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Power System planning 10EE761

Solution to VTU Question Bank

UNIT 1

1. Explain Lease Cost Planning with flowchart. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014] [June/July 2015]
Least Cost Utility Planning:

There are two fundamental problems inherent in traditional planning. The first is that
demand forecasting and investment planning are treated as sequential steps in planning, rather
than as interdependent aspects of the planning process. The second problem is that planning
efforts are inadequately directed at the main constraints facing the sector, namely the serious
shortage of resources.

1. Demand forecasts are little more than extrapolations of past trends of consumption, no
attempt is made to understand neither the extent of unmet demand nor the extent to which
the prices influence the demand growth. Greater attention should be paid to end use
efficiency, plant rehabilitation, loss reduction program, etc.
2. Least cost planning (LCUP) is least cost utility planning strategy to provide reliable
electrical services at lowest overall cost with a mix of supply side and demand side
options.
3. The LCUP uses various options like end use efficiency, load management, transmission
and distribution options, alternative tariff options, etc.
4. This planning process can yield enormous benefits to consumers and society because it
affords acquisition of resources that meet consumer energy service needs that are low in
cost, environmentally friendly.
5. LCUP as a planning and regulatory process can greatly reduce the uncertainty and risks
faced by utilities. The logic for least cist planning is shown in the figure below:

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6. For an investment to be least cost, the lifetime costs are considered. These include capital
costs, interest on capital, fuel cost and operation and maintenance costs.

Fig: flowchart for least cost planning

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2. Describe the two techniques of load forecasting in power system. [Dec 2013/Jan
2014]

Forecasting Techniques:

Load forecasting is vitally important for the electric industry in the deregulated economy.
It has many applications including energy purchasing and generation, load switching, contract
evaluation, and infrastructure development. A large variety of mathematical methods have been
developed for load forecasting. In this chapter we discuss various approaches to load forecasting.

Forecasting Methods
 Over the last few decades a number of forecasting methods have been developed. Two of
the thods, so-called end-use and econometric approach are broadly used for medium- and
long-term forecasting. Avariety of methods, which include the so-called similar day
approach,various regression models, time series, neural networks, expert systems,fuzzy
logic, and statistical learning algorithms, are used for short-term forecasting.
 The development, improvements, and investigation of the appropriate mathematical tools
will lead to the development of more accurate load forecasting techniques.Statistical
approaches usually require a mathematical model that represents load as function of
different factors such as time, weather, and customer class.
 The two important categories of such mathematical models are: additive models and
multiplicative models. They differ in whether the forecast load is the sum (additive) of a
number of components or the product (multiplicative) of a number of factors. For
example, Chen et al. [4] presented an additive model that takes the form of predicting
load as the function of four components:
L = Ln + Lw + Ls + Lr,
where L is the total load, Ln represents the ―normal‖ part of the load,which is a set of
standardized load shapes for each ―type‖ of day that has been identified as occurring throughout
the year, Lw represents the weather sensitive part of the load, Ls is a special event component
that create a substantial deviation from the usual load pattern, and Lr is a completely random
term, the noise.
 A multiplicative model may be of the form

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L = Ln · Fw · Fs · Fr,
where Ln is the normal (base) load and the correction factors Fw, Fs, and Fr are positive
numbers that can increase or decrease the overall load. These corrections are based on current
weather (Fw), special events (Fs), and random fluctuation (Fr). Factors such as electricity
pricing (Fp) and load growth (Fg) can also be included. Rahman [29] presented a rulebased
forecast using a multiplicative model. Weather variables and the base load associated with the
weather measures were included in the model.

3. Discuss the different planning tools. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]

Planning Tools:

1. Planning engineer‘s primary requirement is to give power supply to consumers in a


reliable manner at a minimum cost with due flexibility for future expansion.
2. The criteria and constraints in planning an energy system are reliability, environmental
economics, electricity pricing, financial constraints, society impacts.
3. reliability, environmental, economic and financial constraints can be quantified. Social
effects are evaluated qualitatively.
4. The system must be optimal over a period of time from day of operation to the lifetime.
5. Various computer programs are available and are used for fast screening of alternative
plans with respect to technical, environmental and economic constraints.

The available tools for power system planning can be split into:
 Simulation tools: these simulate the behavior of the system under certain conditions
and calculate relevant indices. Examples are load flow models, short circuit models,
stability models, etc.
 Optimization tools: these minimize or maximize an objective function by choosing
adequate values for decision variables. Examples are optimum power, least cost
expansion planning, generation expansion planning, etc.
 Scenario tools: this is a method of viewing the future in a quantitative fashion. All
possible outcomes are investigated. The sort of decision or assumptions which might be

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made by a utility developing such a scenario might be: should we computerize


automate the management of power system after certain date.

4. Describe the structure of power system indicating the power system components and
types [Dec2014/Jan 2015]

Structure of Power System:

1. An essential component of power systems is the three-phase ac generator known as


synchronous generator or alternator.
2. The source of the mechanical power, commonly known as the prime mover, may be
hydraulic turbines, steam turbines whose energy comes from the burning of coal, gas
and nuclear fuel, gas turbines, or occasionally internal combustion engines burning oil.
3. The transformer transfers power with very high efficiency from one level of voltage to
another level. The power transferred to the secondary is almost the same as the primary,
except for losses in the transformer.

