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NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION

GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

GES P.02

PLANT PIPING SYSTEMS

Rev Date Description Checked Approved


0 1999 Issued for Implementation DL

Compiled by Teknica (UK) Ltd


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PLANT PIPING SYSTEMS Page 2 of 39
Rev 0 1999

INDEX

SECTION TITLE PAGE

1.0 SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION 6

1.1 Introduction 6

1.2 Other NOC Specifications 6

2.0 DEFINITIONS 6

2.1 Technical 6
2.2 Contractual 8

3.0 DESIGN 8

3.1 Codes and Standards 8


3.2 Plant Piping Arrangement 9
3.3 Design Pressure and Temperature 9
3.4 Line Sizing 10
3.5 Location of Piping 11

4.0 PIPING EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY 11

4.1 General 11
4.2 Stress Calculations 12
4.3 System Flexibility 12
4.4 Expansion Joints 12
4.5 Spring Hangers and Supports 12
4.6 Allowable Loads at Equipment 13
4.7 Anchors and Restraints 13

5.0 PIPE SUPPORTS 13

5.1 General 13
5.2 Support Spacing 13
5.3 Supporting of Small Bore Piping 14
5.4 Tower or Column Pipe Supports 14
5.5 Guide Spacing 14
5.6 Standard Pipe Supports 15
5.7 Components for Standard Pipe Supports 15
5.8 Special Pipe Supports 15

6.0 PIPE SPACING 16

6.1 General 16

7.0 SMALL BORE PIPING 16

7.1 Location of Branches 16


7.2 Routing 16
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SECTION TITLE PAGE

8.0 STEAM PIPING 16

8.1 General 16
8.2 Condensate Collection 17
8.3 Steam Traps 17

9.0 PIPE, FITTINGS AND FLANGES 18

9.1 General 18
9.2 Changes of Direction 18
9.3 Line Reduction 18
9.4 End Closures 18
9.5 Threaded Connections 18
9.6 Elevation from Grade 18
9.7 Installation of Flanges 18

10.0 PRESSURE BLINDS AND SPACERS 18

10.1 General 18
10.2 Installation 19
10.3 Spectacle Blinds 19
10.4 Jack Screws 19

11.0 VALVES 19

11.1 General 19
11.2 Valve Access Requirements 19
11.3 Chain Operators 20
11.4 Gear Operators 20
11.5 Full Port Valves 20
11.6 Valves In Steam Service 20
11.7 Valves In Hydrogen Service 20
11.8 Bleed Valves 21
11.9 Valve Stem Extensions 21

12.0 HEAT EXCHANGERS PIPING 21

12.1 General 21
12.2 Design 21
12.3 Reboilers 21
12.4 Vents and Drains 22
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SECTION TITLE PAGE

13.0 PUMPS, COMPRESSORS AND TURBINES 22

13.1 General 22
13.2 Pump Piping 22
13.3 Compressor Piping 23
13.4 Steam Turbine Piping 24

14.0 TOWERS AND DRUMS 25

14.1 Piping Design 25

15.0 FIRED HEATERS AND BOILERS 25

15.1 General 25
15.2 Operating Access 25
15.3 Fuel Oil Piping 25
15.4 Fuel Gas Piping 26
15.5 Atomising Air 26
15.6 Atomising Steam 26
15.7 Snuffing and Purge Steam 26
15.8 Boiler Piping 27
15.9 Sootblower Steam Piping 27

16.0 STORAGE TANKS 27

16.1 Atmospheric Storage 27


16.2 Pressurized Storage (Excluding Refrigerated Storage) 28

17.0 VENTS AND DRAINS 28

18.0 SAMPLE CONNECTIONS 28

18.1 General 28
18.2 Location 28
18.3 Gas Samples 29
18.4 Liquid Samples 29
18.5 Sample Cooler 29

19.0 INSTRUMENT CONNECTIONS 29

19.1 General 29
19.2 Location 29
19.3 Temperature Connections 29
19.4 Pressure Connections 30
19.5 Flow Instruments 30
19.6 Level Instruments 30
19.7 Control Valves 31

SECTION TITLE PAGE


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20.0 RELIEF AND BLOWDOWN SYSTEMS 31

20.1 Design 31
20.2 Pressure Safety Relief Valves 32

21.0 COOLING SYSTEMS 33

21.1 Air Fin Coolers 33


21.2 Cooling Water Supply and Return 33

22.0 UTILITY STATIONS 33

22.1 General 33
22.2 Design 33

SKETCHES

Figure No 1 - Rational Solution of Pressure Drop for Liquids35


Figure No 2 - Formal Stress Analyses Requirements 36
Figure No 3 - Guide Spacing 37
Figure No 4 - Line Spacing Table in Inches 38
Figure No 5 - Line Spacing Table in Millimetres 39
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1.0 SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION

1.1 Introduction

This specification covers the general requirements for the mechanical design of plant piping systems.

1.1.1 This specification applies to plant piping systems for refineries, onshore oil and gas installations and
processing facilities.

1.1.2 This specification does not cover piping systems for process fluids in cryogenic service, or in any service
that does not fall within normal refinery, onshore oil or gas categories.

1.1.3 Pipeline systems are outside the scope of this specification and are provided for in GES R.02 "Pipeline
Systems".

1.1.4 The Vendor/Contractor shall comply fully with the provisions laid down in this specification. Any
exceptions must be authorised in writing by the Owner.

1.1.5 In the event of any conflict between this specification and the data sheets, or with any of the applicable
codes and standards, the Vendor/Contractor shall inform the Owner in writing and receive written
clarification before proceeding with the work.

1.1.6 This General Engineering Specification will form part of the Purchase Order/Contract.

1.2 Other NOC Specifications

The following NOC General Engineering Specifications are an integral part of this specification and any
exceptions shall be approved in advance by the Owner:

GES A.01 - Plant Layout and Spacing

GES H.04 - Fire Water System

GES P.01 - Piping Material Specification

GES P.07 - Underground Piping

GES P.09 - Steel Piping Fabrication (Shop or Field)

GES P.10 - Erection and Testing of Steel Piping

2.0 DEFINITIONS

2.1 Technical

The technical terms used in this specification are defined as follows:

Anchor

A welded or clamped attachment to a pipe, that prevents movement of the pipe in any direction.

Design Pressure

The piping system shall be designed for a design pressure which shall meet the requirements of ASME
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B31.3 301.2. For guidance, unless specified otherwise by the Vendor/Contractor and agreed by the Owner,
the design pressure shall be the maximum pressure encountered in normal or upset conditions, subject to a
margin of 10% or 25psi (172kPa), whichever is the greater. The design pressure shall be at least equal to
the setting of any relief valve protecting the system.

Design Temperature

The piping system shall be designed for a maximum and/or minimum temperature which shall meet the
requirements of ASME B31.3 301.3. For guidance, unless specified otherwise by the Vendor/Contractor
and agreed by the Owner, the design temperature shall be calculated according to the following:
The maximum and/or minimum operating temperatures encountered in normal or upset conditions shall be
subject to the following margin:

Operating Temperature Condition Design Factor

At or below -20°F (-29°C) Minimum Deduct 18°F


Temperature (10°C)

Above -20°F (-29°C) Minimum Deduct 27°F


Temperature (15°C)

Maximum Condition Maximum Add 27°F


Temperature (15°C)

Expansion Joints

A mechanical device used for absorbing longitudinal expansion and contraction in a piping system.

