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Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology

ISSN: 0022-3131 (Print) 1881-1248 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tnst20

Hydrogen-Oxygen MHD Generator Applied to


Pulsed Power Required in Nuclear Fusion Research

Motoo ISHIKAWA & Juro UMOTO

To cite this article: Motoo ISHIKAWA & Juro UMOTO (1989) Hydrogen-Oxygen MHD Generator
Applied to Pulsed Power Required in Nuclear Fusion Research, Journal of Nuclear Science and
Technology, 26:12, 1081-1093, DOI: 10.1080/18811248.1989.9734432

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/18811248.1989.9734432

Published online: 15 Mar 2012.

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Journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, 26[12], pp. 1081-1093 (December 1989). 1081

Hydrogen-Oxygen MHD Generator Applied


to Pulsed Power Required in
Nuclear Fusion Research
Motoo ISHIKAWA and Juro UMOTO

Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University*

Received july 22, 1989

Designs of large test facilities of nuclear fusion research succeeding the current large
Tokamaks such as TFTR, JET and JT -60 show that huge pulsed power is required to operate
the new test facilities; 700 MW for 10 s to excite poloidal coils. The present paper proposes
three steps of application of MHD power generation to fusion to provide such large pulsed
power. The first step is to design and construct a small scale MHD generator which excites
the Demo poloidal superconducting magnet (SCM) coil being under construction in ]AERI. The
operating current is 30 kA with the stored energy of 40 M]. As the working gas of MHD
generator, Hz-0 2 combustion product is selected, seeded with 5% K. The second and third
steps are to construct an intermediate MHD channel of 100 MWe and a large channel of 800 MWe.
Much improved designs are obtained in the present study, compared with the previous designs.
For the large 800 MW generator, the maximum magnetic field becomes 3.5 T with the load
current of about 100 kA, while the stored energy in the MHD magnet is estimated to be less
than 0.5 GJ which is much smaller than 5-8 GJ of planned poloidal coils. The small MHD
channel designed for the Demo poloidal coil is 4 m long with the peak field of 1.8 T. The
cryogenic magnet can be self-excited within 20 s. The Demo poloidal coil is charged in about 4 s.
KEYWORDS: llfHD generators, hydrogen-oxygen, fusion research, Tokamak devices,
pulsed power, poloidal coils, magnetic energy, controllability, Faraday channel,
numerical design

several tens to over 100 kA. In addition, the


I. INTRODUCTION characteristic time of supersonic MHD gener-
In nuclear fusion research, large Tokamaks ator is about 20 ms, resulting in very good
such as TFTR, JET and JT -60 have been controllability. The stored energy in the
constructed and interesting results have been poloidal coil of the next facilities is estimated
reported, while next facilities are planned and to be 5 to 8 GJ, whereas the designed MHD
designed. Then, it has been found that huge magnet stores less than 0.5 GJ which will be
pulsed power is required to operate the large discussed. This evaluation justifies the effort
test facilities; for example, 700 MW for 10 s to apply pulsed MHD generators to fusion
to excite superconducting poloidal coil mag- research. We propose three steps of applica-
nets(!>. It is very difficult for the current tion of MHD power generation to the fusion
technologies used for exciting existing poloidal research. The first step is to design and
coils to be applied to such a large pulsed construct a small scale MHD generator which
power supply and it is, thus, clear that some excites the Demo poloidal SCM coil being
new schemes of pulsed power have to be de- under construction in Japan Atomic Energy
veloped. Naturally MHD power generation is Research Institute (JAERI)C'>. The operating
a suitable candidate. Relatively small MHD current is 20 to 30 kA with the stored energy
generators can produce the large current re- of 30 to 40 MJ. The preliminary design for
quired for exciting coils which ranges from * Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606.
-15-
1082 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

