To cite this article: Motoo ISHIKAWA & Juro UMOTO (1989) HydrogenOxygen MHD Generator
Applied to Pulsed Power Required in Nuclear Fusion Research, Journal of Nuclear Science and
Technology, 26:12, 10811093, DOI: 10.1080/18811248.1989.9734432
Designs of large test facilities of nuclear fusion research succeeding the current large
Tokamaks such as TFTR, JET and JT 60 show that huge pulsed power is required to operate
the new test facilities; 700 MW for 10 s to excite poloidal coils. The present paper proposes
three steps of application of MHD power generation to fusion to provide such large pulsed
power. The first step is to design and construct a small scale MHD generator which excites
the Demo poloidal superconducting magnet (SCM) coil being under construction in ]AERI. The
operating current is 30 kA with the stored energy of 40 M]. As the working gas of MHD
generator, Hz0 2 combustion product is selected, seeded with 5% K. The second and third
steps are to construct an intermediate MHD channel of 100 MWe and a large channel of 800 MWe.
Much improved designs are obtained in the present study, compared with the previous designs.
For the large 800 MW generator, the maximum magnetic field becomes 3.5 T with the load
current of about 100 kA, while the stored energy in the MHD magnet is estimated to be less
than 0.5 GJ which is much smaller than 58 GJ of planned poloidal coils. The small MHD
channel designed for the Demo poloidal coil is 4 m long with the peak field of 1.8 T. The
cryogenic magnet can be selfexcited within 20 s. The Demo poloidal coil is charged in about 4 s.
KEYWORDS: llfHD generators, hydrogenoxygen, fusion research, Tokamak devices,
pulsed power, poloidal coils, magnetic energy, controllability, Faraday channel,
numerical design
17
1084 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno/.,
where M is the Mach number, m 0 the mass combustion pressure was selected to be 10
flow rate, p, the stagnation pressure and T. atm with the mass flow rate of 25.0 kg/s. It
the stagnation temperature. The distribution seemed that the combustion pressure was too
of the magnetic flux density B is shown in high and the velocity in the MHD channel
Fig. 2, where the peak value is 1.84 T. In was too low. The present channel becomes
the previous 5 m long channel design< 3 l, the much smaller than the previous 5 m channel.
0.5
0.4
0.3 ~
0.3
~ 0!
......
~
::!=
..:
0.2 0.2
0. I 0.1 0.6
0.0 0. 0 +r..,..."T"'"r.; 0. 0
o.oo 0.80 1.60 2.40 3.20 4.00
l = 4 M
Fig. 2 Distribution of magnetic flux density, cross section and width of 4 m channel
x 1o3 X I0
3
2.6
e 1.2 2.5 1.5

~
~
(I)
!..
~
1'1.
"e
~
;:l
::;:
2.2 I. 5 0.5
2.0 0. 0  I. 0 0.0
o.oo I. 20 2. 40 3.60 4.60 6.00
L = 6 M
X I03 XI 03 X I 0~
1.0 30.0 1.0 5.0 2.5
"
;:..
"
~
0 b'i ~
...,"'
0.4 lB. 0 0.4 2.0 l.<l"' I. 0
Fig. 5 Distribution of current density, electric field, conductivity and Hall parameter
2." Intermediate MHD Channel of 6 m the entrance of MHD channel are given as
Length for Existing Tokamak
mo=33.0 kg/s
The:criterion of power output is decided
to be 100 MW and then the combustion con P.=19.36 atm, P=l.14 atm
dition1is determined as T,=3,370 K, T=2,900K
Combustion pressure 19.8 atm u=3,000 m/s, M=2.41, (11)
Combustion temperature: 3,390 K. (10) with parameters of JV=0.12 and G=1.3.