Guide

A welded or loose clamped device that allows movement of the pipe along the longitudinal axis of a pipe,
but prevents lateral distortion or movement.

Restraint

A welded or clamped attachment to a pipe, that prevents movement of the pipe in one
direction, but allows movement in another direction.

NPS

Nominal pipe size in inches.

Small Bore Piping

Piping that is NPS 1½ and smaller. Piping of this size normally has socket weld or screwed fittings and
valves.

Spring Supports

A mechanical device that both supports a pipe and absorbs vertical displacement by means of a helical coil
spring.

2.2 Contractual

The commercial terms used in this specification are defined as follows:


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Owner

The oil or gas company, an associate or subsidiary, who is the end user of the piping system.

Vendor

The Company supplying the equipment.

Contractor

The main Contractor for a defined piece of work.

Sub-Contractor

A company awarded a contract by the contractor, to do part of the work awarded to the Contractor.

Inspection Authority

The organisation representing the Owner or Vendor/Contractor that verifies that the Piping System has
been designed, fabricated, inspected and tested in accordance with the requirements of this specification
and Purchase Order/Contract.

Inspector

A qualified individual representing the Owner, Vendor/Contractor or assigned Inspection Authority, who
verifies that the piping system has been designed, fabricated, inspected and tested in accordance with the
requirements of this specification and Purchase Order/Contract.

3.0 DESIGN

3.1 Codes and Standards

The governing code for the mechanical design of plant piping systems is ASME B31.3 "Process Piping".
This code, together with the following codes, standards and references herein shall be deemed to be part of
this specification. All recommendations shall apply, unless specifically modified herein.

Unless specified otherwise in the Purchase Order/Contract, the current editions of the codes and standards
at the time of the Purchase Order/Contract shall be used.

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)

ASTM Standards Part 1 Steel Piping, Tubes and Fittings

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

ASME I Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Power Boilers

ASME VIII Pressure Vessels - Division 1

ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ASME B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt Weld Fittings

ASME B31.1 Power Piping


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ASME B31.3 Process Piping

ASME B73.1M Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process

National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA)

NEMA Code SM23 Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Services

American Petroleum Institute (API)

API 520 Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure Relieving Devices in Refineries

API 521 Guide for Pressure Relieving and Depressuring Systems

API 590 Steel Line Blanks

API 610 Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service

API 611 General Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services

API 618 Reciprocating Compressors for General Refinery Service

API 2510 Design and Commissioning of LPG Installation

3.2 Plant Piping Arrangement

To achieve a safe operational and functional piping arrangement, equipment plot plans and piping studies
shall be developed in accordance with GES A.01.

Piping shall be routed to ensure that the shortest length and a minimum number of flanges, fittings and
valves are used. Allowance shall be made for future expansion, i.e headers fitted with blind flanges etc.

3.3 Design Pressure and Temperature

The design pressure and temperature of a piping system shall generally be in accordance with the technical
definitions, paragraph 2.1, with additional evaluations as given below:-

3.3.1 Surge Pressure

Surge is caused by rapid velocity changes of the fluid, through rapid valve closure, pump start-up and shut-
down, etc; and should be evaluated when it cannot be avoided by using appropriate means, i.e. using a non-
slam check valve.

3.3.2 Pressure/Temperature Variation

ASME B31.3 (Paragraph 302.2.4) provides allowances for pressure and temperature variation. The
Vendor/Contractor may only determine a maximum design pressure below the maximum surge pressure in
accordance with this allowance subject to approval by the Owner and only if major cost reductions can be
achieved.

3.3.3 Pressure Relieving Devices

The failure of pressure relieving devices shall not be taken into account when establishing the design
pressure of a system.

3.3.4 Vacuum Conditions


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Piping subject to sub-atmospheric pressure shall be designed for full vacuum.

3.4 Line Sizing

3.4.1 General

The Vendor/Contractor shall be responsible for determine the size of all plant piping systems.

Line sizing for fire water lines may be covered under a fire water systems contract and shall be in
accordance with GES H.04.

3.4.2 Limitations

The nominal header size shall not be less than NPS 4

The nominal branch size shall not be less than NPS 2. Intermediate pipe sizes, other than those given in
GES P.01 shall not be used.

3.4.3 Procedures

The total pipe length and the equivalent lengths for valves and fittings shall be calculated and the allowable
pressure drop values determined.

Flow velocities to be used as a guide in tentative line sizing are determined by the following simple
formula: (Equation 1.)
4Q
v= Where v = velocity (feet/second)
π d2 Q = volume flow rate (cu.feet/second)
d = nominal diameter of pipe (feet)
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The nomograph in Figure No.1 is based on the Fanning formula (Equation 2).

_p = 0.518fv²/d = 0.0864 fQ²/d5

_p = unit pressure drop psig/100 feet


f = friction coefficient
v = velocity in feet per second (from Equation 1)
Q = flow quantity (USGPM)
d = inside pipe diameter
f = (0.006 for new steel pipe)

The nomograph provides a quick means of calculating approximate pressure drop given the velocity, flow
quantity in US gallons per minute and an assumed line size.

Example: New steel pipe carrying 600 USGPM of water at 70 degrees fahrenheit, at a velocity of 7
feet per second will give a point "X" on the reference line. Connect point "X" with
"water" on density line to read 1.43 psig/100 feet.

The Vendor/Contractor shall submit detailed calculations for final line sizing and pressure drops, to the
Owner for approval.

3.5 Location of Piping

3.5.1 All piping entering and leaving a plot process area and within the process area shall be grouped together
where possible.

3.5.2 Piping inside the plot area shall be routed on overhead pipe racks where possible.

3.5.3 Off-plot piping shall be routed on concrete sleepers in grade pipe racks or on overhead pipe bridges if
space at grade level is limited.

Grade pipe racks shall cross roads by means of concrete culverts. Where this is impractical, due to local
grade road levels, overhead pipe bridges may be used.

3.5.4 The elevation of overhead piping shall be in accordance with GES A.01.

3.5.5 Pipe rack layout and design shall be in accordance with GES A.01.

3.5.6 Pipe trenches in process areas shall be avoided where possible, due to the hazard of inflammable gas
pockets collecting in open trenches.

3.5.7 Dead ends and low pockets in piping shall be avoided where possible, where they cannot be avoided, drain
valves shall be fitted.

4.0 PIPING EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY

4.1 General

Piping flexibility requirements shall be in accordance with ANSI B31.3 and the paragraphs below.

Piping flexibility analysis shall be based on the maximum and minimum design temperatures of the piping
system, according to the line list. The temperatures in the line list shall include all deviations e.g. steam
out, regeneration temperatures.

The use of cold spring shall be minimised but may be used to reduce deviation from installed dimensions
where necessary during initial operation to minimising the displacement of pipe hangers, etc. Credit for
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cold spring is not allowed in calculating the magnitude of stress in stress range calculations.

The use of cold spring for piping connected to rotating equipment is not permitted.

4.2 Stress Calculations

Stress analysis shall be carried out using two methods.

a) By formal computer programme analysis.

b) By visual or approximate review.

The requirement of formal stress analysis of a piping system is dependant on the size of the piping and the
design temperature and may be determined by referring to Figure No 2, "Formal Stress Analysis
Requirements" of this specification. This is a minimum guideline and the Vendor/Contractor may adopt a
more conservative guide.