this application has been reported< 2 J<SJ. The Anodes


second application is to construct the MHD
generator as an alternative power source of
the current Tokamaks. The stored energy of
the poloidal coils is about 600 MJ, while the
exciting current is 60 to 90 kA. The third
step is to supply the power to the poloidal
coils of the next Tokamaks. The stored
energy is 5 to 8 GJ with the exciting current Cathodes
of over 100 kA. Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of Faraday type
Three kinds of fuel can be used for the MHD generator and coordinate system
present application. The first one is the usual
clean fuel such as oil or natural gas. The The time-dependent equations are0 2H 13 l:
second is the solid fuel developed in USSR Mass continuity equation ;
and USA<'J-<GJ. The third is liquid hydrogen o(pA)/ot+o(puA)/ox =0. (1)
and oxygen<7l-< 9 J. There seems no severe
problem among them. In the present study, Momentum equation;
H2-02 combustion product se~ded with 5 ';YG K o(puA)/ot+o(pu 2 A)/ox+ Aop fox
is selected as the working gas, since the -A]yB+ !=0. ( 2)
exhaust gas from the MHD system proposed
can be treated within buildings. The magnet Energy equation ;
cooled with liquid nitrogen° 0 J<IIJ is selected o{p(e+u 2 /2)A} /ot+o(puh 0 A)/ox
for the small MHD system, whereas the SCM -UxEx+]yEy)A+q=O. (3)
will be used for the two larger MHD gener-
ators which provide about 100 and 700 MW to State equation ;
the existing and next facilities. P=pRT. (4)
Chapter II describes briefly the mathema-
tical model and numerical schemes. The steady In these equations, x is the coordinate along
one-dimensional equations are solved with the channel axis, y the coordinate perpen-
Runge-Kutta-Gill method for the designs. Then, dicular both to channel axis and to magnetic
the time-dependent one-dimensional gasdy- field B, z the one along the magnetic field
namical equations are solved with the 1969 and t the time; A is the duct cross section,
MacCormack scheme. The usual assumption f the friction, ho the total enthalpy, p the
of infinite segmentation of electrodes is applied pressure, q the heat loss, R the gas constant
to electrodynamics. In Chap. ill, 4, 6 and 8m and T the gas temperature; Ex, Ey are, re-
long Faraday channels are preliminarily de- spectively, the x- and y-component of the
signed. Chapter N describes exciting per- electric field and fx, ]y the x- and y-compo-
formance of self- excited 4 m channel. nent of the electric current density; p the
density and e the internal energy.
ll. MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND The friction and the heat loss are estimated
NUMERICAL SCHEME according to the boundary layer theory<"J:
Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of f=2Dpu 2 c1 c1
the Faraday type channel on the x-y plane c1 = {2.87 +1.58log(x*1k.)} - 2· 5
together with the coordinate system. x*=1+x, D=A 0 • 5
1. Gasdynamics Equations q=2DpCpcfcl(T.-T w)+qr
The basic equations used for the gasdynami-
Qr=4Da sC r(T"- T:V)
cal part are steady one-dimensional equations
for desing studies and time-dependent equa- as=5.66x1o-•, (5)
tions for studying exciting performance. where c1 is the friction factor, c1 the loss
-16-
Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1083

factor representing the increase of the loss putations.