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4. An overhead transmission network transfers electric power from generating units to the
distribution system which ultimately supplies the load.
5. High voltage transmission lines are terminated in substations, which are called high-
voltage substations, receiving substations, or primary substations.
6. The distribution system connects the distribution substations to the consumers‘ service-
entrance equipment. The primary distribution lines from 4 to 34.5 kV and supply the
load in a well-defined geographical area.
7. Industrial loads are composite loads, and induction motors form a high proportion of
these loads. These composite loads are functions of voltage and frequency and form a
major part of the system load.

5. Explain load forecasting and Load modeling methods. [Dec2014/Jan 2015] [June/July
2015]

Load forecasting is vitally important for the electric industry in the deregulated economy. It has
many applications including energy purchasing and generation, load switching, contract
evaluation, and infrastructure development. A large variety of mathematical methods have been
developed for load forecasting. In this chapter we discuss various approaches to load forecasting

Forecasting Modeling
Depends on
1. Degree of Accuracy Required
2. 2 Cost of Producing Forecasts
3. 3 Forecast Horizon
4. 4 Degree of Complexity Required
5. 5 Available Data

Classification of Estimation Methods

1. Time Series Methods


2. Causal Methods

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3. Judgemental Methods

Time Series Methods: Use historical data as a basis, Underlying patterns are fairly stable.
1. Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA)
2. Exponential Smoothing
3. Extrapolation
4. Linear Prediction
5. Trend Estimation
6. Growth Curve
7. Box-Jenkins Approach

Causal Methods

Belief that some other time series can be useful. Assumption that it is possible to identify the
underlying factors

1. Regression Analysis
2. Linear Regression
3. Non-Linear Regression
4. Econometrics

6. Explain national action plan goals briefly. [June/July 2015]

National and Regional Planning:


1. All issues relating to planning and development of Transmission System in the country
are dealt in the Power System Wing of CEA.
2. This includes evolving long term and short term transmission plans. The network
expansion plans are optimized base on network simulation studies and techno economic
analysis.
3. This also involves formulation of specific schemes, evolving a phased implementation
plan in consultation with the Central and State transmission utilities and assistance in the
process of investment approval for the Central sector schemes, issues pertaining to

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development of National Power Grid in the country and issues relating to trans-country
power transfer.
4. Transmission planning studies are being conducted to identify evacuation system from
generation projects and to strengthen the transmission system in various regions.
5. The studies for long-term perspective plans are also being carried out on All India basis
for establishing inter regional connectivity aimed towards formation of the National Power
System.
6. The National Power System is being evolved to facilitate free flow of power across
regional boundaries, to meet the short fall of deficit regions from a surplus region as well as
for evacuation of power from project(s) located in one region to the beneficiaries located in
other region(s).

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UNIT 2&3

1. With the help of block diagram, explain distributed power generation planning. List
plan options, uncertainties and attributes. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]

Distributed generation (or DG) generally refers to small-scale (typically 1 kW – 50 MW)


electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to customers or that are
tied to an electric distribution system. Distributed generators include, but are not limited to
synchronous generators, induction generators, reciprocating engines, microturbines
(combustion turbines that run on high-energy fossil fuels such as oil, propane, natural gas,
gasoline or diesel), combustion gas turbines, fuel cells, solar photovoltaics, and wind
turbines.

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2. What is co-generation? Describe the two techniques of cogeneration.[Dec 2013/Jan


2014] [Dec2014/Jan 2015] [June/July 2015]

Co-Generation/ Captive Power

Captive power plants are associated with specific industrial complexes, and their output is almost
entirely consumed by that industrial plant. Another term that may sometimes be synonymous is
'cogeneration' in which the power plant produces multiple forms of energy (e.g., electric power
and steam), and where both are raw-materials for a related industrial process. Probably the most
classic example is that of a paper mill. Boilers produce steam. The steam passes through a
turbine that spins a generator to produce electricity. Exhaust steam from the turbine is then used
as a source of heat to dry freshly-made paper before is is finally condensed into water and
returned to the boiler. The boiler itself burns the bark that itself cannot be used to make paper
and would otherwise be a waste material. In addition, the process of making pulp produces a
chemical waste called "black liquor' that can also be burned as a fuel in a boiler.

Captive power plants don't necessarily have to be islands that are disconnected from 'the grid'. In
fact, it is often the case that the demand of the industrial process exceeds the capacity of the
captive plant, and power must be taken from the grid to make up the difference. Also, there must
be some provision to 'bootstrap' the integrated process into operation - often this means relying
on grid power to start-up the plant following an outage. And it is possible that there are times
when the captive plant will produce more power than can be consumed in the industrial process,
and rather than throttle back the excess is sold to the grid.
TYPES OF COGENERATION SYSTEMS
1. Steam Turbine Cogeneration System
Steam turbines are one of the most versatile and oldest prime mover technologies still in general
production. Power generation using steam turbines has been in use for about 100 years, when
they replaced reciprocating steam engines due to their higher efficiencies and lower costs. The
capacity of steam turbines can range from 50 kW to several hundred MWs for large utility power
plants. Steam turbines are widely used for combined heat and power (CHP) applications.

2. Back Pressure Steam Turbine

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A back pressure steam turbine is the simplest configuration. Steam exits the turbine at a pressure
higher or at least equal to the atmospheric pressure, which depends on the needs of the thermal
load. This is why the term back- pressure is used. It is also possible to extract steam from
intermediate stages of the steam turbine, at a pressure and temperature appropriate for the
thermal load. After the exit from the turbine, the steam is fed to the load, where it releases heat
and is condensed.