Piping connected to rotating equipment requires special consideration and shall generally be subject to
formal stress analysis. This requirement shall override the guideline set out in Figure No 2. Exceptions to
this rule may be applied to small bore auxiliary piping connected to the equipment. For example, lube and
seal oil piping.

The Stress Analysis Programme shall be submitted by the Vendor/Contractor for approval by the Owner or
Owner's representative.

4.3 System Flexibility

The piping layout shall be designed with adequate bends and offsets and where necessary horizontal
expansion loops to provide sufficient flexibility in the system, to prevent failure of piping and components
due to overstress, excessive moments and forces on equipment nozzles and leakage at flanged joints.

4.4 Expansion Joints

Expansion joints may be subject to leakage or failure and their use shall be minimised within process plant
battery limits, except where process requirements and space limitations dictate, i.e at catalytic cracking
reactor outlet piping. Expansion joints and victaulic couplings may be used at equipment such as water
storage tanks and large cooling water pumps.

The use of expansion joints or flexible couplings shall be avoided at fire water pumps and fire water
storage tanks.

4.5 Spring Hangers and Supports

4.5.1 General

Spring hangers and supports are used for allowing or absorbing vertical movement, while supporting a pipe
system. Their use should be minimized for reasons of cost, maintenance and set-up. The manufacturer's
name plate shall indicate the hot and cold set-up points.

4.5.2 Variable Spring Hangers and supports shall be provided with a scale giving the working load range and a
means of adjustment.

4.5.3 Constant Support Spring Hangers shall be provided with a scale showing the range of movement, an
accurate method of adjustment and with the calibration load clearly indicated.

4.6 Allowable Loads at Equipment


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4.6.1 Forces and moments imposed on mechanical equipment and vessel nozzles from piping systems shall not
exceed the manufacturer's recommended values. Standards for maximum allowable loads and moments
that may be imposed on nozzles at rotating equipment (if manufacturer's recommended values are not
provided) are given below:

4.6.2 Pumps

Allowable loads on centrifugal pump nozzles shall be in accordance with API 610 and/or ASME B73.1M.

4.6.3 Compressors/Turbines

Allowable loads on reciprocating Compressor Nozzles shall be in accordance with API 618.

Allowable loads on Steam Turbines for rotating equipment drive services shall be in accordance with Nema
Code SM 23 and API 611.

4.7 Anchors and Restraints

All piping shall be anchored at a process battery limit to prevent transmission of forces.

Piping restraints and anchors intended to limit moments and forces on rotating equipment shall be designed
to minimise deflection under load.

Anchors and restraints shall be provided on long runs of piping in a pipe rack to direct and distribute
thermal movements at offset legs, expansion loops etc;.

Anchors and restraints and associated expansion loops located in pipe racks shall be grouped together
where possible, so that the particular structural section of the piperack may be suitably braced to take the
imposed loads.

Anchors, supports and restraints for piping connected to compressors shall not be attached to the
compressor house structure.

Piping restraints and anchors for piping connected to reciprocating compressors and pumps, shall be
normally governed by a piping analogue study. These restraints and others for lines subject to slugging
shall be approved by the Owner.

5.0 PIPE SUPPORTS

5.1 General

The pipe supports for steel and alloy steel piping shall be designed for the weight of piping, filled with
water, during hydrotesting. Exceptions are where pneumatic testing of a system has been approved by the
Owner or where the weight of the process fluid plus insulation exceeds the weight of water filled bare pipe.

5.2 Support Spacing

5.2.1 Pipe supports shall be spaced so that there is no excessive deflection in the piping. Calculation of
allowable deflection in the pipe shall take into account the drainage of the line and the allowable stress in
the pipe, whichever gives the least deflection.

5.2.2 The operating temperature of the system shall be taken into consideration for support spacing. Lines that
are above 600°F (315°C) shall be calculated for maximum spans based on allowable stress.

5.2.3 The maximum support spacing for pipe racks shall be 20 ft (6.0m).
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The maximum support spacing for individual steel pipe lines is given in the table below:

Maximum Spans for Straight Run Piping


NPS ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 4 6

Span Feet 10 10 10 16 20 20 25 26
Span Metres 3.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 7.5 8.0

NPS 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

Span Feet 28 30 30 35 37 40 40 40
Span Metres 8.5 9.0 9.0 10.7 11.3 12.00 12.0 12.0

Notes: (a) Calculation is based on 3/8" (9mm) deflection


(b) Pipe is full of water, insulated for 600oF (315oC)
(c) Wall thickness of pipe is according to GES P.01.
(d) Calculation is for carbon and alloy steel pipe. Stainless steel piping with a
schedule of 10S wall thickness or less shall be calculated separately.

5.2.4 The support spacing of plastic pipe shall be to the manufacturer's standard.

5.3 Supporting of Small Bore Piping

The minimum line size for lines running along a piperack shall be NPS 2. Lines NPS 1½ and
below shall be increased to NPS 2 while on the pipe rack.

Individual small bore lines running outside the pipe rack area may be supported from an
adjacent larger line (NPS 6 and above), unless that line is electrically traced or cold
insulated.

5.4 Tower or Column Pipe Supports

Vertical lines at Towers or Columns shall be supported near the highest point of the line, as
close to the Tower nozzle as possible and then guided down the side of the Tower to a
horizontal leg.

5.5 Guide Spacing

5.5.1 General

Piping systems shall be guided so that thermal and dynamic movement is directed in the
required direction, thus limiting excessive lateral movement.

5.5.2 Spacing

Guide spacing shall be in accordance with Figure No.3 "Guide Spacing", of this Specification
and ANSI B31.3.

5.6 Standard Pipe Supports

The Vendor/Contractor shall supply a set of standard pipe support drawings to cover most
support situations for a particular Purchase Order/Contract. Standard pipe supports used
at the outset of the design phase, may be added to during the progress of the Purchase
Order/Contract.
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Standard supports shall be designed so that field adjustments may easily be made to pre-
fabricated support assemblies. The components listed below form part of the standard
support requirements.

5.7 Components for Standard Pipe Supports

5.7.1 If the fabrication of supports is sub-contracted, the Vendor/Contractor shall be


responsible for the quality and accuracy of the support fabrication.

5.7.2 Welded support trunnions shall be the same schedule and material as the pipe and
shall form part of the shop pipe fabrication. Trunnions shall have an allowance for field
cut adjustment.

5.2.3 Welded support attachments to piping shall be of similar material to the pipe. No
welding of attachments in the field shall be allowed on stress relieved piping.

5.2.4 Combination pipe support assemblies, using standard supports, are to be used in
preference to special pipe supports.

5.7.5 Dead-end extensions to piping shall not be used for supports. Trunnions or structural
steel sections shall be used for support extensions.

5.7.6 Hot insulated lines shall be supported on steel shoes, welded to the pipe. The
minimum height of the shoe shall be 4" (100mm). The height of shoes shall be increased
for insulation more than 3" (75mm) thick.

Clamped pipe shoes shall be used for stress relieved piping.

Non-insulated lines shall rest directly on steelwork, except where piping is subjected to
excessive or continuous movement, when shoes or wear pads shall be used.