due to MHD effect, C P the constant pressure 4. Thermodynamical Properties
specific heat of the gas, C r the constant Hydrogen is fired with pure oxygen. The
related to radiation loss, D the hydraulic diam- seeding material is KOH, while the chemical
eter, k, the equivalent sand roughness repre- equivalent ratio is set to be unity since the
senting the roughness level of wall, Qr the downstream components become simple. The
heat loss due to the radiation, T, the stagna- seeding ratio is 5 '%. The thermodynamical
tion temperature, T w the wall temperature properties are calculated with chemical equi-
and q B the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The librium equations<m. Approximation functions
constant C r related to the radiation loss is of properties such as q are derived with the
estimated according to the calculation results method of least squares. Independent vari-
done by Ahluwalia et at. <15 > ables are p- 2, p-i, p 0 , p', p 2 and T- 1 , T 0 , T 2 ,
2. Electrodynamical Equations T 8. The electrical conductivity and the elec-
The basic equations are the Maxwell equa- tron number density are approximated as
tions and the generalized Ohm's law. The logarithmic forms.
magnetic Reynolds number is much smaller
than unity so that the applied magnetic field
m. PRELIMINARY DESINGS
is given independently of other quantities. OF 4, 6 AND 8 m
The assumption of infinite segmentation of FARADAY CHANNELS
electrodes is used with the quasi-one-dimen- 1. Small MHD Channel of 4 m Length
sional approximation for Demo Poloidal Coil
The values used for all channel designs in
fx+fifv=qE:r:
the present paper are
-fi]x+ ]y=q{Ey-uB(1-AV)}
T w=2,000 K, Cz=l.5,
]x=-E:r:/Rz k,=l.Ox1o-s m, Rz=lOO 0/m. (7)
E 11 =KuB(1-AV), ( 6)
The criterion of power output is decided
where K is the loading factor, q the electrical to be 20 MW and then the combustion pres-
conductivity, fi the Hall parameter and AV sure and the mass flow rate are determined
the ratio of the electrode voltage drop. The to satisfy the criterion of power output. Once
current leakage is calculated by a simplified the combustion pressure is determined, the
model; i.e. a leakage resistance per unit combustion temperature follows. The com-
length R z is given along the channel. In the bustion condition is thus decided as
calculations, the effect of nonuniformity of
Combustion pressure : 5.1 atm.
plasma or gas flow is taken into account with
the G-factor (G). The loading factor is set Combustion temperature: 3,250 K. ( 8)
to be 0.8 in all designs. The heat and pressure losses in the com-
3. Numerical Procedure bustor and nozzle are assumed to be 6.28 and
The channels are designed with the steady 2.55%, respectively. The duct shape is de-
equations. These one-dimensional equations cided to be the regular square and the total
are solved with Runge-Kutta-Gill method. channel length becomes L=4.0 m. The con-
Then, the time-dependent one-dimensional gas- ditions at the entrance of the MHD channel
dynamical equations ( 1 ) to ( 6) are solved with are given as
the 1969 MacCormack two step explicit meth- mo=13.0 kg/s,
od''2>''8H'•>. The source terms of Eqs. ( 1) to
p,=4.97 atm, P=0.6atm,
( 3) such as ] 11 are always updated. The
channel length is divided evenly with the mesh T,=3,197 K, T=2,900K,
of 2.5 X 10-z m in the x direction. The mesh u=2,600 m/s, M=2.06, ( 9)
size is decided after some preliminary com- with the parameter of LIV=O.l5 and G=1.4,

-17-
1084 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno/.,

where M is the Mach number, m 0 the mass combustion pressure was selected to be 10
flow rate, p, the stagnation pressure and T. atm with the mass flow rate of 25.0 kg/s. It
the stagnation temperature. The distribution seemed that the combustion pressure was too
of the magnetic flux density B is shown in high and the velocity in the MHD channel
Fig. 2, where the peak value is 1.84 T. In was too low. The present channel becomes
the previous 5 m long channel design< 3 l, the much smaller than the previous 5 m channel.

0.5

0.4

0.3 ~
0.3
~ 0!
......
~
::!=
-..:
0.2 0.2

0. I 0.1 0.6

0.0 0. 0 +----r-.-----.--,---..--.-"T"'"---r-.---; 0. 0
o.oo 0.80 1.60 2.40 3.20 4.00
l = 4 M
Fig. 2 Distribution of magnetic flux density, cross section and width of 4 m channel