3. Write a note on distribution planning. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]

The electrical distribution system designs may vary considerably depending on


electrical loads, size of project and proximity of the development from existing electrical
substations and main power lines. The physical condition and location of the project site
may also favor an overhead versus underground electric distribution. Coordination, good
design, and project management are the keys to a smooth completion of an electrical
distribution system project.

I. INFORMATION REQUIRED FROM DEVELOPER FOR ELECTRICAL DESIGN


A. SITE PLAN
An accurate site development plan is necessary to get a good design of the project.
Information on adjacent property owners will be required depending on the scope of the
project. Information such as existing utilities, grading plans, existing easements and/or
right of way and ownership should be indicated as accurately as possible.

B. ELECTRIC POWER REQUIREMENTS a. CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC


SERVICE
GJU supplies 60HZ alternating current. The Developer must indicate the need for single-
phase service, three-phase service or both. Other special needs must be discussed with
GJU as early as possible at the start of the project.

b. VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS
The Developer shall indicate the secondary voltage classification requirements. GJU
normally supplies 240/120 Volts for Single-phase and 208Y/120 Volts or 480Y/277

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Volts for three-phase service. GJU may require, at its own determination, the use of
primary metering for customers that have large loads.

c. LOAD SCHEDULE
The Developer is required to submit the load calculations for any proposed non-
residential development. The State of New Mexico requires a single service capacity over
100KVA single phase or over 225KVA three phase to be prepared, reviewed, and
certified by a Registered Professional Engineer. Small projects are an exception. Check
with New Mexico Construction and Industries Division for current policies regarding
preparation of plans and calculations. The load calculation shall list the total connected
load and necessary demand load. In addition to total load the plans shall supply detail
load schedules (e.g. Panel schedules). A reasonable estimate load requirement may be
accepted initially if the final calculations are not yet available. GJU reserves the right to
require the final load calculations at any phase of the project if it becomes necessary.

d. METER
Meter location shall be indicated on the design. GJU requires the meter to be mounted
directly on the pad mount transformer, on the outside wall of the building, or mounted on
a uni-strut bracket three feet from the sides of the transformer and fully accessible at all
times.

e. MAIN DISCONNECT
To insure the ultimate in safety for the City of Gallup fire personnel, all new or rewired
electric services shall have a single disconnect point on the exterior part of the building
so that the fire department can de-energize the building if necessary in case of fire. The
Developer shall provide the size of the main disconnect on the design submitted.

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4. Discuss in brief rational tariff. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014] [Dec2014/Jan 2015] [June/July
2015]

 Power is the rate of flow of energy. Similarly, generating capacity, the ability to produce
power is itself a flow. A megawatt (MW) of capacity is worth little if it lasts only a
minute just as a MW of power delivered for only a minute is worth little.
 But a MW of power or capacity that flows for a year is quite valuable. The price of both
power and energy can be measured in $/MWh, and since capacity is a flow like power
and measured in MW, like power, it is priced like power, in $/MWh.
 Many find this confusing, but an examination of screening curves shows that this is
traditional (as well as necessary).
 Since fixed costs are mainly the cost of capacity they are measured in $/MWh and can
be added to variable costs to find total cost in $/MWh. When generation cost data are
presented, capacity cost is usually stated in $/kW.
 This is the cost of the flow of capacity produced by a generator over its lifetime, so the
true (but unstated) units are $/kW-lifetime. This cost provides useful information but
only for the purpose of finding fixed costs that can be expressed in $/MWh. No other
useful economic computation can be performed with the ―overnight‖ cost of capacity
given in $/kW because they cannot be compared with other costs until ―levelized.‖
While the U.S.
 Department of Energy sometimes computes these economically useful (levelized) fixed
costs, it never publishes them. Instead it combines them with variable costs and reports
total levelized energy costs.This is the result of a widespread lack of understanding of
the nature of capacity costs. Confusion over units causes too many different units to be
used, and this requires unnecessary and sometimes impossible conversions.

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5. What is the need for private participation in generation planning? How can it
improve the power situation in India? [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]
Private Paticpation:
 Private participation in 1991 to hasten the increase in generating capacity and to improve the
system efficiency as well. However, although several plants are under construction, till early
1999, eneration had commenced at private plants totalling less than 2,000 MW.

 In contrast, some state undertakings have completed their projects even earlier than
scheduled.Independent power producers (IPPs) claim that their progress has been hindered by
problems such as litigation, financial arrangements, and obtaining clearances and fuel supply
agreements. On the other hand, the State Electricity Boards have been burdened by power
purchase agreements (PPAs) that favour the IPPs with such clauses as availability payment
irrespective of plant utilization, tariffs reflecting high capital costs and returns on equity, etc.

 The process of inviting private participation in the power sector and the problems experienced
seem to have spurred on the restructuring of the power sector, including the formation of Central
and State Electricity Regulatory Commissions.

 However, some important problems have not been addressed. Additions to the generation
capacity without corresponding improvement of the transmission and distribution facilities are
likely to further undermine the system efficiency.

 What is more, issues like the reduction of "commercial losses" appear to have been ignored.Most
importantly, investment in infrastructure has been a state responsibility because the intrinsically
long gestation coupled with the relatively low returns from serving all categories of consumers
have rendered such projects commercially unprofitable. Whether or not private participation can
take on such tasks is to be seen.