5.8 Special Pipe Supports

Special pipe supports shall be designed by the Vendor/Contractor where none of the standard
supports or a combination thereof will suit a particular support problem. Standard
support components shall be used where possible in the design.

6.0 PIPE SPACING

6.1 General

Spacing between pipe centrelines shall be in accordance with Figure Nos 4 and 5.

Notes:

1. Dimensions given are for bare pipe to bare pipe. Spacing is based on 3" (75mm)
clearance between pipes.

2. If piping is insulated, insulation thickness to be added to the spacing above.

3. Allowance shall be made for orifice flanges, flanged valves and other flanged joints
in the piping.
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7.0 SMALL BORE PIPING

7.1 Location of Branches

Small bore branch connections to headers can be prone to failure. The following points shall
be incorporated in the mechanical design.

a) branch connections shall be made in accordance with GES P.01, Branch Connection
Tables,

b) branches shall not be located in removable spools,

c) branches shall be located well away from sources of vibration.

If small bore branches on vibrating lines are unavoidable, branches shall be braced
back to the run pipe,

d) branches shall not be located in high stress areas,

e) consideration should be given to bracing of heavy or bulky components in small bore


piping.

7.2 Routing

Small bore lines should be grouped together where possible. Isolated small bore lines should
be run alongside larger piping or steelwork, even if the resulting routing is not the most
direct.

Support and guide spacing given in Section 5 and Figure No.3 shall be regarded as a
minimum requirement.

8.0 STEAM PIPING

8.1 General

Unit main steam distribution headers shall have a block valve and spectacle blind at the unit
battery limit, to allow for isolation of steam systems during maintenance of a process
unit.

Branch steam lines shall be connected at the top of the main steam header and shall have a
block valve at the high point of the branch line.

8.2 Condensate Collection

Saturated steam lines shall be provided with drip legs at low points. A steam trap shall collect
the condensate from the drip leg and discharge to the top of a condensate header, except
in isolated locations, where the steam trap may discharge to a sewer.

Drip legs shall be provided along saturated steam header runs at approximately 100 feet
(30m) intervals in the direction of steam flow. Drip legs shall also be provided in steam
mains at the upstream side of expansion loops.

Where a drip leg is installed at the bottom of a vertical steam riser, the pot size may be the
same size as the header, using a butt welded tee for steam lines up to NPS 12. Above
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NPS 12, the line size shall be reduced to the pot size specified by the Vendor/Contractor.

Superheated steam mains or superheated steam distribution headers shall not be provided with
steam traps, except at the inlet to steam turbines.

8.3 Steam Traps

8.3.1 The size and type of steam trap shall be determined by the steam service and the
amount of condensate to be collected. The Vendor/Contractor shall provide a steam trap
schedule listing the size and type of all steam traps to be used in a plant, together with the
steam temperature and pressure, differential pressure and anticipated condensate
discharge. This schedule is subject to approval by the Owner.

8.3.2 Steam trap assemblies shall have a block valve upstream of the trap, a check valve
and block valve downstream of the trap, with a by-pass discharging to the condensate
return line. A bleed connection shall be provided before the inlet valve and a valved test
connection immediately after the trap. If an integral strainer is not provided with the trap,
a separate strainer shall be installed upstream of the trap.

8.3.3 The size of trap selected shall have a continuous discharge capacity of twice the
estimated condensate working load. The minimum size of steam traps shall be NPS ½ for
steam tracing and jacketing and NPS ¾ for all other steam services.

8.3.4 Traps shall preferably be the thermodynamic type for steam tracing and jacketing
and other small quantities of condensate and float and thermostatic type for medium
capacity condensate collection from large steam mains, steam coils etc. Inverted bucket
type lift traps should be used for large quantities of condensate.

Variations to these requirements shall be approved by the Owner.

8.3.5 Traps shall be located at grade or a permanent platform and be located as close as
possible to the condensate source.

9.0 PIPE, FITTINGS AND FLANGES

9.1 General

Materials for pipe and fittings shall be in accordance with GES P.01.

9.2 Changes of Direction

Changes of direction shall be made with long radius weld elbows in piping NPS 2 and above.
Short radius weld elbows shall be avoided. Mitred elbows may only be used on low
pressure lines NPS 30 and above when approved by the Owner.

9.3 Line Reduction

Butt weld reducers shall be used in piping NPS 2 and above. Swage nipples shall be used for
line reductions in small bore piping, including reduction from NPS 2 piping, unless
otherwise noted in the individual piping material specifications. Eccentric reducers shall
be used in horizontal lines and concentric reducers in vertical lines.

Screwed reducers shall be used for galvanized pipe NPS 3 and below.
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9.4 End Closures

Dead ends of utility headers shall be flanged and blinded when future expansion is to be
allowed for. Weld caps shall be used when no future expansion is anticipated. End
closure plates shall not be used. Dead ends in process piping shall be avoided. Provision
for any future expansion shall be made in the run pipe.

9.5 Threaded Connections

Threaded connections shall be limited to galvanized steel pipe NPS 3 and below and
instrument connections after the first block valve in all other piping materials.

9.6 Elevation from Grade

The minimum distance between the bottom of run pipe to grade level shall be 12 inches
(300mm), unless governed by control valve elevations, header drains etc.

9.7 Installation of Flanges

The number of flanges in a piping system shall be kept to a minimum and should only be
installed to facilitate the fitting of flanged valves or components and where maintenance
and inspection locations are required or when process conditions dictate.
Flanged joints above roads shall be avoided. Flanged joints below air-fin coolers shall be
avoided. Flange selection shall be in accordance with GES P.01. Any substitution by the
Vendor/Contractor requires the Owner's approval.

10.0 PRESSURE BLINDS AND SPACERS

10.1 General

The term `pressure blinds and spacers', covers spectacle blinds, line blinds and spacers.
Pressure blinds and spacers shall be in accordance with API 590 `Steel Line Blanks' and
the Vendor/Contractor's standard drawings. Materials of fabrication shall be the same as
the relevant flange material as listed in the GES P.01 `Piping Material Specifications'.

10.2 Installation

All equipment shall be isolated by valve and blind without interfering with the operation of
the process units. Isolating valves and blinds for tall vertical vessels shall be located near
grade or near a pipe rack. Pressure blinds and spacers shall be installed in all lines
containing hydrocarbons and steam at the unit-battery limit, at inlets and outlets to fired
heaters and all compressor suction and discharge lines. In addition to the above, pressure
blinds and spacers shall be installed where indicated on the piping and instrumentation
diagrams.

10.3 Spectacle Blinds

Spectacle blinds shall be used in preference to blinds and spacers, but shall be limited by
handling and weight restrictions.

Space should be provided around the blind to allow for swinging of the spectacle blind on its
swing bolt. Pressure blinds and spacers 65 lbs (30kg) in weight and below shall be the
spectacle blind type, line blinds and spacers shall be used when this weight is exceeded.

10.4 Jack Screws


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Jack screws shall be installed at every pressure blind and spacer location.

Jack screws shall be square head, case hardened steel set screws,threaded to full length.

11.0 VALVES

11.1 General

11.1.1 The quantity and type of valves in piping systems shall be kept to a minimum. Valve
selection shall be in accordance with GES P.01.

11.1.2 Any substitution proposed by the contractor requires the Owner's approval.

11.1.3 Valves located above roads shall be avoided.

11.1.4 All lines entering or leaving a process area battery limit, shall have a block valve and
spectacle blind. A drain or vent connection shall be located close to the battery limit
valve. Battery limit valves shall be grouped together and operated from a battery limit
walkway.