Figure 2 shows distributions of the mag- •10 3


8.0 3.3
netic flux density (B), the duct cross section
(A) and the width (W) along the MHD chan-
nel. The duct height is 0.354 and 0.476 m at 6.4 3. I
the entrance and the exit, respectively. The
ratio of duct cross sections Aout! A;n is 1.81. lit 4.8 3.0
>c
It should be noticed that the MHD channel is ~
;;: ~
pretty small. The power out is 21.4 MW, the
3.2 2.8
power density 29.6 MW /m 3 , the heat loss 7.9
MW, the output voltage 965 V, the load cur-
rent 21.3 kA and the stored magnetic energy 1.6 2.6

within the channel 4.84 MJ. In the case of


HPDE (High Performance Demonstration Experi- 0.0
0.00 0.80 l.dO 2.40 J.20
2.5
4.00
ment, located in Arnold Engineering Center, Ten- L " 4 M
nessee, USA) magnet operated at 3 T, the Fig. 3 Distribution or stagnation pressure
stored magnetic energy in the channel is and temperature of 4 m channel
about 20.5 MJ, whereas the stored energy in pressure, the temperature, the velocity and the
the magnet is about 61.9 Mj< 9 >. The stored Mach number. The current density (]y), the
energy in the magnet of the small channel electric fields (Er, Ey), the electrical conduc-
is, thus, assumed to be 16 Mj. tivity (u) and the Hall parameter (/3) are
Figure 3 shows distributions of the stag- depicted in Fig. 5. It is noted that the Hall
nation pressure and the temperature. The parameter is less than unity even at the exit,
ratio of stagnation pressures Psin/Paout is 4.52. indicating that the diagonal configuration
The stagnation pressure is 1.10 atm at the shows poor performance. Thus the operation
exit. Figure 4 shows distributions of the must be in the Faraday mode.
-18-
Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1085

x 1o3 X I0
3

3.0 2.0 3.5 2.5

2.6 3.0 2.0

2.6
e 1.2 2.5 1.5
-
~

~
(I)

!-..
~
1'1.
"e
~

;:l
::;:

2.4 0.6 2.0 1.0

2.2 I. 5 0.5

2.0 0. 0 - I. 0 0.0
o.oo I. 20 2. 40 3.60 4.60 6.00
L = 6 M

Fig. 4 Distribution of pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach number of 4 m channel

X I03 XI 03 X I 0~
1.0 30.0 -1.0 5.0 -2.5

O.B 26.0 -0.8 4.0 -2.0

0.6 s 22. o -0.6 s 3.0


e
-1.5 ~
N
e
<Q. "
~ "
;:..
~

"
;:..
"
~
0 b'i ~

...,"'
0.4 lB. 0 -0.4 2.0 l.<l"' -I. 0

0.2 14.0 -0.2 1.0 -0.5

0.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


o.oo o.ao I. 60 2. 40 3.20 4.00
L = 4 M

Fig. 5 Distribution of current density, electric field, conductivity and Hall parameter

2." Intermediate MHD Channel of 6 m the entrance of MHD channel are given as
Length for Existing Tokamak
mo=33.0 kg/s
The:criterion of power output is decided
to be 100 MW and then the combustion con- P.=19.36 atm, P=l.14 atm
dition1is determined as T,=3,370 K, T=2,900K
Combustion pressure 19.8 atm u=3,000 m/s, M=2.41, (11)
Combustion temperature: 3,390 K. (10) with parameters of JV=0.12 and G=1.3.

The heat and pressure losses in the combustor Figure 6 shows distributions of the mag-
and nozzle are assumed to be 6.74 and 2.25%, netic flux density, the duct cross section and
respectively. The total channel length is the width. The maximum magnetic flux den-
decided to be L=6.0 m. The conditions at sity is 3.04 T. The duct height is 0.375 and
-19-
1086 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno/.,

0.739 m at the entrance and the exit, respec- energy within the channel is 20.32 MJ. Com-
tively. The ratio of duct cross sections pared with the HPDE magnet, the stored
Aout! A;n is 3.88. The power output is 103.7 energy in this MHD magnet is calculated to
MW, the power density 48.8MW/m 3 , the heat be 61 MJ. Then the stored energy can be
loss 14.7 MW, the output voltage 2.52 kV, the estimated less than 100 MJ.
load current 40.8 kA and the stored magnetic