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UNIT 4

1. Discuss wheeling in power system and list the typical objectives in wheeling.
[Dec 2013/Jan 2014]

Wheeling:
 In electric power transmission, wheeling is the transportation of electric power
(megawatts or megavolt-amperes) over transmission lines.[1]

 Electric power networks are divided into transmission and distribution


networks. Transmission lines move electric power between generating
facilities and substations, usually in or near population centers. From substations, power
is sent to users over a distribution network. A transmission line might move power over a
few miles or hundreds of miles.

 An entity that generates power does not have to own power transmission lines: only a
connection to the network or grid. The entity then pays the owner of the transmission line
based on how much power is being moved and how congested the line is.

 Some power generating entities join a group which has shared ownership of transmission
lines. These groups may include investor-owned utilities, government agencies, or a
combination of these.

 Since prices to move power are based on congestion in transmission line networks,
utilities try to charge customers more to use power during peak usage (demand) periods.
This is accomplished by installing time-of-use meters to recover wheeling costs.

2. Explain the effect of power generation on environment. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]

Environmental impact:
 The environmental impact of electricity generation is significant because modern society
uses large amounts of electrical power. This power is normally generated at power
plants that convert some other kind of energy into electrical power. Each system has
advantages and disadvantages, but many of them pose environmental concerns.

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 The amount of water usage is often of great concern for electricity generating systems as
populations increase and droughts become a concern. Still, according to the U.S.
Geological Survey, thermoelectric power generation accounts for only 3.3 percent of net
freshwater consumption with over 80 percent going to irrigation. Likely future trends in
water consumption are covered here. General numbers for fresh water usage of different
power sources are shown below.

 Steam-cycle plants (nuclear, coal, NG, solar thermal) require a great deal of water for
cooling, to remove the heat at the steam condensors. The amount of water needed relative
to plant output will be reduced with increasing boiler temperatures. Coal- and gas-fired
boilers can produce high steam temperatures and so are more efficient, and require less
cooling water relative to output. Nuclear boilers are limited in steam temperature by
material constraints, and solar is limited by concentration of the energy source.

 Thermal cycle plants near the ocean have the option of using seawater. Such a site will
not have cooling towers and will be much less limited by environmental concerns of the
discharge temperature since dumping heat will have very little effect on water
temperatures. This will also not deplete the water available for other uses. Nuclear power
in Japan for instance, uses no cooling towers at all because all plants are located on the
coast. If dry cooling systems are used, significant water from the water table will not be
used. Other, more novel, cooling solutions exist, such as sewage cooling at the Palo
Verde Nuclear Generating Station.

 Most electricity today is generated by burning fossil fuels and producing steam which is
then used to drive a steam turbine that, in turn, drives an electrical generator.Such
systems allow electricity to be generated where it is needed, since fossil fuels can readily
be transported. They also take advantage of a large infrastructure designed to support
consumer automobiles.

 The world's supply of fossil fuels is large, but finite. Exhaustion of low-cost fossil fuels
will have significant consequences for energy sources as well as for the manufacture
of plastics and many other things. Various estimates have been calculated for exactly
when it will be exhausted (see Peak oil). New sources of fossil fuels keep being

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discovered, although the rate of discovery is slowing while the difficulty of extraction
simultaneously increases.

3. What are the source of absorption and generation of reactive power in transmission
and distribution lines? Compare advantages and disadvantages of any 4
compensating equipments. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]

Reactive compensation:

 Except in a very few special situations, electrical energy is generated, transmitted,


distributed, and utilized as alternating current (AC). However,alternating current has
several distinct disadvantages. One of these is the necessity of reactive power that
needs to be supplied along with active power.
 Reactive power can be leading or lagging.While it is the active power that contributes
to the energy consumed, or transmitted, reactive power does not contribute to the
energy. Reactive power is an inherent part of the ‗‗total power.‘‘
 Reactive power is either generated or consumed in almost every component of the
system, generation, transmission, and distribution and eventually by the loads. The
impedance of a branch of a circuit in an AC system consists of two components,
resistance and reactance.
 Reactance can be either inductive or capacitive, which contribute to reactive power in
the circuit.Most of the loads are inductive, and must be supplied with lagging reactive
power.
 It is economical to supply this reactive power closer to the load in the distribution
system.Reactive power compensation in power systems can be either shunt or series.

Shunt Capacitors:
Shunt capacitors are employed at substation level for the following reasons:

 Reducing power losses

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Compensating the load lagging power factor with the bus connected shunt capacitor bank
improves the power factor and reduces current flow through the transmission lines,
transformers, generators, etc. This will reduce power losses (I2R losses) in this equipment.

 Increased utilization of equipment


Shunt compensation with capacitor banks reduces kVA loading of lines, transformers, and
generators, which means with compensation they can be used for delivering more power
without overloading the equipment. Reactive power compensation in a power system is of two
types—shunt and series. Shunt compensation can be installed near the load, in a distribution
substation, along the distribution feeder, or in a transmission substation.
 Voltage regulation
The main reason that shunt capacitors are installed at substations is to control the voltage
within required levels. Load varies over the day, with very low load from midnight toearly
morning and peak values occurring in the evening between 4 PM and 7 PM. Shape of the load
curve also varies from weekday to weekend, with weekend load typically low.
 Shunt Reactive Power Compensation
Since most loads are inductive and consume lagging reactive power, the compensation
required is usually supplied by leading reactive power. Shunt compensation of reactive power
can be employed either at load level, substation level, or at transmission level.
 It can be capacitive (leading) or inductive (lagging) reactive power, although in most
cases compensation is capacitive. The most common form of leading reactive power
compensation is by connecting shunt capacitors to the line.
 As the load varies, voltage at the substation bus and at the load bus varies. Since the
load power factor is always lagging, a shunt connected capacitor bank at the substation
can raise voltage when the load is high. The shunt capacitor banks can be permanently
connected to the bus (fixed capacitor bank) or can be switched as needed. Switching
can be based on time, if load variation is predictable, or can be based on voltage, power
factor, or line current.

