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Chapter 1

Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound effect in the

megahertz range that are reproduce by tissue to varying degrees to produce kidney

images. This is commonly related with imaging the kidney stone in kidney patients.

Uses of ultrasound are much broader. While it may provide less anatomical detail than

techniques such as CT or MRI, it has several advantages which make it ideal in

numerous situations, in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in

real time and contain spectacles that can be used in elastography.

The algorithm is based on scheduled from a known about kidney images

derived from a learning process. Next the labels are adjusted with a features detection

method based on large regional perspective information, which makes use of

knowledge of the kidney images structure. At last the regions of kidney images are

marked and the features of the regions are arranged to get from histogram.

Medical imaging is the method and process used to create images of the

human body for clinical purposes or medical science. Although imaging of detached

organs and tissues can be performing for medical reasons, such procedures are not

usually referred to as medical imaging, but relatively are a part of pathology.


This thesis presents an automated extraction of ultrasonic kidney images is an

important step in computer aided diagnosis and treatment. To use association rule in

kidney ultrasonic images can provide several useful features for the diagnosis of

various kidney diseases. The process of vision, this evaluation focuses on kidney

imaging and image analysis. The kidney images map out the feature extraction by

tracing out the features of the diagnosing images. A lot of important kidney diseases

as shown figure 1.2.1 as well as systemic diseases noticeable themselves in the

kidney. It will find the mean value, standard value, min and max value of the kidney

images is an important task in an automated kidney image analysis system.


Fig1.2.1 kidney Diseases Types

Kidney cancer is staged by measuring the size of the tumor, the location of the

cancer cells either confined to the kidney, locally spread or widespread beyond the

tough tissue surrounding the kidney .The kidneys are two organs in the body that filter

the blood and remove waste material and excess water by making urine that is

expelled as waste.


The objective is to either to develop a computer based approach to detect

the different disease stages using kidney images. A simple and user friendly interface

is also necessary as the user might not be proficient in programming code.

The overall objective of this thesis is to create an automated program to

quickly process a large number of kidney images from mass screening of kidney


Chapter 1

Fig.1.3.1 Kidney images

Segmentation is one of the most intensely studied problems in image analysis

and still no robust general purpose methods exist. The general methodology is

applicable also for other segmentation problems. The obvious next step, not within the

objective of this study, is to perform the analysis of histogram features in the spatial,

temporal and spectral domains using the segmentation result. Therefore various

application adapted methods which take advantage of the a priori knowledge about

the images, are needed. In this study developed a sequence of processing steps that

lead to an automatic segmentation of ultrasonic kidney images. Hence, this system

could assist ophthalmologists to improve their productivity, efficiency as well as

cost effective, in detecting the different stages of diseases and identify patients for

early treatment to prevent or delay kidney diseases.

Through a statistical analysis of descriptive features and a feedback system for

separation of clustered objects the results of the segmentation are improved.

To analysis the automatic detection method of kidney cancer images.


To find an ultrasound scan of the kidney can use to detect a kidney cancer.

To promising segmentation and classification results for varying kidney

appearance in the high quality ultrasonic images.

To find out kidney cancer is important information for disease diagnoses.


The kidneys are part of the urinary area. They are a pair of organs create just

above the waist on each side of the spine.

The kidneys remove waste products from the blood and produce urine. As

blood flows through the kidneys, they filter waste products, chemicals, and unneeded

water from the blood. Benign tumors are not cancer.

Cancer that spreads is the same disease, and the new tumors have the same

name as the original, or primary, cancer. Often, benign tumors can be removed by

surgery, and they are not likely to return. Sinful tumors are cancer. That is how cancer

can spread to other parts of the body. This spread is called metastasis. They do not

spread to other parts of the body and are seldom a threat to life. Urine collects in the

middle of each kidney, an area called the renal pelvis. Urine then drains from the

kidney through a long tube, the ureter, to the bladder, where it is stored.

They can invade and eliminate nearby healthy tissues and organs. Cancerous

cells can also break away from the tumor and enter the bloodstream and lymphatic

system. Healthy tissues, cysts, and tumors produce different echoes maintaining ideal

weight may reduce the risk of cancer through identified from the ultrasonic kidney


Ultrasound is a test that sends high frequency sound waves, which cannot be

heard by humans, into the kidney. The pattern of echoes produced by these waves

creates a picture called a sonogram. Although the research shows that being

Chapter 1

overweight can increase the chance of getting some types of cancer. Kidney cancer

may be one of them.

A CT scan is another x-ray procedure that gives detailed pictures of cross

sections of the body. The pictures are created by a computer.