11.2 Valve Access Requirements

11.2.1 All valves should be easily accessible for operation and maintenance and be reached
from grade or a platform, except as noted in paragraph 11.2.4 below.

11.2.2 The maximum operating hand wheel height above the operating level shall be 4.5 ft
(1.4m) for frequently operated valves and 6.75 ft (2.1m) for infrequently operated valves.
Valves above the operating heights given above, from grade level may be operated by a
chain wheel, see paragraph 11.3 below. This does not apply to valves below NPS 2
which are infrequently operated.

11.2.3 Valve handwheels shall not obstruct walkways or platforms. Valve handwheels shall
preferably be positioned with the stem pointed upwards. Valve stems in a horizontal
position shall not project into an operating access area, particularly at head height.

Valves shall not be installed with stems below the horizontal position.

11.2.4 Valves below NPS 2 that are infrequently operated and are elevated above 6.75 ft
(2.1m) above an operational level may be reached by a permanent ladder.

11.3 Chain Operators

Frequently operated valves above 6ft (1.8m) operating height to the handwheel, may be
operated by a chain and chainwheel from grade. Chainwheels shall be kept to a minimum
and are only to be used where lack of space precludes the installation of a platform.
Chainwheels should preferably not be used from an elevated platform or walkway.

11.4 Gear Operators

Gear Operators shall be provided to ease the operation of larger and/or high pressure valves.
Size and pressure requirements for gear operators are shown on the material data sheets
in GES P.01. Exceptions to these requirements may only be applied to large low pressure
valves that are frequently operated, subject to approval by the Owner.

11.5 Full Port Valves


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Full Port Ball Valves shall be used where process conditions, such as critical pressure drop do
not permit regular port (reduced internal diameter) valves, or where special requirements
cannot permit a reduced bore, e.g. scraper lines, relief valve inlet lines and hot taps.

11.6 Valves In Steam Service

All branch lines from steam headers shall be provided with a block valve, which shall be
located as close as possible to the header, preferably at the highest point of the branch
line.

Block valves in steam service should not be located in downward flow vertical lines
supplying steam turbines, or upstream of control valve stations.

Block valves in steam service for ANSI Class 600 Rating and above and NPS 2 and larger
shall have Butt-Weld End bodies with pressure seal bonnets.

Block valves in vertical steam piping shall be provided with a drip ring above the valve and a
drain running from the drip ring to a steam trap.

Block valves in steam service shall be provided with a warm-up by-pass in accordance with
note 1, valve summary notes, GES P.01.

11.7 Valves In Hydrogen Service

Valves in services for fluids containing hydrogen, ANSI Class 600 Rating and above, shall be
the butt-welding end type with pressure seal bonnets.

11.8 Bleed Valves

A NPS 3/4 bleed valve, plugged, shall be provided at the following locations:

a) Between all double valves.

b) Between a pressure safety valve and inlet and outlet valves where specified.

c) Between equipment isolation valves and equipment nozzles. A bleed valve may
combine the role of a drain or vent valve in this case.

11.9 Valve Stem Extensions

Extension stems shall be installed on valves with hand wheels located at or below a platform
level. For valves NPS 4 and below, field fabricated extension stems may be used, for
valves NPS 4 and above, manufactured extension stems are to be installed.

12.0 HEAT EXCHANGER PIPING

12.1 General

Piping shall be designed so that full access is available for tube bundle pulling and cleaning.
Sufficient removable spools shall be provided in the piping between the block valve and
exchanger nozzle for channel head removal.

Piping shall not be supported from the exchanger shell.

Piping shall not cross over the channel head or shell. Elbow nozzles on exchangers shall be
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avoided, except where a saving in elevation is necessary.

Piping to and from an exchanger or group of exchangers shall be grouped together where
possible.

12.2 Design

12.2.1 A uniform height for a bank of exchangers at grade, or elevated in a structure, shall
be determined by lining-up the bottom of the shells. The minimum height is usually
determined by the bottom outlet piping at the largest exchanger.

12.2.2 Clearances

The minimum recommended clearances between exchanger shells and between pipeways and
exchanges should be in accordance with GES A.01.

12.3 Reboilers

Where a thermosyphon reboiler return nozzle is not direct coupled to a tower nozzle, the
reboiler return piping shall be designed for the shortest possible route between tower and
reboiler, with the minimum numbers of bends, in order to minimise pressure drop. The
design should also consider flexibility and nozzle loading limitations. The liquid draw-
off line to the reboiler does not have the same critical pressure drop requirements. Where
two reboilers are specified, in a thermosyphon circuit, the piping for draw off and return
circuits shall be symmetrical.

12.4 Vents and Drains

Shell and channel piping shall be provided with vent and drain connections between the
nozzle and the block valve. These connections may be utilised for chemical cleaning, if
specified.

13.0 PUMPS, COMPRESSORS AND TURBINES

13.1 General

Piping at pumps, compressors and steam turbines shall be sufficiently flexible and properly
supported to ensure that equipment nozzles are not subjected to stress that could lead to
misalignment or casing distortion.

Piping shall be arranged to allow removal of casing and machinery internals with minimum
disturbance to piping. Auxiliary piping should be routed neatly along the baseplate and
shall not obstruct inspection covers, casing or any other item requiring access for
maintenance and operation, or extend across an operating floor.

Lube and seal oil lines shall not be routed in the vicinity of hot process and utility lines.

13.2 Pump Piping

13.2.1 Pump suction piping shall be routed with consideration of the net positive suction
head requirements and thus shall be arranged for the shortest and most direct route from
the suction vessel, consistent with flexibility and access requirements. Pump suction
lines shall not have pockets.

13.2.2 Suction and discharge nozzles should never be larger than line size. If this occurs,
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the suction and discharge line sizes and the pump data requirements should be re-
calculated.

Where a horizontal suction nozzle is smaller than line size, an eccentric reducer shall be
installed at the suction nozzle with the flat part of the reducer located topside, to prevent
pump cavitation.

For vertical suction and discharge nozzles smaller than line size, concentric reducers shall be
installed.

13.2.3 Suction lines shall have a 3-diameter straight run upstream of the pump nozzle. This
length shall not include reducers or fittings.

13.2.4 A strainer shall be installed in each pump suction line. Strainers may be temporary
or permanent depending on the process requirements. Strainers shall be of a type that do
not require dismantling pump piping. Temporary conical or "Witches-Hat" type strainers
shall not be used.

13.2.5 A block valve shall be installed in the suction line of each pump, upstream of the
strainer.

13.2.6 A block valve and check valve shall be installed in each pump discharge line. The
check valve to be located upstream of the block valve.

13.2.7 When there is a standby pump in a pair of pumps, the piping shall be symmetrical
where possible. In addition, a NPS 3/4 warm-up by-pass with a globe valve shall be
installed upstream of the discharge check valve and downstream of the discharge block
valve, if the operating temperature of the pump is above 450oF (230oC).

13.2.8 Positive displacement pumps shall be safeguarded from pressure surge at start-up, or
from a possible blocked outlet, by a relief device installed in the discharge line between
the pump and the block valve.

13.3 Compressor Piping

13.3.1 General

In order to prevent fatigue failure of compressor piping, the effects of vibration and pressure
surge shall be considered.