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4. Explain environmental effects and technological impacts in power system planning


[June/July 2015]

Environmental impact:
 The environmental impact of electricity generation is significant because modern society
uses large amounts of electrical power. This power is normally generated at power
plants that convert some other kind of energy into electrical power. Each system has
advantages and disadvantages, but many of them pose environmental concerns.

 The amount of water usage is often of great concern for electricity generating systems as
populations increase and droughts become a concern. Still, according to the U.S.
Geological Survey, thermoelectric power generation accounts for only 3.3 percent of net
freshwater consumption with over 80 percent going to irrigation. Likely future trends in
water consumption are covered here. General numbers for fresh water usage of different
power sources are shown below.

 Steam-cycle plants (nuclear, coal, NG, solar thermal) require a great deal of water for
cooling, to remove the heat at the steam condensors. The amount of water needed relative
to plant output will be reduced with increasing boiler temperatures. Coal- and gas-fired
boilers can produce high steam temperatures and so are more efficient, and require less
cooling water relative to output. Nuclear boilers are limited in steam temperature by
material constraints, and solar is limited by concentration of the energy source.

 Thermal cycle plants near the ocean have the option of using seawater. Such a site will
not have cooling towers and will be much less limited by environmental concerns of the
discharge temperature since dumping heat will have very little effect on water
temperatures. This will also not deplete the water available for other uses. Nuclear power
in Japan for instance, uses no cooling towers at all because all plants are located on the
coast. If dry cooling systems are used, significant water from the water table will not be
used. Other, more novel, cooling solutions exist, such as sewage cooling at the Palo
Verde Nuclear Generating Station.

 Most electricity today is generated by burning fossil fuels and producing steam which is
then used to drive a steam turbine that, in turn, drives an electrical generator.Such
systems allow electricity to be generated where it is needed, since fossil fuels can readily

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be transported. They also take advantage of a large infrastructure designed to support


consumer automobiles.

 The world's supply of fossil fuels is large, but finite. Exhaustion of low-cost fossil fuels
will have significant consequences for energy sources as well as for the manufacture
of plastics and many other things. Various estimates have been calculated for exactly
when it will be exhausted (see Peak oil). New sources of fossil fuels keep being
discovered, although the rate of discovery is slowing while the difficulty of extraction
simultaneously increases.

5. Explain the following :- i) Insulation coordination ii) Reactive compensation


[June/July 2015]

Insulation Co-ordination:

 The term Insulation Co-ordination was originally introduced to arrange the insulation
levels of the several components in the transmission system in such a manner that an
insulation failure, if it did occur, would be confined to the place on the system where it
would result in the least damage, be the least expensive to repair, and cause the least
disturbance to the continuity of the supply. The present usage of the term is broader.
 Insulation co-ordination now comprises the selection of the electric strength of equipment
in relation to the voltages which can appear on the system for which the equipment is
intended. The overall aim is to reduce to an economically and operationally acceptable
level the cost and disturbance caused by insulation failure and resulting system outages.
 To keep interruptions to a minimum, the insulation of the various parts of the system
must be so graded that flashovers only occur at intended points. With increasing system
voltage, the need to reduce the amount of insulation in the system, by proper co-
ordination of the insulating levels become more critical.

Reactive compensation:

 Except in a very few special situations, electrical energy is generated, transmitted,


distributed, and utilized as alternating current (AC). However,alternating current has

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several distinct disadvantages. One of these is the necessity of reactive power that
needs to be supplied along with active power.
 Reactive power can be leading or lagging.While it is the active power that contributes
to the energy consumed, or transmitted, reactive power does not contribute to the
energy. Reactive power is an inherent part of the ‗‗total power.‘‘
 Reactive power is either generated or consumed in almost every component of the
system, generation, transmission, and distribution and eventually by the loads. The
impedance of a branch of a circuit in an AC system consists of two components,
resistance and reactance.
 Reactance can be either inductive or capacitive, which contribute to reactive power in
the circuit.Most of the loads are inductive, and must be supplied with lagging reactive
power.
 It is economical to supply this reactive power closer to the load in the distribution
system.Reactive power compensation in power systems can be either shunt or series.

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UNIT 5&6
1. Define system reliability and explain reliability planning criteria.[Dec 2013/Jan
2014] [Dec 2014/Jan 2015] [June/July 2015]

Power Supply Reliability:

 The term reliability is broad in meaning. In general, reliability designates


the ability of a system to perform its assigned function, where past experience helps to
form advance estimates of future performance.

 Reliability can be measured through the mathematical concept of


probability by identifying the probability of successful performance with the degree of
reliability. Generally, a device or system is said to perform satisfactorily if it does not fail
during the time of service. On the other hand, a broad range of devices are expected to
undergo failures, be repaired and then returned to service during their entire useful life.

 In this case a more appropriate measure of reliability is the availability of


the device, which is defined as follows:

 The indices used in reliability evaluation are probabilistic and,


consequently, they do not provide exact predictions. They state averages of past events
and chances of future ones by means of most frequent values and long-run averages. This
information should be complemented with other economic and policy considerations for
decision-making in planning, design and operation. The function of an electric power
system is to provide electricity to its customers efficiently and with a reasonable
assurance of continuity and quality.

