery of care
health services3
The Concept of Information

Facility managers take decisions, prepare plans and control their company’s activities
using information that they can obtain either from form all sources or through informal
channels such as face-to-face conversations, telephone calls, social contacts, etc.

Managers are challenged by an increasingly complex and uncertain


environment. In these circumstances, managers should theoretically be
able to define and obtain the type of information they require.

However, this is not what happens in practice; rather, the way


The Scenario: managers perform their work depends on the available information that
Issues & they have access to.

Challenges Most decisions are therefore made in the absence of absolute knowledge, either
because the information is not available or because access to it would be very
costly.

Transformation
Data
Process
Information
Despite the difficulties in obtaining information, managers need relevant
information on which to base their planning, control and decision-making
functions.
The Concept of Information

Data
Data
Non-random symbols that • Data are facts obtained through reading, observation,
represent the values of calculation, measurement, etc.
attributes or events. • Data are obtained automatically, the result of a routine
procedure such as invoicing or Measurement processes.

Information
Information • Is a set of data transformed in such a way that it helps to
Set of data transformed in such a reduce future uncertainty and, therefore, contributes to
way that it helps to reduce the decision-making process.
future uncertainty and, • It has a real or perceived value for that person when he
therefore, contributes to the or she acts or takes decisions.
decision-making process. • Is data that have been interpreted and understood by the
recipient of the message.

Information
Decision Making
Action
Note: Information will be meaningful in so far as it provides useful raw
Process material for taking a specific decision.
Discussion
Discuss what are the data and
information received or
required in your organization.

Discuss what are the characteristics of


information. (What do you expect the
information to be?)

Discuss what are the issues and challenges


of dissemination of information in your
organization.
Characteristics of Information

Good information provides value. Experience shows that good information should
present the following qualities:

Relevance Accuracy Completeness Source


Trustworthiness

Communication Punctuality Detail Comprehension


with the Right
Person
Relevance

What is Information?

What is Information System (IS)?

What is Information Management?

What is Management Information


Characteristics System (MIS)?
of Information
What is Health Management
Information System (HMIS)?
Accuracy

Information must be sufficiently accurate for


managers’ purposes.
No information is totally accurate, and spending more
on information in pursuit of greater accuracy does not
always result in more valuable information.
The degree of accuracy should be coherent with the
importance of the decision to be taken and will vary
according to the decision-maker’s level in the
Characteristics of
hierarchy.
Information
The degree of information accuracy required
will depend on the hierarchical level in
question.
Completeness

In an ideal world, all the information


required to take a decision would be
available; however in reality this is not
possible.

Information is considered to be
completed if it informs us on the key
Characteristics of points of the problem we are analysing.
Information
Source Trustworthiness

Trust in the information source increases when it


has a proven track record.

To increase the trustworthiness of the message,


managers use reports from various sources,
Characteristics particularly where strategic decisions are
of Information concerned.
Communication with the Right Person
Each manager in the company is assigned a specific
area of activity and responsibility and must receive
information to undertake the tasks he or she is
responsible for. However, this process does not
always function as well as it should, and information
may not reach the right level in the organisation.
For instance, a superior might not provide all the
information to the person who needs it, and vice
versa; a subordinate may hold back information in an
Characteristics attempt to make him or herself indispensable.
of Information
Information providers must be aware of information
needs in order to ensure it goes straight to where it is
required.
Punctuality

Good information is that which is delivered just


when it is needed.

Vital information for the company may become


worthless if it takes too long to obtain, or delays
occur in processing and communicating the
information.

Often, companies routinely produce reports at


Characteristics fairly arbitrary intervals (daily, weekly or monthly)
of Information following traditions or calendar conventions
without taking into account the time cycle of the
activity involved.
Detail

Information should contain the minimum number of


details for effective decision making

Every superfluous character or data entails extra


storage efforts, more processing, more assimilation
of difficulties and probably inferior decisions.

The level of detail should vary with the level in the


Characteristics organisation: the higher the level in an organisation,
of Information the greater the degree of aggregation and synthesis.
Comprehension

Comprehension is what transforms data into


information.

If the information is not understood it cannot be


used and therefore it cannot add value.

Many factors intervene in understanding information:


Characteristics – User preferences. Some people prefer information
of Information in graphs or charts, while others prefer a narrative
description.
Information Three large sets of information needs are associated with
Needs the three stages in the strategic management process:

Strategic Diagnosis
• should be undertaken when a strategy is drawn up; in
Strategic other words, an internal analysis and an environmental
analysis – both general and specific – must be carried
Diagnosis out. Information is an essential element in this
strategic diagnosis stage. An internal analysis
requires information generated by the company itself as
a result of its activity.