Piping shall have a minimum of overhang. Double offsets for directional change shall be
avoided where possible.

Line routing between the suction drum and compressor nozzle can be critical, the design
should provide a route as short as possible to provide a direct gas flow, taking into
consideration line flexibility. Any increase in configuration is liable to cause an increase
in line size.

The design of piping in the compressor area should provide as much operating space as
possible on the operating floor. Where compressors are elevated, process and utility
piping should be located underneath the operating floor where practicable.

Interstage and discharge piping shall be sufficiently flexible to allow for thermal expansion
due to compression.

13.3.2 Block valves shall be installed in suction and discharge lines, except for air
compressors, when block valves shall only be in the discharge piping.
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Discharge lines shall have a check valve located between the outlet nozzle and the block
valve. The type of check valve to be used is specified in GES P.01.

13.3.3 A strainer shall be installed in each compressor suction line downstream of the block
valve located as close as possible to the suction nozzle.

13.3.4 Suction piping between a knockout drum and the compressor suction nozzle shall
slope back toward the knockout drum, without pockets, except where suction and
discharge nozzles located beneath the compressor casing dictate the piping layout.

13.3.5 The pressure rating of a suction line block valve and piping between this valve and
the suction nozzle should be the same rating as the discharge line for that particular
compressor stage, including any valves and suction pulsation dampeners.

13.3.6 Piping configuration analysis for all piping, pulsation devices and equipment
between the first major vessel upstream and downstream of the compressor, shall be in
accordance with Section 3.9, API 618. Results and recommendations of the analysis
shall be submitted to and approved by the Owner. Piping design shall not change after
the analysis recommendations have been implemented, unless sanctioned by the Owner.

13.3.7 Reciprocating compressor suction and discharge lines shall be located close to grade
to permit installation of restraints.

13.3.8 Reciprocating compressor intake and interstage piping system shall be pickled and
passivated, rinsed, dried and sprayed with oil internally.

13.4 Steam Turbine Piping

13.4.1 General

The steam supply line connection shall be located at the top of the steam header. A block
valve shall be installed in the steam supply line and located close to the steam header. A
steam separator and steam trap shall be provided in the steam inlet line. The piping
design shall ensure that all pockets in the steam supply line are trapped and no slugs of
condensate can enter the turbine. A Y-type strainer shall be installed in the steam supply
line upstream of the system control valve.

Warm-up facilities for the turbine shall be provided. Piping shall be designed to allow steam-
blowdown, up to the inlet and outlet flanges of the turbine before start-up.

13.4.2 Large Condensing Turbines

The main steam inlet throttling valve is located at the turbine steam inlet nozzle and is
normally supplied by the turbine manufacturer. A control valve and stop valve shall be
installed in the main steam supply line. These items shall be installed at the operating
floor level.

Steam vacuum ejector valves and piping for the surface condenser should also be located at
the operating floor level.

13.4.3 Back-Pressure Turbines

The main steam line shall have a vertical condensate drip leg and steam trap, before the
control valve at the steam inlet.

The exhaust steam may either discharge to an exhaust head or low pressure steam main.
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An exhaust head is used where the steam turbine is in a remote location, or it is not economic
otherwise to discharge to a low pressure steam header. When the turbine exhausts into a
low pressure steam header, the steam exhaust line shall tie-in to the top of the header. A
block valve shall be installed in the exhaust line at the high point.

A condensate leg shall be installed in the exhaust steam line close to the turbine exhaust
nozzle. A relief valve shall be installed on the exhaust steam side of the turbine. This
valve shall discharge to atmosphere at a safe location.

It should be noted that exhaust steam will be superheated when leaving the turbine, if the
exhaust steam line ties into a low pressure header, care must be taken to ensure that the
low pressure line is desuperheated if the header is to be used for supplying utility hose
stations.

14.0 TOWERS AND DRUMS

14.1 Piping Design

14.1.4 Piping running vertically down the side of a tower shall be grouped together close to
the side facing the pipe rack and shall be adequately supported and guided from the tower
shell.

14.1.2 Valves and spectacle blinds where required at vessel nozzles shall be installed
immediately adjacent to the vessel.

14.1.3 Piping and valves shall not impede access at platforms, ladders and to manways.

14.1.4 If steam piping to a tower or drum for steam-out purposes does not have a flanged
pressure blind, there shall be a removable spool between the steam block valve and check
valve installed on the vessel side. This spool shall only be installed during the steam-out
operation and removed when normal operation is resumed, or during inspection.

14.1.5 All valves on vertical vessels shall be located outside the skirt. There shall be no
flanged or threaded connections inside the skirt.

14.1.6 All elevated valves NPS 2 and above shall be operable from a vessel platform.
Valves NPS 1½ and below may be operable from a ladder.

14.1.7 Instrument piping shall be designed so that all instruments shall be accessible from a
vessel platform, excepting multiple level gauges which may be read from a ladder.

15.0 FIRED HEATERS AND BOILERS

15.1 General

Piping design shall provide adequate access and clearance for removal of headers and tubes.
Burner piping shall be designed with sufficient clearance to remove burners. Flexible
hose shall not be used in burner piping, unless the burner gun position requires
adjustments. The location of access doors, explosion hatches, peepholes etc; shall be
subject to approval by the Owner.

15.2 Operating Access


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Burner hand control valves shall be located adjacent to observation doors or peepholes, to
permit burner adjustment while observing the burner flame.

Pilot valves shall be installed in a position that enables the operator to open the pilot valve
with one hand and ignite the pilot with the other. For pilots installed in the heater floor,
the pilot valves shall be located so that the operator can position himself between the
burner and the nearest exterior heater wall.

15.3 Fuel Oil Piping

A main fuel oil supply and return line shall be installed for each furnace. Dead-end headers
shall be avoided. Block valves shall be installed in the main fuel oil inlet and outlet lines
of the furnace. These valves shall be located a minimum of 75 ft (23m) from the outside
face of the furnace. The fuel oil return line shall be supplied with a throttling valve,
downstream of the last burner take-off. This valve shall be accessible from a platform.

Lines carrying fuel oil heavier than 30o API shall be heat traced. Fuel oil supply lines to
individual burners shall be insulated together with the atomizing steam leads.

Fuel oil valves to individual burners should be located as close as possible to the header, to
minimize dead legs.

The main fuel oil supply line shall be equipped with a fine mesh duplex strainer.

15.4 Fuel Gas Piping

A main fuel gas supply line shall be installed for each furnace. A knockout drum shall be
installed in fuel gas and pilot gas systems to collect condensate. The drain line from the
knock-out drum shall discharge to a closed system. A block valve shall be installed in the
gas supply line to the furnace. This valve shall be located a minimum of 50 ft (15m)
from the knockout drum and 75 ft (23m) from the outside face of the furnace.

A drain leg shall be supplied at the low point of the fuel gas system downstream of the control
valve and discharge into the drain line from the knockout drum. Supply leads to
individual burners shall be connected at the top of the supply header.

A plug valve shall be installed in each burner lead for manual adjustment of the fuel gas
supply.

A duplex fine mesh strainer shall be installed in the pilot gas line upstream of the pressure
reducing valve.

15.5 Atomising Air

Air is not recommended for atomisation, if specifically required then advice of the Burner
Vendor should be sought.