 The task of achieving economic efficiency is assigned to system operators


or competitive markets, depending on the type of industry structure adopted. On the other
hand, the quality of the service is evaluated by the extent to which the supply of
electricity is available to customers at a usable voltage and frequency. The reliability of
power supply is, therefore, related to the probability of providing customers with

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continuous service and with a voltage and frequency within prescribed ranges around the
nominal values.

2. Explain in brief the following real time operations: [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]
a. State estimation:
State estimators allow the calculation of these variables of interest with high confidence
despite measurements that are corrupted by noise measurements that may be missing or grossly
Inaccurate.

Objectives:
 To provide a view of real-time power system conditions
 Real-time data primarily come from SCADA SE supplements SCADA data: filter, fill,
smooth.
 To provide a consistent representation for power system security analysis
 On-line dispatcher power flow
 Contingency Analysis
 Load Frequency Control
 To provide diagnostics for modeling & maintenance

b. AGC: In an electric power system, Automatic generation control (AGC) is a system


for adjusting the power output of multiple generators at different power plants, in
response to changes in the load. Since a power grid requires that generation and load
closely balance moment by moment, frequent adjustments to the output of generators
are necessary. The balance can be judged by measuring the system frequency; if it is
increasing, more power is being generated than used, and all the machines in the
system are accelerating. If the system frequency is decreasing, more load is on the
system than the instantaneous generation can provide, and all generators are slowing
down.

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c. Economic load dispatch: Economic dispatch is the short-term determination of the


optimal output of a number of electricity generation facilities, to meet the system
load, at the lowest possible cost, subject to transmission and operational constraints.
The Economic Dispatch Problem is solved by specialised computer software which
should honour the operational and system constraints of the available resources and
corresponding transmission capabilities. The main idea is that in order to serve load at
minimum total cost, the set of generators with the lowest marginal costs must be used
first, with the marginal cost of the final generator needed to meet load setting the
system marginal cost. This is the cost of delivering one additional MW of energy onto
the system. The historic methodology for economic dispatch was developed to
manage fossil fuel burning power plants, relying on calculations involving the
input/output characteristics of power stations.

d. Stability: The stability of a system refers to the ability of a system to return back to
its steady state when subjected to a disturbance. As mentioned before, power is
generated by synchronous generators that operate in synchronism with the rest of the
system. A generator is synchronized with a bus when both of them have same
frequency, voltage and phase sequence. We can thus define the power system stability
as the ability of the power system to return to steady state without losing
synchronism. Usually power system stability is categorized into Steady
State, Transient and Dynamic Stability.

3. With the help of schematic diagram, explain load management technique.


[Dec 2013/Jan 2014]
Load management:
 Load management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the process
of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the electrical load by adjusting
or controlling the load rather than the power station output.
 This can be achieved by direct intervention of the utility in real time, by the use of
frequency sensitive relays triggering circuit breakers (ripple control), by time clocks, or
by using special tariffs to influence consumer behavior.

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 Load management allows utilities to reduce demand for electricity during peak usage
times, which can, in turn, reduce costs by eliminating the need for peaking power plants.
In addition, peaking power plants also often require hours to bring on-line, presenting
challenges should a plant go off-line unexpectedly.
 Load management can also help reduce harmful emissions, since peaking plants or
backup generators are often dirtier and less efficient than base load power plants. New
load-management technologies are constantly under development — both by private
industry and public entities.

4. Explain reactive power balance in power system [Dec2013/Jan2014] [June/July


2015]
Large flows of reactive power have been observed in parts of the network with a large
penetration of wind power.
•The transfer of reactive power leads to the following problems:-
Occupation of active power transfer capacity-
Thermal losses-
Voltage differences-
Occupation of dynamic compensation reserves-
Decrease in voltage stability margin
•The installation of reactors, capacitors, SCs, SVCs or STATCOMs in the transmission
ystem is expensive
•Only little knowledge of the actual reactive power flows in the distribution systems.

5. With the help of block diagram, explain computerized management of power


system. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]
Computerized management:

Research shows that personal computers (PC) are not being actively used during the vast
majority of the time that they are kept on. It is estimated that an average PC is in use 4 hours
each work day and idle for another 5.5 hours. It's also estimated that some 30-40 percent of the
US's work PCs are left running at night and on weekends.

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Office equipment is the fastest growing electricity load in the commercial


sector. Computer systems are believed to account for 10 percent or more of commercial
electricity consumption already. Since computer systems generate waste heat, they also increase
the amount of electricity necessary to cool office spaces.

For the Medical Center, we estimate the savings from PC power management to be
hundreds of thousands of dollars annually, even without factoring in increased office cooling
costs. Considerable savings are also possible from easing wear-and-tear on the computers
themselves.

6. Explain Load management and Load prediction with diagrams [Dec 2013/Jan
2014]

Load management:
 Load management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the process
of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the electrical load by adjusting
or controlling the load rather than the power station output.
 This can be achieved by direct intervention of the utility in real time, by the use of
frequency sensitive relays triggering circuit breakers (ripple control), by time clocks, or
by using special tariffs to influence consumer behavior.
 Load management allows utilities to reduce demand for electricity during peak usage
times, which can, in turn, reduce costs by eliminating the need for peaking power plants.
In addition, peaking power plants also often require hours to bring on-line, presenting
challenges should a plant go off-line unexpectedly.
 Load management can also help reduce harmful emissions, since peaking plants or
backup generators are often dirtier and less efficient than base load power plants. New
load-management technologies are constantly under development — both by private
industry and public entities.