Kidney cancer

This cancer begins in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean shaped organs,

each about the size of your fist. The occurrence of kidney cancer seems to be

increasing, though it is not clear. Many kidney cancers are detected during procedures

for other diseases or conditions. Imaging techniques such as computerized

tomography are being used more often the discovery of further kidney cancers.

In adults, the largest part standard type of kidney cancer is renal cell

carcinoma. Other less common types of kidney cancer can occur. Transitional cell

carcinomas, which have a produce on the ureters, can also instigate in the kidneys. In

addition to renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma, other, less common types

of kidney cancer include:

 Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

 Mesoblastic nephroma

 Mixed epithelial stromal tumor

 Squamous cell carcinoma

 Juxtaglomerular cell tumor

 Angiomyolipoma

 Renal oncocytoma

 Bellini duct carcinoma


Cancer in the kidney may also be secondary, the result of metastasis from a

primary cancer elsewhere in the body. Most cancers in the renal tubule are renal cell

carcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma. Kidney cancer formulate in the kidney in

two principal locations: the renal tubule and the renal pelvis. Most cancers in the renal

pelvis are going between cell carcinoma.


Kidney cancer rarely causes signs or symptoms in its early stages. In the later

stages, kidney cancer signs and symptoms may include:

 Side pain

 High blood pressure

 Heavy sweating

 Loss of appetite

 Tiredness

 Blood in your urine, which may appear pink, red or cola colored (heamaturia)

 Back pain

 Weight loss

 Fatigue

 Intermittent fever

Causes and risk factors

It is not clear what causes renal cell carcinoma. Doctors know that kidney

cancer begins when some kidney cells acquire mutations in their DNA. The

transformation tells the cells to grow and divide rapidly. The accumulating abnormal

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cells form a tumor that can extend beyond the kidney. Some cells can break off and

spread to distant parts of the body.

Factors that can increase the risk of kidney cancer include:

Chemicals in your workplace: Workers who are exposed to certain chemicals on the

job may have a higher risk of kidney cancer. People who work with chemicals such as

asbestos and cadmium may have an increased risk of kidney cancer.

Treatment for kidney failure: People who receive long term dialysis to treat chronic

kidney failure have a greater risk of developing kidney cancer.

Von Hippel Lindau disease: People with this innate disorder are likely to increase

several kinds of tumors, including, in some cases, kidney cancer.

Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma: Having this inherited condition makes it

more likely you will develop one or more kidney cancers.

Older age: Your risk of kidney cancer increases as you age.

Being male: Men are more likely to develop kidney cancer.

Smoking: Smokers have a better risk of kidney cancer than nonsmokers do. The risk

reduces after you suspends.

Obesity: People who are obese have a higher risk of kidney cancer than do people

who are measured average weight.

High blood pressure: High blood pressure increases your risk of kidney cancer, but it

is not clear why.



Taking steps to improve your health may help reduce your risk of kidney

cancer. To reduce your risk, try to:

Quit smoking. If you smoke, quit. Many options for quitting exist, including support

programs, medications and nicotine surrogate products. Tell your doctor you want to

quit, and discuss your choice together.

Eat more fruits and vegetables. Add more fruits and vegetables to your diet. A

variety of fruits and vegetables helps ensure that you are getting all the nutrients that

your body needs. Replacing some of your snacks and side dishes with fruits and

vegetables may help you lose weight.

Maintain a healthy weight. Work to maintain a healthy weight. If you are

overweight or obese, reduce the number of calories you consume each day and try to

exercise most days of the week. Ask your doctor about other healthy strategies to help

you lose weight.

Control high blood pressure. Ask your doctor to check your blood pressure at your

next appointment. If your blood pressure is high, you can discuss options for lowering

your numbers. Lifestyle measures such as exercise, weight loss and diet changes can

help. Some people may need to add medications to lower their blood pressure.

Discuss your options with your doctor.

Reduce or avoid exposure to environmental toxins. If you work with toxic

chemicals, take special precautions such as wearing a mask and heavy gloves. In the

United States, your employer is required to tell you what chemicals you may be

exposed to on the job. Follow your employer safety procedures, and ask your doctor if

there are other ways to protect yourself from chemical exposure.

Test and diagnosis

Tests and procedures used to diagnose kidney cancer include:

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Blood and urine tests. Tests of your blood and your urine may give your doctor clues

about what is causing your signs and symptoms.

Imaging tests. Imaging tests allow your doctor to visualize a kidney tumor or

abnormality. Imaging tests might include ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT)

or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Removing a sample of kidney tissue. In much selected cases, your doctor may

recommend a procedure to remove a small sample of cells from a suspicious area of

your kidney. Kidney biopsy is typically reserved for cases that are most likely to be

noncancerous or for people who cannot undergo an operation.