The heat and pressure losses in the combustor Figure 6 shows distributions of the mag
and nozzle are assumed to be 6.74 and 2.25%, netic flux density, the duct cross section and
respectively. The total channel length is the width. The maximum magnetic flux den
decided to be L=6.0 m. The conditions at sity is 3.04 T. The duct height is 0.375 and
19
1086 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno/.,
0.739 m at the entrance and the exit, respec energy within the channel is 20.32 MJ. Com
tively. The ratio of duct cross sections pared with the HPDE magnet, the stored
Aout! A;n is 3.88. The power output is 103.7 energy in this MHD magnet is calculated to
MW, the power density 48.8MW/m 3 , the heat be 61 MJ. Then the stored energy can be
loss 14.7 MW, the output voltage 2.52 kV, the estimated less than 100 MJ.
load current 40.8 kA and the stored magnetic
I. 0 I. 0 . . , .                   , 4.0
0.0 0. 0 +rrr;.,r.rri 0. 0
0.00 1.20 2.~0 3.60 ~.60 6.00
L =6 M
Fig. 6 Distribution of magnetic flux density, cross section and width of 6 m channel
Figure 7 shows distributions of the stag fields, the electrical conductivity and the Hall
nation pressure and temperature. The ratio parameter are depicted in Fig. 9. The Hall
of stagnation pressures Psin/ Psout is 17.3. The parameter is less than unity also in the present
stagnation pressure is 1.12 atm at the exit. channel. The Faraday configuration is, thus,
I 10 3
selected.
20.0 3.5 3. Large MHD Channel of 8 rn
Length for Large Tokamak
16.0
The criterion of power output for the large
3.3
MHD channel is decided to be 800 MW and
then the combustion condition is determined as
& 12.0 3. I
a § Combustion pressure : 30.3 atm
~
~
20
Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1087
x 1o3 XI o3
3.0 2.0 3.0 2.5
~
2.6 ~
....,e
I. 2 2.2
.,
~ 1.5
~
f., ~
a 'e
~
;:1
::.:
2.4 ~'~ 0.8 1.8 1.0
x 1o3 X I0 4 XI0 4
I. 0 25.0. 2.0 1.0 3.0
t.S
'
;:...
'.
~
0. 4
0
10.0 0.8 0.4tJ' 1.2 ....
Fig. 9 Distribution of current density, electric field, conductivity and Hall parameter
Figure 10 shows distributions of the mag the large MHD magnet is calculated to be
netic flux density, the duct cross section and 113M]. Then the stored energy can be esti
the width. The maximum magnetic flux den mated less than 0.5 G].
sity is 3.5 T. The duct height is 0.786 and Figure 11 shows distributions of the stag
1.98 m at the entrance and the exit, respec nation pressure and temperature. The ratio
tively. The ratio of duct cross sections of stagnation pressures Psin/P,out is 25.84. The
Aout! Ain is 6.34. The power output is 803.2 stagnation pressure is 1.15 atm at the exit.
MW, the power density 47.1 MW /m 3 , the heat Figure 12 shows distributions of the pressure,
loss 46.9 MW, the output voltage 7.55 kV, the the temperature, the velocity and the Mach
load current 110.4 kA and the stored magnetic number. The current density, the electric
energy within the channel37.44 M]. Compared fields, the electrical conductivity and the Hall
with the HPDE magnet, the stored energy in parameter are depicted in Fig. 13. The maxi
21
1088 ]. Nucl. Sci. Technol.,
5.0 2.0
3.0 1.2
...~E ~
3.0
E
...... f:'
......
"'<( :!t
CQ
2.0 0.8 2.0
0.0 0. 0 t...,.,.,..,1 0. 0
0.00 1.60 3.20 4.80 6.40 B.OO
L = 8 M
Fig. 10 Distribution of magnetic flux density, cross section and width of 8 m channel
XI o3 XI 03
3.0 2.0 3.5 3.0
X I03 X IOC XI o•
I. 5 20.0  ,                 . , 3.0 1.0 3.0
less than half of the value for the commer If the stainless steel cap thickness is
cial channel, indicating that probability of assumed to be 5 mm and jy is 3 A/cm 2 , the
interelectrode breakdown is very small. As duration of anode becomes about 300 h with
well known, the interelectrode breakdown is the duration of cathode of about 500 h, indi
a major obstacle preventing the high perfor cating that 18,000 oneminute operations can
mance of MHD generators, showing that be carried out without repair.
HzOz MHD generator can become compact.