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Load Prediction:

Electric load forecasting is the process used to forecast future electric load, given
historical load and weather information and current and forecasted weather information. In the
past few decades, several models have been developed to forecast electric load more
accurately. Load forecasting can be divided into three major categories:
 Long-term electric load forecasting, used to supply electric utility company
management with prediction of future needs for expansion, equipment
purchases, or staff hiring
 Medium-term forecasting, used for the purpose of scheduling fuel supplies and
unit maintenance
 Short-term forecasting, used to supply necessary information for the system
management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment.

UNIT 7&8

1. Develop mathematical objective function of power system expansion planning.


[Dec 2013/Jan 2014] [Dec 2014/Jan 2015] [June/July 2015]

A mathematical optimization technique formulates the problem in a mathematical


representation; as given by (2.2) through (2.4). Provided the objective function and/or the
constraints are nonlinear, the resulting problem is designated as Non Linear optimization
Problem (NLP). A special case of NLP is quadratic programming in which the objective
function is a quadratic function of x. If both the objective functions and the constraints
are linear functions of x, the problem is designated as a Linear Programming (LP)
problem. Other categories may also be identified based on the nature of the variables. For
instance, if x is of integer type, the problem is denoted by Integer Programming (IP).
Mixed types such as MILP(Mixed Integer Linear Programming) may also exist in which
while the variables may be both real and integer, the problem is also of LP type. For
mathematical based formulations, some algorithms have, so far, been developed; based

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on them some commercial software have also been generated. In the following
subsections, we briefly review these algorithms. We should, however, note that generally
speaking, a mathematical algorithm may suffer from numerical problems and may be
quite complex in implementation. However, its convergence may be guaranteed but
finding the global optimum solution may only be guaranteed for some types such as LP.
There is no definite and fixed classification of mathematical algorithms. Here, we are not
going to discuss them in details. Instead, we are going to introduce some topics which are
of more interest in this book and may be applicable to power system planning issues.1
Some topics, such as game theory, which are of more interest for other power system
issues (such as market analysis of power ystems), are not addressed here.

2. What are the constraints observed during optimization process of power system
expansion planning? [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]
Constraints
The constraints to be observed during the optimization process are as follows:
 Generation capacity: the capacity sum of newly installed and existing generating
units are more than or equal to the load demand plus reserve in each year within
planning period.
 Reliability: the reliability index LOLP is used to evaluate adequacy of generating
units.
LOLP index of critical period in year t and
 The presence of hydro power plants: this constraint expresses the maximum
energy obtained from a hydro power plant in the different periods of the planning
horizon at different climatic conditions.
 Fuel constraint: maximum fuel supply of different fuel types of thermal plants.
 Emission constraint: maximum production rate of pollution.

3. Explain least cost optimization problem.. [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]


Energy consumption is rapidly increased in development countries, which effects global
climate change and global and regional energy management. Among the various kinds of
energy carriers, electricity has a special role in helping to attain social and economic

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development. The problem of power system planning may be classified as generation


expansion planning (GEP), transmission expansion planning (TEP), and distribution
expansion planning (DEP). This decomposition is normally performed to make the very
highly complex combined problem possible. Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) is
considered one of major parts of power system planning issues. The aim of GEP is to
seek the most economical generation expansion scheme achieving an acceptable
reliability level according to the forecast of demand increase in a certain period of time.
The feasibility of the generation structure, the cost of primary energy resources and fuel
for the scheme, and the reliability indices of electricity supply, make generation planning
a very complicated optimization mathematically. Some of these restrictions have been
applied in GEP in the recent literature WASP-IV is powerful software developed by
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in which a dynamic programming approach
is employed to find an overall optimal required generation capacity for the network so
that an index, such as LOLP, is minimized.

4. Explain in brief two optimization techniques [Dec 2013/Jan 2014]


5. Explain the optimization techniques for solution by programming.
i) Linear programming method. ii) Nonlinear programming method.
iii) Dynamic programming method. [Dec 2014/Jan 2015] [June/July 2015]

Optimization Techniques:
In everyday life, all of us are confronted with some decision makings. Normally, we try to decide
or the best. If someone is to buy a commodity, he or she tries to buy the best quality, yet with the
east cost. These types of decision makings are categorized as optimization problems in which the
aim is to find the optimum solutions; where the optimum may be either the least or the most.

Most of the operational and planning problems consist of the following three major steps
• Definition
• Modeling
• Solution algorithm

Decision variables are the independent variables; the decision maker has to determine their
optimum values and based on those, other variables (dependent) can be determined. For instance,

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in an optimum generation scheduling problem, the active power generations of power plants may
be the decision variables. The dependent variables can be the total fuel consumption, system
losses, etc. which can be calculated upon determining the decision variables. In a capacitor
allocation problem, the locations and the sizing of the capacitor banks are the decision variables,
whereas the dependent variables may be bus voltages, system losses, etc. Mathematical
Algorithms.