I. 0 I. 0 . . , . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , 4.0

0.8 0.8 B 3.2

0.6 0.6 2.4


"'---
S! ---e
~
1:::
~ :.. CCI
0.4 0.4 1.6

0.2 0.2 0.8

0.0 0. 0 +--r-r---r---;.--,---r-.--r-r--i 0. 0
0.00 1.20 2.~0 3.60 ~.60 6.00
L =6 M
Fig. 6 Distribution of magnetic flux density, cross section and width of 6 m channel

Figure 7 shows distributions of the stag- fields, the electrical conductivity and the Hall
nation pressure and temperature. The ratio parameter are depicted in Fig. 9. The Hall
of stagnation pressures Psin/ Psout is 17.3. The parameter is less than unity also in the present
stagnation pressure is 1.12 atm at the exit. channel. The Faraday configuration is, thus,
I 10 3
selected.
20.0 3.5 3. Large MHD Channel of 8 rn
Length for Large Tokamak
16.0
The criterion of power output for the large
3.3
MHD channel is decided to be 800 MW and
then the combustion condition is determined as
& 12.0 3. I
a § Combustion pressure : 30.3 atm
~
~

A: Combustion temperature: 3,450 K. (12)


8.0 2.9
The heat and pressure losses in the combustor
4.0 2.7 and nozzle are assumed to be 6.84 and 2.25%,
respectively. The total channel length is de-
cided to be L=8.0 m. The conditions at the
0.0 2.5
0.00 1.20 2.40 J.60 4.80 6.00 entrance of MHD channel are given as
L =6 M
Fig. 7 Distribution of stagnation pressure
mo=220.0 kg/s
and temperature of 6 m channel p,=29.62 atm, P=L70atm
Figure 8 shows distributions of the pressure, T,=3,420K, T=2,900K
the temperature, the velocity and the Mach u=3,000 m/s, M=2.42, (13)
number. The current density, the electric with parameters of L1V=O.l and G=l.2.

-20-
Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1087

x 1o3 XI o3
3.0 2.0 3.0 2.5

2.8 1.6 2.6 2.0

~
2.6 ~

....,e
I. 2 2.2
.,
~ 1.5
~
f-., ~
a 'e
~

;:1
::.:
2.4 ~'~- 0.8 1.8 1.0

2.2 0.4 1.4 0.5

2.0 0.0 1.0 0.0


0.00 0.80 I. 60 2. 40 3.20 4.00
L = 4 M

Fig. 8 Distribution of pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach number of 6 m channel

x 1o3 X I0 4 XI0 4
I. 0 25.0. -2.0 1.0 -3.0

0.8 20.0 -1.6 0.8 -2.4

0.6 ~ 15.0 -I. 2 E' 0.6 ~


E
-1.8 ~
N
e ~ E
"'l.
'
til ~

t.S
'
;:...
'.
~
0. 4
0
10.0 -0.8 0.4tJ' -1.2 ....

0.2 5.0 -0.4 0.2 -0.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


0.00 I. 20 2. 40 3.60 4.80 6.00
L = 6 M

Fig. 9 Distribution of current density, electric field, conductivity and Hall parameter

Figure 10 shows distributions of the mag- the large MHD magnet is calculated to be
netic flux density, the duct cross section and 113M]. Then the stored energy can be esti-
the width. The maximum magnetic flux den- mated less than 0.5 G].
sity is 3.5 T. The duct height is 0.786 and Figure 11 shows distributions of the stag-
1.98 m at the entrance and the exit, respec- nation pressure and temperature. The ratio
tively. The ratio of duct cross sections of stagnation pressures Psin/P,out is 25.84. The
Aout! Ain is 6.34. The power output is 803.2 stagnation pressure is 1.15 atm at the exit.
MW, the power density 47.1 MW /m 3 , the heat Figure 12 shows distributions of the pressure,
loss 46.9 MW, the output voltage 7.55 kV, the the temperature, the velocity and the Mach
load current 110.4 kA and the stored magnetic number. The current density, the electric
energy within the channel37.44 M]. Compared fields, the electrical conductivity and the Hall
with the HPDE magnet, the stored energy in parameter are depicted in Fig. 13. The maxi-
-21-
1088 ]. Nucl. Sci. Technol.,