15.6 Atomising Steam

If steam is used for atomisation a dedicated steam branch line shall run to each furnace from
the steam header. This branch line shall connect to the top of the steam header.

A block valve shall be installed in the steam branch line, close to the steam header and at the
top of the branch line.

Individual atomizing steam leads shall be connected to the top of the steam branch line. Each
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lead shall have a check valve and block valve operable from grade or a platform, located
adjacent to the peephole.

The steam branch line shall be provided with a drip-leg and trap at each low point.

15.7 Snuffing and Purge Steam

Purge steam shall be provided to purge the combustion chamber. Snuffing steam shall be
provided to the return header housing of furnaces using rolled headers or headers with
screw or plug type closures.

Snuffing and purge steam systems shall comprise of steam supply lines from the main steam
header to a valve manifold located at grade and a minimum of 50ft (15m) from the
furnace limits, in a location easily accessible from an access road.

The manifold shall consist of separate take-offs each with a block valve and run to the
snuffing steam and purge steam connections at the furnace.

The steam supply lines shall be provided with a drip-leg and steam trap at the low point of the
manifold. 1/8" (3mm) drain holes are to be provided directly above the snuffing steam
valves at the manifold. These holes are to be located away from the manifold operating
position.

15.8 Boiler Piping

External boiler piping integrated within the boiler system and not supplied by the Boiler
Vendor, shall generally be in accordance with GES F.02, GES F.04 and GES F.09.

In addition to the above specifications, the following requirements also apply.

Boiler drains and sample connections shall be piped to grade.

Pressure relief valves discharging to atmosphere shall be piped to a safe location.

Drains from superheater headers shall have separate connections to the sewer to permit
observations of flow.

15.9 Sootblower Steam Piping

Sootblower steam piping shall generally be in accordance with GES F.10 and the following
requirements.

Sootblower steam systems shall be designed to prevent condensate from entering the soot
blower during the blowing cycle. The piping system shall be sloped and trapped to
provide continuous drainage to sewer.

16.0 STORAGE TANKS

16.1 Atmospheric Storage

Piping shall be sufficiently flexible to compensate for tank settlement and thermal expansion.
Flexible joints shall not be used for tank piping containing hydrocarbons or other
hazardous fluids.

Where there are two or more nozzles located at the base of the tank, adjacent nozzles shall be
located parallel to the horizontal centreline of the tank.
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Block valves shall be located directly against the nozzles where possible.

Tank lines shall have a minimum of one elbow between the tank nozzle and the bundwall.

Piping running to and from the storage tank shall be grouped together and run at grade on
concrete sleepers 12 inches (300mm) minimum above the grade level, except as noted in
Section 9.6.

Lines shall penetrate bund walls using pipe sleeves. Sleeves shall be fitted with proprietary
end seals. Lines passing through sleeves shall be centralised by plastic insulators at 5 feet
(1.5m) centres. Lines shall be tape wrapped (55% overlap) to extend 4 ft (1.2m) beyond
sleeve ends.

Tank piping shall not pass through the bund wall into another bunded area or designated fire
block area. Transfer pumps and valve manifolds shall be located outside the bunded area.

16.2 Pressurised Storage (excluding refrigerated storage)

All bottom piping at spheres shall be fully welded. All inlet and outlet lines shall have a shut
off valve, located at the shell nozzle. In addition, a remote operated emergency shut off
valve shall be provided in each line, at a manifold separation wall 15 ft (5m) away from
the sphere (unless the first shut-off valve is remote operated from a safe location). All
valves shall be the fire-safe type. All piping shall have the same flexibility requirements
as laid down in paragraph 16.1 above.

17.0 VENTS AND DRAINS

Valved vent and drain connections shall be installed at all high and low points of piping
systems for hydrostatic testing and shall be NPS ¾ except for NPS ½ lines. Valved vent
and drain connections shall also be provided where required for process and operations.

Drain points releasing hazardous or toxic fluids shall discharge safely to an appropriate closed
drain system.

All other vent and drain points shall be plugged or capped.

18.0 SAMPLE CONNECTIONS

18.1 General

The following paragraphs cover the requirements for obtaining manual samples of liquid or
gaseous fluids from piping and process equipment.

Sample points shall be double valved. A block valve shall be installed close to the header or
equipment and a hand control valve shall be located at the sampling point.

18.2 Location

18.2.1 Sample points shall be located at convenient operating points.

18.2.2 Sample points shall preferably be located at grade, or if not practicable, at a


permanent platform.

18.2.3 Sample points should not be located in dead-ended access ways and should be
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located to allow the operator to take a sample upwind of the sample point.

18.2.4 Sample points shall not be taken from the bottom of a horizontal line. Liquid sample
points should be located on the horizontal axis of a line. Gas samples shall be taken
from the top of the line.

18.3 Gas Samples

Samples of gaseous fluids or liquids that could vaporize shall be obtained by using a
commercially available sample bottle assembly.

18.4 Liquid Samples

Consideration should be given to sampling of non-vaporizing liquids that could be injurious


to the operator, in this case, a protective enclosure of a design subject to the Owner's
approval shall be provided.

18.5 Sample Cooler

A sample of hot fluid shall be cooled by means of a sample cooler. The sample cooler may
either be the Vendor/Contractor's own design, or a commercially available product and
shall be subject to the Owner's approval.

The sample cooler shall reduce the temperature of the sample to 140oF (60oC) or less, but not
below a temperature of 25°F (14oC) above the pour point of the liquid, or to a
temperature which would result in a viscosity greater than 500 centipoise.

The cooling medium shall be taken from the nearest available service water or cooling water
system.

19.0 INSTRUMENT CONNECTIONS

19.1 General

The following paragraphs cover the installation of instruments in process and utility piping
and hook-up requirements at vessels, for normal refining and petrochemical facilities.
Cryogenic service conditions are not covered in this specification.

All process instrument connections, (except temperature connections) shall be valved.

19.2. Location

Locally mounted instruments shall be accessible from grade or permanent platforms.

All instruments shall be installed in piping and at vessels so that there is sufficient space
around the instrument for installation and maintenance. In particular, there should be
sufficient clearance between orifice metering assemblies and adjacent piping.

Where instruments are mounted on vessels, they should be located so that they do not project
into access ways at platforms.

19.3 Temperature Connections

19.3.1 Thermowells shall be provided for all temperature measuring elements.


Thermowells shall be NPS 1 threaded NPT, for standard thermowell installations for
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pressure ratings, ANSI Class 150 and 300.

19.3.2 NPS 1½ flanged thermowells shall be provided for pressure ratings of ANSI Class
600 and above and where frequent inspection is required. The minimum line size for
straight take-off connections shall be NPS 4 and NPS 3 for thermowell insertions at
elbows. For the latter case, the thermowell shall be located opposite the direction of
flow. Piping below the minimum sizes above shall be swaged up locally.

19.3.3 Thermowells installed in vessels shall be NPS 1½ flanged with a minimum rating of
ANSI Class 300.

19.4 Pressure Connections

Locally mounted pressure indicators should be located so that they are easily read from grade
or a permanent platform.

All pressure connections shall be accessible for maintenance.

All pressure connections shall be valved ½" at the piping termination point.

19.5 Flow Instruments

19.5.1 General

The installation of orifice flanges and other flow instruments shall be in accordance with GES
J.02, Section 6 and the following requirements.