Linear Programming (LP) Method:


As already noted, LP is an optimization method in which both the objective function and the
constraints are linear functions of the decision variables. This type of problem was first
recognized in the 1930s by the economists in developing methods for the optimal allocation of
resources. Noting the fact that
• Any LP problem can be stated as a minimization problem; due to the fact that, as already
described, maximizing C(x) is equivalent to minimizing (-C(x)). The problem can be stated in a
form known as canonical. Then, a solution known as the simplex method, first devised in 1940s,
may be used to solve the problem. Using the simplex method normally requires a large amount
of computer storage and time. The so called revised simplex method is a revised method in
which less computational time and storage space are required. Still another topic of interest in LP
problems is the duality theory. In fact, associated with every LP problem, a so called dual
problem may be formulated. In many cases, the solution of an LP problem may be more easily
obtained from the dual problem. If the LP problem has a special structure, a so called
decomposition principle may be employed to solve the problem in which less computer storage
is required.

Non Linear Programming (NLP) Method:


We noted earlier that if the objective function and/or the constraints are nonlinear functions of
the decision variables, the resulting optimization problem is called NLP. Before proceeding
further on NLP problems, we should note that most practical problems are of constrained type in
which some constraint functions should be satisfied. As for constrained problems, however,
some algorithms work on the principle of transforming the problem into a unconstrained case,
we initially review some existing algorithms on solving unconstrained problems. The solution
methods for unconstrained problems may be generally classified as direct search (or non-

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gradient) methods and descent (or gradient) methods. The former methods do not use the partial
derivatives of the objective function and are suitable for simple problems involving a relatively
small number of variables. The latter methods require the evaluations of the first and possibly,
the higher order derivatives of the objective function. As a result, these methods are generally
more efficient than the direct methods. All the unconstrained optimization methods are iterative
in nature and start from an initial trial solution; moving stepwise in a sequential manner towards
the optimum solution. The gradient methods have received more attention in power system
literature. For instance, in the so called steepest descent method; widely used in power system
literature, the gradient vector is used to calculate the optimum step length along the search
direction so that the algorithm efficiency is maximized.

Let us come back to the constrained case. Two types of methods, namely, direct and indirect
methods apply. In the former methods, the constraints are handled in an explicit manner, while in
most of the latter methods; the constrained problem is converted into a sequence of
unconstrained problems and solved through available algorithms. As an example of the direct
methods, in the so called constraint approximation method, the objective function and the
constraints are linearized about some point. The resulting approximated LP problem is solved
using LP techniques. The resulting solution is then used to construct a new LP problem. The
process is continued until a convergence criterion is satisfied. As an example of the indirect
methods, the so called penalty function method, works on the principle of converting the
problem into an unconstrained type. It is, in turn, classified as interior and exterior penalty
function methods. In the former, the sequence of unconstrained minima lie in the feasible region
while in the latter, they lie in the infeasible region. In both, they move towards the desired.

Dynamic Programming (DP) Method:


Dynamic Programming is a widely used technique in power system studies. It is, in fact, a
mathematical technique used for multistage decision problems; originally developed in 1950s. A
multistage decision problem is a problem in which optimal decisions have to be made over some
stages. The stages may be different times, different spaces, different levels, etc. The important
point is that the output of each stage is the input to the next serial stage. The overall objective
function is to be optimized over all stages. It is normally a function of the decision variables (xi)
of all stages. The important fact is that one cannot start from optimizing the first stage; moving

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forward toward the final stage; as there may be some correlations between the stages, too. To
make the problem clear, let us express a power system example. Suppose we are going to
minimize the generation cost of a power system over a 24-h period. Some information is as
follows
• There are four generation units available; each of which may be either off or on (so that various
combinations are possible, such as, 1111, 1101, 1001, 0011,…).
• The unit efficiencies are different; so that if the system load is low and say, two units can meet
the load, we should use the higher efficient units to supply the load.
• The load varies throughout the 24-h period; changing at each hour (stage). The multistage
decision problem is, in fact, deciding on the units to be on at each stage so that the overall
generation cost over the 24-h period is minimized. We note that if no other constraint was
imposed, we should optimize our problem at each stage and sum it over all stages. In other
words, 24 single stage optimization problems2 have to be solved to find the final solution.
Suppose that the final solution looks like Fig. 2.5 in which the unit combinations are shown at
each stage. As shown, unit 1 is on at hours 1 and 2, off at hour 3, and on again at hour 4. Now
what happens if a constraint is imposed expressing the fact that if unit 1 is turned off, it cannot be
turned on unless a 5-h period is elapsed.

6. Explain the following with diagrams i) State estimator. ii) Power system simulator [Dec
2014/Jan 2015] [June/July 2015]

State Estimation:
State estimators allow the calculation of these variables of interest with high confidence
despite measurements that are corrupted by noise measurements that may be missing or grossly
Inaccurate.

Objectives:
 To provide a view of real-time power system conditions
 Real-time data primarily come from SCADA SE supplements SCADA data: filter, fill,
smooth.
 To provide a consistent representation for power system security analysis

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 On-line dispatcher power flow


 Contingency Analysis
 Load Frequency Control
 To provide diagnostics for modeling & maintenance

Power System Simulator:


Power system simulation models are a class of computer simulation programs that focus on the
operation of electrical power systems. These computer programs are used in a wide range of
planning and operational situations including:

1. Long-term generation and transmission expansion planning


2. Short-term operational simulations
3. Market analysis (e.g. price forecasting)

These programs typically make use of mathematical optimization techniques such linear
programming, quadratic programming, and mixed integer programming.

Key elements of power systems that are modeled include:

1. Load flow (power flow study)


2. Short circuit
3. Transient stability
4. Optimal dispatch of generating units (unit commitment)
5. Transmission (optimal power flow)

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