5.0 2.0

4.0 1.6 4.0

3.0 1.2
...~E ~
3.0
E
...... f:'
......
"'<( :!t
CQ
2.0 0.8 2.0

1.0 0.4 1.0

0.0 0. 0 -t--.-.---.--,-.,.---,-.---.--,---1 0. 0
0.00 1.60 3.20 4.80 6.40 B.OO
L = 8 M

Fig. 10 Distribution of magnetic flux density, cross section and width of 8 m channel

x 10 3 including hydrogen-oxygen combustor remains


30.0 3.5 to be demonstrated.
In terms of generator performance, pulse
24.0 3.3 MHD generators developed in USSR have de-
monstrated the power output of 60 MW and
the power density of 500 MW /m 3 <4 >, whereas
~ IB.O 3. I
~ ~ the H2-02 generator developed in NASA, USA
~ ,: has shown the power density of 100 MW /m 8 <9>.
li 12.0 2.9 The power density of designed H2-0 2 gener-
ators is less than 50 MW /m 8 , which is much
6.0 2.7 smaller than the demonstrated power density.
In terms of channel duration, the 1,300 h
operation of A VCO Mark VII channel, USA
has shown that predicted life time is 5,000 to
8,000 h in the case of coal combustion, whereas
Fig. 11 Distribution of stagnation pressure
and temperature of 8 m channel the 430 h operation of ETL Mark VH channel,
Japan has predicted the life time of 4,000""'
mum Hall parameter is about 1.16, also result- 5,000 h in the case of oil combustion< 18 >.
ing in the Faraday configuration. The present A large SCM for MHD generator has
design is much improved, compared with the already developed by DOE, USA: 5 m, 6 T
previous design <s>. and 100 MJ<' 9 >. A review of development of
4. Brief Summary of MHD Generator SCM<' 9 > suggests that there seems no critical
Development and Discussion of problem to construct a large SCM for 8 m
Present Design Results long MHD generator.
The combustor is critically important in Figures 5, 9 and 13 show that the maximum
MHD generation. The coal combustor is still current density in the designed MHD channels
under development but the hydrogen-oxygen is about 3 A/cm 2, which is three times larger
combustor has already been well developed as than the value predicted for commercial MHD
rocket engines, indicating there seems no generator, but the maximum electric field in
problem, although the MHD system operation the flow direction is about 14 V/em, which is
-22-
Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1089

XI o3 XI 03
3.0 2.0 3.5 3.0

2.6 I. 6 3.0 2.4

2.6 I. 2 2.5 ~ I.B


{I)

§ ....0" ....... ::t:


1-
2. 0
"
;:s 1.2
2. 4 Q. 0. B

2.2 0.4 I. 5 0.6

2.0 0.0 I. 0 0.0


0.00 I. 60 3.20 4.80 6.40 e.oo
L = 8 M
Fig. 12 Distribution of pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach number of 8 m channel

X I03 X IOC XI o•
I. 5 20.0 - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . , -3.0 1.0 -3.0

1.2 16.0 -2.4 O.B -2.4

0.9 12.0 -I. B ~ 0.6 ~


- I. 8 .;;-"
<=l.
'"
~
~
...., ~"
...., '"
...:
....,
0 t,j' ...;
0.6 8.0 -1.2 0. 4 r.J' -1.2

0.3 4.0 -0.6 0.2 -0.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


0.00 I. 60 3.20 4.60 6. 40 e.oo
L = 8 M
Fig. 13 Distribution of current density, electric field, conductivity and Hall parameter