Responsibility
• Each member of the company involved in implementing the
strategy must be aware of his or her particular
Responsibility responsibility, and must receive information on the
tasks he or she has to perform – and how to perform
them – in order for the strategy and its component
plans to be effectuated. In other words, those
responsible for accomplishing these actions need
information about what they have to do and how to do
it. This information is usually passed down from higher
to lower levels.

Strategy Control
Strategy Control • efficient control requires knowledge on the outcomes of
the actions undertaken to effectuate the plans, and how
the different environmental components are evolving, in
order to verify whether the strategy is developing
appropriately and whether any changes are influencing
its viability.
Source of Information

In this section, we distinguish between internal information relating to the environment


within the company, and information about its external environment.

Many of the data captured by information systems refer to the functioning of the organisation and
are used to produce internal information. This internal information provides management with
knowledge about how the company is functioning and whether or not it is achieving its objectives.
Most internal information comes from the accounting system and statistical analyses (sales,
production, etc.).
Other internal information sources such as surveys and interviews with company members provide
quantitative information on, for instance, workers’ motivation levels or other indicators that are
not easily quantified. Company managers also need information on the environment: sales volume
of their most direct competitors, potential client segments for the company’s product lines,
geographical distribution of its shareholders, etc.

IS A company can only be successful if it adapts to the demands of its external environment. The
environment is represented by a number of groups that vary in their capacity to influence the
company’s fulfillment of its objectives.
What is Information System?

All systems can be divided The purpose of the


into subsystems. Because the company’s information
company behaves as a system, The information system is to gather the
its different elements can be system is related to information it needs
broken down into subsystems. all the other systems and, following necessary
According to the organisation and the environment. transformations, ensure
theory literature, the company that it reaches the
can be divided into the members of the company
following systems: commercial, who require it, whether
operations, financial, for decision making,
personnel, and information. strategic control, or
for implementing
Information systems comprise decisions adopted by the
hardware and software, company (Menguzzato and
Renau, 1991).
telecommunications, databases, human
resources and procedures (García
Bravo, 2000).
COMPUTER INFORMATION
SYSTEM SYSTEM
Discussion
In your area of work
what type of information
systems exist, subject
or task based. Do you
agree with the assertion
that subject systems are
best? Also consider your
answer from both
security and risk
management perspectives.
Functions of the Information System

Companies or organizations develop information


systems to help to perform the tasks they are
specifically designed to do. For instance, a hospital will
have a medical records system, police departments will
hold criminal records, all companies will have a payroll
system, supermarkets will use inventory systems, 1- Data capture and
offices will have office automation systems, etc. collection.
.
2- Storage.
All information systems carry out a
series of functions that may be 3- Information processing.
classified as follows:

4- Distribution or
dissemination of information.
The Five Major Components:

Storage Distribution & Dissemination of


1. How should information be stored?
2. By classifying it according to a
Information
3. particular criterion or at different Information Processing Not only must the information system
4. points. The purpose of information
2. What type of system should be used to store provide the information each user
processing is to transform the stored
information? requires, but it must also disseminate
information into useful information
The system can vary from the traditional filing information to other people within the
that will be meaningful to the person
system to a computer processed database. The company.
who requires it. This is a key
use of one system or another will depend on the Different members of the company need
function of all information systems.
amount of data to be stored, how frequently it will be to be aware of certain information about
Information processing is essentially
used, the number of users and whether or not access carried out by the computer the company and the environment in
is restricted. order to respond more quickly and
subsystem.
3. How should the user access to the stored information efficiently to everyday situations that
Note: The spectacular development
be managed? require problems to be solved or
of computers has meant that on the
The information may be stored in different services decisions to be taken.
one hand, the volume of stored and
and departments, or in a single location to which all processed data is constantly
users have access. The company will decide which of increasing, and on the other hand,
these two options is most appropriate, depending on the falling cost of hardware has led
how specific the information is. Access to or retrieval to a generalized use of computers.
of the information can take many forms; for example
passwords may be used to
access a database, enabling only authorised
personnel to access the information when required.
Discussion
Using an example discuss
in detail how your
companies or
organizations develop
information systems to
help to perform the
tasks they are
specifically designed to
do.
Types of Information System
Given the complexity of information processing and
the varying degrees or levels into which data and
processes can be structured, depending on the
problem or issue, several categories of information Systems for Processing
systems are required to deal with all the Transactions
organization's information needs.

Different types of information systems


must be developed to meet the whole Management Information
gamut of information needs in a Systems
company:

Decision Ssupport Systems


(Arjonilla and Medina, 2007).
Types of Information System

Figure 2: Level of Management

Figure 3: Information System Categories


Transaction Processing Systems

Transaction processing systems are the cornerstones of a company’s


information system and compile their daily business operations.