IV. EXCITING PERFORMANCE
The ETL duration test results yielded the
following electrode loss estimation° 8l: OF SELFEXCITED 4 m
FARADAY CHANNEL
d=5.6xl0 3 jyt for cathode of CuW
1. Timedependent Analysis
d =3.3 X 10 3 ]yt for anode of SS304, (14)
of Selfexcitation
where d is the loss depth of electrode in mm, The small MHD generator system is de
jy in A/cm 2 and t the operation time in h. signed to be selfexcited. The exciting current
23
1090 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno[.,
of the MHD magnet is estimated to be 4 kA In the real situation the time scale is (Lei R .)
in the case of B=1.84 T, compared with 6 kA =100 s. Capability of the current computer
required for the HPDE magnet operated at available to us is limited and then in the
3 T. The self inductance (Lc) is evaluated to computation the self inductance is decreased
be 2.0 H and the resistance (Rc) of the coil to to be 2.0x1o• H to reduce the computation
be 0.02 Q at 160 K. The initial current is set time.
to be 200 A and then the initial magnetic Figure 14 shows the variation of exciting
field is 0.092 T which is 5% of the final value. current (I) of the MHD magnet, the open
When the usual battery of 48 V is used for voltage of MHD generator ( V yo) and the ter
the initial excitation, it takes about 10 s. minal voltage of MHD generator (Vy). It
During this period the preparatory combustion takes about 2.0 ms to reach the final stage in
is expected, which can relax the thermal the computation, indicating that about 20 s
shock and heat up the electrode to 2,000 K. are required for the real situation.
2. 4.
...... 1.8
;:...
3.0
.......
;;;: ....3
1.2 2.0
0.6
0.0
Fig. 14 Variation of exciting current for selfexcited MHD magnet (Time scale of 104 )
Figure 1fi(a) shows the variation of pres of the poloidal coil is estimated to be 5.0x
sure distribution, showing little change. The 10 3 Q, including the resistance of bus of SCM
MHD interaction is still very small, compared coil and of consolidation circuit. In the real
with the designed condition. Figure 15(b) situation the time scale is 25.5 s. In the com
depicts the variation of magnetic field distri putation the self inductance is reduced to be
bution of the MHD magnet, and Fig. 15(c) 75.4 X ws H to decrease the computation time.
shows the variation of current density. In Figure 16 shows the variation of exciting
the entrance region little current flows, since current of poloidal coil, the open and terminal
the electromotive force is too small to deliver voltages of MHD generator. It takes about
the current into the magnet. 4 ms to reach the final stage in the computa
2. Excitation of Demo Poloidal Coil tion, indicating that about 4 s is required in
The small MHD generator system excites the real situation. Figure 17(a) depicts the
the Demo poloidal coil after the load current variation of pressure distribution, showing a
reaches the final exciting current of the MHD local transient, Fig. 17(b) shows the vari
magnet. The self inductance of the poloidal ation of Mach number distribution. The flow
coil is 75.4 mH, while the equivalent resistance is decelerated to the shock when the MHD
24
Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1091
0.8
• 0.6
"· 0
';";: o. 4
0.2
0.0~~~~~~ 0
0.0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2
l liM
(a) Pressure distribution
2.0
I. 6 0.8
NS
...... I. 2
t;
...... 0.6 ~
~
.
0.8 "' 0. 4 7
o. 4 0.2
~~~~~~0.0
0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 0.8
:::::::;.,...~+
1.6 2.~ 3.2
c. 0
4.0
= 4M = 4M
(b) Magnetic flux density (c) Current density
Fig. 15(a)(c) Variation of pressure distribution, magnetic flux density
and current density in selfexcited MHD channel
xto 3 X I04 XI o3
3_Q 4.0 3.0
::.."' ....
~
cs.
:;,..
1.2 1.6 1.2
25
1092 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,
generator provides the exciting current. Fig than 5"'8 GJ of planned polo ida! coils.
ure 17(c) shows the variation of current den (2) The small MHD channel designed for
sity distribution. The current in the front the Demo poloidal coil becomes the Fara
region maintains the magnetic field for the day type with 4 m length and the peak
MHD generator and the remaining region field of 1.8 T. The cryogenic magnet
supplies the current into the poloidal magnet. cooled by liquid nitrogen is selected, which
can be selfexcited within 20 s. The Demo
V. CONCLUDING REMARKS poloidal coil is charged in about 4 s with
Designs of HzOz MHD generators have the exciting current of 30 kA.
been carried out, which will be applied to the (3) The present designs are much improved,
pulsed power source required for the Tokamak compared with the previous designs.
fusion experiments. The following results are
obtained: REFERENCES
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(2) IsHIKAWA, M., UMOTO, J.: Technical Reports
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Vol. 26, No. 12 (Dec. 1989) 1093
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