less than half of the value for the commer- If the stainless steel cap thickness is
cial channel, indicating that probability of assumed to be 5 mm and jy is 3 A/cm 2 , the
inter-electrode breakdown is very small. As duration of anode becomes about 300 h with
well known, the inter-electrode breakdown is the duration of cathode of about 500 h, indi-
a major obstacle preventing the high perfor- cating that 18,000 one-minute operations can
mance of MHD generators, showing that be carried out without repair.
Hz-Oz MHD generator can become compact.
IV. EXCITING PERFORMANCE
The ETL duration test results yielded the
following electrode loss estimation° 8l: OF SELF-EXCITED 4 m
FARADAY CHANNEL
d=5.6xl0- 3 jyt for cathode of Cu-W
1. Time-dependent Analysis
d =3.3 X 10- 3 ]yt for anode of SS-304, (14)
of Self-excitation
where d is the loss depth of electrode in mm, The small MHD generator system is de-
jy in A/cm 2 and t the operation time in h. signed to be self-excited. The exciting current
-23-
1090 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno[.,

of the MHD magnet is estimated to be 4 kA In the real situation the time scale is (Lei R .)
in the case of B=1.84 T, compared with 6 kA =100 s. Capability of the current computer
required for the HPDE magnet operated at available to us is limited and then in the
3 T. The self inductance (Lc) is evaluated to computation the self inductance is decreased
be 2.0 H and the resistance (Rc) of the coil to to be 2.0x1o-• H to reduce the computation
be 0.02 Q at 160 K. The initial current is set time.
to be 200 A and then the initial magnetic Figure 14 shows the variation of exciting
field is 0.092 T which is 5% of the final value. current (I) of the MHD magnet, the open
When the usual battery of 48 V is used for voltage of MHD generator ( V yo) and the ter-
the initial excitation, it takes about 10 s. minal voltage of MHD generator (Vy). It
During this period the preparatory combustion takes about 2.0 ms to reach the final stage in
is expected, which can relax the thermal the computation, indicating that about 20 s
shock and heat up the electrode to 2,000 K. are required for the real situation.

XI0 3 XIOl XIOJ


3.0 5. 0 ~--------------, 3. 0

2. 4.

...... 1.8
;:...
3.0
.......
;;;: ....3
1.2 2.0

0.6

0.0

Fig. 14 Variation of exciting current for self-excited MHD magnet (Time scale of 104 )

Figure 1fi(a) shows the variation of pres- of the poloidal coil is estimated to be 5.0x
sure distribution, showing little change. The 10- 3 Q, including the resistance of bus of SCM
MHD interaction is still very small, compared coil and of consolidation circuit. In the real
with the designed condition. Figure 15(b) situation the time scale is 25.5 s. In the com-
depicts the variation of magnetic field distri- putation the self inductance is reduced to be
bution of the MHD magnet, and Fig. 15(c) 75.4 X w-s H to decrease the computation time.
shows the variation of current density. In Figure 16 shows the variation of exciting
the entrance region little current flows, since current of poloidal coil, the open and terminal
the electromotive force is too small to deliver voltages of MHD generator. It takes about
the current into the magnet. 4 ms to reach the final stage in the computa-
2. Excitation of Demo Poloidal Coil tion, indicating that about 4 s is required in
The small MHD generator system excites the real situation. Figure 17(a) depicts the
the Demo poloidal coil after the load current variation of pressure distribution, showing a
reaches the final exciting current of the MHD local transient, Fig. 17(b) shows the vari-
magnet. The self inductance of the poloidal ation of Mach number distribution. The flow
coil is 75.4 mH, while the equivalent resistance is decelerated to the shock when the MHD
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Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1091

0.8

• 0.6
"· 0

';";: o. 4
0.2

0.0~--~~--~--~--~ 0
0.0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2
l liM
(a) Pressure distribution