Many companies cannot operate without this type of system. As


operations are carried out in the company, transaction processing
systems gather, process and store data and reflect business
transactions such as sales, purchases, payments, etc.

Transaction processing systems are the most defined or structured


information processes in the organisation, automating the central
TPS core of its operations.

The most common transactions include invoicing, payrolls,


production and reception of orders. Companies aim to carry out
these activities quickly, systematically and efficiently.
Transaction Processing Systems Outputs

Transaction Document
Transaction •Many transaction processing systems produce transaction documents,
Documents such as invoices, purchase orders or payroll lists. These documents
may be classified as action documents or information documents.
•a-1. Action documents : Action documents imply that some kind of action is taken.
For example, an airline ticket guarantees that a seat on an aeroplane is reserved,
or a bank has to pay out money when a cheque is presented.
Database •a-2. Information documents: Information documents confirm that a transaction has
taken place or informs about one or various transactions. For example, a bank
Queries transfer slip with details of the transfer, or a breakdown of credit card payments
that accompanies the credit card bill.

Database Queries
• A wide variety of information can be extracted from a database using
a database management system and user-oriented fourth generation
languages.
• These queries can provide lists of all transactions processed during a
specific time period, or error reports with a list of erroneously
processed transactions.
What is Health Management Information System (HMIS)?
The Five Major Components:

Data/Information/ Hardware/Software/Network
Knowledge Component Component

Integration/ Process/Task/System
Interoperability Component
Component

User/Administrator/
Management Component
The Five Major Components:

Data/Information/ Knowledge Process/Task/System Component


Component Exemplifies the routine and
Forms the central core, the content of internalized driving engine for HMIS.
all HMIS. Hardware/Software/  For example, existing
 Compasses the specification of Network Component administrative based HMIS such as
organization and interrelation among Various information and computing financial information system, human
data, information and knowledge elements related technologies to support resources information system,
required of integrated HMIS. HMIS application and use. facility utilization and scheduling
 Involves configuring various systems, materials management system,
hardware, software, user interface facilities management system, and
and communication enabling office automation systems as well as
infrastructure, associated devices clinical based HMIS application must
and application in such a way to be designed to collect relevant data
Integration/ best achieve effective information and accumulate useful information for
Interoperability Component services integration throughout organizational task processing and
while connecting individuals, decision making activities.
A key determinant of HMIS success from an groups, and organizations.
enterprise view.
 Requires not only an elaborate understanding
of evolving technological innovations and
User/Administrator/
changing needs in the organizational task Management Component
processes but also knowledge of the market Bring together and intelligently
structure and changing the characteristics of the coordinates all of the other HMIS
healthcare services industry. components.
What is Health Management Information System
(HMIS)?

Healthcare organizations are increasingly operating in data-rich and


information-poor environments. In today’s high-tech era, we are
constantly gathering and storing data, only to never use it because it
is inaccessible, improperly formatted or presented in an irrelevant
way.
Patient health information, for example, is distributed over a number
of locations and via a number of IT solutions throughout the patient’s
life. Depending on an individual’s use of the health system, this could
amount to a few tidbits or to a considerable volume of information.

MIS The graphic next depicts the possible volume of information


generated over an individual’s lifetime through health services
received at various locations.
What is Health Management
Information System
(HMIS)?
Foundation Concept of Health MIS
Three fundamental iterative information
processing phase:
34
2- Data management:–
includes data storage, data
classification, data update
and data computation.
1- Data input:– includes
data acquisition and data
verification.

3- Data output:– includes


.
data retrieval and data
presentation.
Types of Health Information Systems
Introduces Clinical and
the types of Telemedicine,
Telematics and Administrative Health
Health information Systems
information eHealth Systems
systems that The Electronic
are around Health/Patient
and how Robotics and Record
various Simulators (HER/EPR)
people have
tried to
classify such
systems from
a number of Decision Financial and
perspectives. Support Clinical Health
Systems Information
(DSS) Systems
Discussion
Discuss the critical
issues affecting the
introduction of Health
Management
Information Systems.
The Role of Information Systems in Healthcare: Current
Research and Future Trends

 Information Systems Research


(Vol. 22, No. 3, September 2011, pp.419–428), ISSN
1047-7047. EISSN 1526-5536.11.2203.041
Tutorial & Assignment
1-What is the difference between
data and information?

2-Explain why information systems are so


essential in your organization today.

3-Define an information systems from both


a technical and a organizational operation
perspective.
4-Identify and describe the three
dimensions of information systems.

5-List and describe six reasons why information systems are so


important for your organization today.

6-What is an information system? What


activities does it perform?
Assignment (30%)
In a group of 4-5, discuss
and explain the existing
system available in the
organization/department/unit.
What is improvement can be
done in the system?
THANK YOU