Kidney cancer staging

Once your doctor diagnoses kidney cancer, the next step is to determine the

extent, or stage, of the cancer. Staging tests for kidney cancer may include additional

CT scans or other imaging tests your doctor feels are appropriate.

Kidney cancer stages include:

Stage I. At this stage, the tumor can be up to 7 centimeters in diameter. The tumor is

controlled to the kidney.

Stage II. A stage II kidney cancer is larger than a stage I tumor, but is still restrained

to the kidney.

Stage III. At this stage, the tumor extends beyond the kidney to the immediate tissue

or the adrenal glands, and may also have spread to a nearby lymph node.

Stage IV. Cancer spreads exterior the kidney, to several lymph nodes or to remote

parts of the body, such as the bones, brain, liver or lungs.




Surgical procedures used to treat kidney cancer include:

Removing the affected kidney. Radical nephrectomy involves the removal of the

kidney, a border of healthy tissue and the adjacent lymph nodes. The adrenal gland

may also be removed if it appears the tumor has grown into the gland. Nephrectomy

can be an open operation, meaning the surgeon makes one large incision to access

your kidney. Or nephrectomy can be done laparoscopically, using several small

incisions to insert a video camera and tiny surgical tools. The surgeon watches a video

monitor to perform the nephrectomy.

Removing the tumor from the kidney. During this procedure, also called partial

nephrectomy, the surgeon removes the tumor and a small margin of healthy tissue that

surrounds it, rather than removing the entire kidney. Nephron sparing surgery can be

an open procedure, or it may be performed laparoscopically. Nephron sparing surgery

may be an option if you have a small kidney cancer or if you only have one kidney.

When nephron sparing surgery is possible, it is generally preferred over radical

nephrectomy, since retaining as much kidney tissue as possible may reduce your risk

of later complications, such as kidney disease. The type of surgery your doctor

recommends will be based on your cancer and its stage, as well as your health.

Surgery carries a risk of bleeding and infection. Treatments when surgery is not

possible. For some people, surgery may be too risky. These people have other options

for treating their kidney cancers, including:

Blocking blood flow to the tumor. In this procedure, a special material is injected

into the main blood vessel leading to the kidney. Clogging this vessel deprives the

tumor of oxygen and other nutrients. Arterial embolization also may be used before an

operation or to relieve pain and bleeding when an operation is not possible.

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Treatment to freeze cancer cells. During cryoablation, a special needle is inserted

through your skin and into your kidney tumor using X ray guidance. Gas in the needle

is used to cool down or freeze the cancer cells. There are few long term data about the

safety and efficacy of cryoablation. It is typically reserved for people who cannot

undergo other surgical procedures and those who have small kidney tumors located in

areas that can be easily reached with a needle.

Treatment to heat cancer cells. During radiofrequency ablation, a special needle is

inserted through your skin and into your kidney tumor using X ray guidance. An

electrical current is run through the needle and into the cancer cells, causing the cells

to heat up or burn. There are few long term data about the safety and efficacy of

radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation may be an option for people who

cannot undergo other surgical procedures and those with small kidney tumors located

in areas that are easily reached with a needle.

Treatments for advanced and recurrent kidney cancer

Kidney cancer that recurs and kidney cancer that spreads to other parts of the body

may be curable. In these situations, treatments may include:

Surgery to remove as much of the kidney tumor as possible. Even when surgery

can not remove all of your cancer, in some cases it may be helpful to remove as much

of the cancer as possible. Drugs that use your immune system to fight cancer.

Biological therapy uses your body immune system to fight cancer. Drugs in this

category include interferon and aldesleukin, which are synthetic versions of chemicals

made in your body. Side effects of these drugs include chills, fever, nausea, vomiting

and loss of appetite.

Treatment that targets specific aspects of your cancer. Targeted treatments block

specific abnormal signals present in kidney cancer cells that allow them to proliferate.

These drugs have shown promise in treating kidney cancer that has spread to other


areas of the body. Targeted therapy drugs can cause side effects, such as a rash that

can be severe, diarrhea and fatigue.

Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer

cells. Chemotherapy is not commonly used to treat renal cell carcinoma. But

chemotherapy may be used to treat transitional cell carcinoma a cancer of the ureters

that sometimes begins in the kidneys. Chemotherapy treatments may be used before

surgery to shrink a tumor, making it easier to remove. Chemotherapy may be used to

treat cancer cells that have traveled to distant parts of the body.

Treatments for distant tumors. Kidney cancer cells that travel to other parts of the

body can sometimes be treated. This depends on the number of distant tumors, their

locations and your general health. Achievement options vary based on where your

cancer has spread. Options might include surgery for brain metastasis or radiation for

kidney cancer that has increase to bones.