2.0

I. 6 0.8
NS

...... I. 2
t;
...... 0.6 ~
~
.
0.8 "' 0. 4 7
o. 4 0.2

~~~~~~0.0
0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 0.8
:::::::;.---,...--~---+
1.6 2.~ 3.2
c. 0
4.0
= 4M = 4M
(b) Magnetic flux density (c) Current density
Fig. 15(a)-(c) Variation of pressure distribution, magnetic flux density
and current density in self-excited MHD channel

xto 3 X I04 XI o3
3_Q 4.0 3.0

2.4 3.2 2_4

1.8 2.4 I 1.8 ,.....


~ -.:
:;,..
....... ~

::.."' ....
~
cs.
:;,..
1.2 1.6 1.2

0.6 0.8 o_o

0.0 0.0 0.0


0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
TIMECMSJ
Fig. 16 Variation of exciting current and voltages for
Demo poloidal coil magnet (Time scale of 10')

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1092 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

(b) Magnetic flux density (c) Current density


Fig. 17(a)-(c) Variation of pressure distribution, Mach number distribution
and current density during exciting Demo poloidal coil

generator provides the exciting current. Fig- than 5"'8 GJ of planned polo ida! coils.
ure 17(c) shows the variation of current den- (2) The small MHD channel designed for
sity distribution. The current in the front the Demo poloidal coil becomes the Fara-
region maintains the magnetic field for the day type with 4 m length and the peak
MHD generator and the remaining region field of 1.8 T. The cryogenic magnet
supplies the current into the poloidal magnet. cooled by liquid nitrogen is selected, which
can be self-excited within 20 s. The Demo
V. CONCLUDING REMARKS poloidal coil is charged in about 4 s with
Designs of Hz-Oz MHD generators have the exciting current of 30 kA.
been carried out, which will be applied to the (3) The present designs are much improved,
pulsed power source required for the Tokamak compared with the previous designs.
fusion experiments. The following results are
obtained: -REFERENCES-

(1) The large 800 MWe channel is designed (1) SHIMADA,R.: Proc. 9th Symp. on Efficient
to be the Faraday configuration. The maxi- Use of Energy and Direct Electrical Power
Generation, (in Japanese), 236 (1987).
mum magnetic field is 3.5 T and the load
(2) IsHIKAWA, M., UMOTO, J.: Technical Reports
current is about 100 kA, while the stored of lEE of Japan, ESC-87-14, (in Japanese),
energy in the MHD magnet is estimated (1987).
Jess than 0.5 GJ which is much smaller (3) IsHIKAWA, M., et al.: AIAA Thermophysics

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Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1093

et at. Conf., AIAA-88-2761, (1988). (1$ IsHIKAWA, M., UMoTo, ]. : Energy Conversion
(4) VELIKHOV, A. E. P.: Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Management, 25[4], 339 (1985).
MHD, Vol. VI, 57 (1986). M IsHIKAWA, M.: Tech. Rep. Inst. At. Energy,
(5) MAXWELL, C. D., DEMETRIADJ;:s, S. T.: Proc. Kyoto Univ., No. 192 (1982).
23rd Symp. Eng. Aspects MHD, 147 (1985). M ScHLICHTING, H.: "Boundary Layer Theory",
(6) ScHMIDT, H.]., et al.: AIAA 25th Aerospace 612 (1968), McGraw Hill.
Sciences Mtg., AI AA-87-0382, (1987). M AHLUWALIA, R. K., IM, K. H.: Int. ]. Heat
(7) NAKAMURA, T., RIEDMULLER, W.: Proc. 14th Mass Transfer, 24[8], 1421 (1981).
Symp. Eng. Aspects MHD, ill. 6, (1974). M MacCoRMACK, R. W.: AIAA Hypervelocity Im-
(8) SMITH,]. M.: Proc. 15th Symp. Eng. Aspects pact Conf., AIAA-69-354, (1969).
MHD, IX. 2, (1976). M YosHIKAWA, K., IsHIKAWA, M.: Proc. 18th
(9) idem: Proc. 18th Symp. Eng. Aspects MHD, Symp. Eng. Aspects MHD, E. 1 (1979).
A. 2, (1979). M AIYAMA, Y., et al.: Rep. of Electro-Tech. Lab.,
M STARR, R. F., et al.: ET-2895-10, (1980). (ETL), TR-89-17, (in Japanese), (1989).
(11) BALEMANS, W.].M., RIETJENS, L.H. Th.: Proc. M MARSTON, P. G., et al.: Proc. 27th Symp. Eng.
9th Conf. MHD, Vol. II, 330 (1986). Aspects MHD, B. 24 (1989).

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