19.5.2. Location

Orifice flanges in elevated horizontal lines shall be located for easy maintenance access from
temporary scaffolding or mobile platforms.

Lines running in a pipe rack that have orifice flanges installed, shall be located at the edge of
the pipe rack. Other flow instruments e.g. turbine meters, variable area meters, shall be
accessible from grade or a permanent platform. Where these instruments are located in a
horizontal run, the distance from the piping centreline to grade or platform shall be a
minimum of 18 inches (450 mm).

Where orifices flanges are installed in vertical piping, the following requirements apply:

Service Installation

Liquid Lines - The flow must be up


Steam Lines - The flow must be down
Gas Lines - The flow must be down

Orifice taps shall be located at 45 degrees from the horizontal axis.

Flange tap locations shall be as follows:

Gas Lines - Taps located upward


Steam & liquid - Taps located downward

19.6 Level Instruments

The installation of level instruments shall be in accordance with GES J.03 paragraph 3.5 and
Section 6 and the following requirements.
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19.6.1 Standpipes

Where multiple level gauges are specified, a common standpipe shall be used. A level
displacer, where specified, may also be mounted from the same standpipe if space is
restricted at a vessel. Loads on vessel nozzles should be considered when a standpipe is
used. The minimum pipe size for standpipes shall be NPS 2.

19.6.2 Permanent access from grade or a platform is required for level displacers and level
alarm instruments.

19.7 Control Valves

The installation of control valves shall be in accordance with GES J.06, Section 6.0 and the
following requirements.

19.7.1 Location

All control valves shall be located at grade or a permanent platform.

The control valve centreline shall be a minimum of 24 inches (600mm) above the operating
level, for NPS 10 and below. Control valve manifold sizes NPS 12 and above shall be
individually calculated. A minimum clearance of 12" (300mm) shall be maintained
above the valve actuator. A flanged elbow spool shall be installed either upstream or
downstream of the control valve for ease of valve removal.

19.7.2 Steam Service

For control valves in steam service a vertical drip leg, with a steam trap shall be installed
upstream of the control valve. The first block valve of a control valve manifold shall be
located downstream of the drip leg and mounted horizontally adjacent to the control
valve. A plugged NPS ¾ drain valve shall be installed immediately upstream and
downstream of the control valve for pressure letdown and drainage.

20.0 RELIEF AND BLOWDOWN SYSTEMS

20.1 Design

All relief headers entering or leaving a flare seal or blowdown drum, shall slope towards the
drum with a minimum fall of 1" in 40 ft (1 in 500).

20.1.2 The minimum height of the relief system piping shall be above the height of the inlet
piping into the top of the flare blowdown drum. Relief headers shall be routed either in
the pipe rack or above the piperack, supported on tee-post supports forming an extension
of the pipe rack columns.

20.1.3 Branch lines shall preferably tie-in to the top of the flare headers. Large sub-headers
may tie-in at the horizontal centreline of the relief header whenever there are height
restrictions.

20.1.4 Branch lines NPS 3 and above shall tie-in to the relief header at an angle of 45
degrees, in the direction of flow. Lines NPS 2 and below shall tie-in at 90o degrees to the
header.

20.1.5 Relief headers shall be provided with purge points at the end of the headers at the
high points of the system. Headers shall be purged and pressurized with fuel gas. The
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fuel gas lines shall be provided with a globe valve and check valve located close to the
flare header and a block valve near the fuel gas header.

20.1.6 Relief systems shall not be pocketed. If an expansion loop is required in a relief
header, the fall in the line shall include the loop length.

20.2 Pressure Safety Relief Valves

20.2.1 General

The installation of pressure safety relief valves and rupture discs shall be in accordance with
GES J.10 Section 6 and the following requirements.

20.2.2 Location

A minimum clear space of 2.5 ft (0.75m) shall be maintained for access at each side and at the
front of a safety relief valve.

Sufficient vertical clearance shall be provided between the safety relief valve cap and any
obstruction above, so that the cover may be removed for maintenance. This vertical
clearance is normally specified by the valve manufacturer.

20.2.3 Block Valves

An inlet block valve shall be installed when the vessel or associated plant cannot be shut
down for safety relief valve maintenance. A block valve shall be installed on the outlet,
when the safety relief valve is discharging into a closed system serving other safety relief
valves. Inlet and outlet block valves shall be full port, line size and locked open.

Where a standby safety relief valve is installed, the block valves of both sets shall be
interlocked so that one set is locked open and the other set locked closed.

A NPS ¾ bleed valve shall be installed between the inlet block valve and the safety relief
valve and also between the outlet block valve and the safety relief valve.

20.2.4 Maintenance

Safety relief valves NPS 3"x 2" and below, with inlet pressure ratings of ANSI Class 150 or
300, may be handled manually. Safety relief valves above this size and rating will
require mechanical facilities for handling. A locally mounted davit or runway beam may
be used for lifting safety relief valves or alternatively a mobile crane may be used for
safety relief valve maintenance. Handling facilities for safety relief valves shall be
approved by the Owner.

20.2.5 Inlet Piping

The inlet pipe size shall not be less than the relief valve inlet. Inlet piping shall rise toward
the safety relief valve and have no pockets.

20.2.6 Outlet Piping

Where a safety relief valve is discharging to atmosphere, a weep hole ¼" (6mm) diameter
shall be drilled at the low point of the pipe. When the discharge is to a relief system, the
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discharge line shall slope from the relief valve discharge and connect to the top of the
flare line, with no pockets.

21.0 COOLING SYSTEMS

21.1 Air-Fin Coolers

Piping shall be designed to give a balanced flow to all nozzles. Piping shall be designed and
supported to minimize loads on air fin cooler nozzles.

Adequate platforming shall be provided for access to cooler motors and mechanical
equipment.

21.2 Cooling Water Supply and Return

Main cooling water headers shall be provided with drains at the lowest points to enable
complete system draining within 6 hours.

Branch lines NPS 2 and below shall not be taken from the bottom of headers to prevent
plugging of lines. Cooling water supply to exchangers shall always enter at the bottom
nozzle from an above supply line and leave at the top nozzle, for cooling efficiency and
in the case of failure of the cooling water supply, the exchanger will remain full of water.

22.0 UTILITY STATIONS

22.1 General

The location of utility stations shall be shown on the plot plan. Each hose station shall have a
maximum radius of 50 feet (15m).

The utility station system shall cover all the equipment shown on the plot plan, with the hose
station radii overlapping for maximum coverage.

22.2 Design

Utility stations shall supply water, air and steam utilities and shall have NPS 1 hose
connections. Each station shall supply utilities in the same sequence facing the operator,
i.e. W.A.S (Water, Air and Steam). Nitrogen hose points shall be installed in areas where
nitrogen purge connections are specified. The nitrogen hose point shall be adjacent to the
steam hose connection.

Each service shall have a dedicated hose coupling, to prevent any error in connection. Hose
couplings shall be located 4 ft (1.2m) above grade, in a horizontal position. The steam
hose downcomer shall have a drip leg with a NPS ½ trap.

Utility stations located at tower platforms, shall be positioned outside the handrailing, with the
hose connections 12 inches (300mm) above the handrail, located horizontally and facing
inwards.

The extent of utilities to be supplied to elevated equipment including Towers and Columns
shall be specified by the Owner.
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