There are 4 types of pollutions: air, water, thermal and noise pollution. Air pollution 1. Air pollution is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. 2. The combustion of fossil fuels in power stations and vehicles releases carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. 3. Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odourless gas. It is produced from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.  It combines with haemoglobin and form carboxyhaemoglobinand reduce the ability to transport oxygen to body cells. Carbon monoxide impairs alertless, causes fatigue and headaches. It can be fatal. 4. Sulphur dioxide is a pungent and colourless gas. It is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels which contain sulphur.  It irritates the eyes, damages respiratory passages, causes bronchitis, difficulty in breathing and coughing. It dissolves in rainwater and form acid rain.  It can be reduce by using less sulphur content fuels and fixing scrubbers. 5. Nitrogen oxides are produced from vehicle exhaust, bacterial action on fertilizer and burning of fossil fuels.  It irritates the eyes, longs, nose and throat, causes respiratory infections (bronchitis). It dissolves in rainwater to form acid rain.  It can be reduce by fixing catalytic converters in car exhaust. Acids rain 1. Sulphur dioxide dissolves in the atmosphere water vapour to form sulphuric acid while nitrogen oxide forms nitric acid. They then fall to Earth as acid rain (pH less than 5.0). 2. Acid rain kills aquatic organism, changes soil pH, increases potassium, calcium and magnesium leaching (reduce soil fertility), damages metal and limestone structures. 3. Factory chimneys use scrubbers while vehicle exhaust have catalytic converters to reduce the release of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide that causes acid rain.

Acid Rain Cycle Air Pollution Index (API) 1. The Air Pollution Index (API) is used as a measure of air quality.

0-50 51-100 101-200 201-300 >301

Good Moderate Unhealthy Very unhealthy Hazardous

2. A PI between 201-300 can cause severe respiratory problems an aggravation of heart or lung diseases. Water pollution 1. A

gricultural run-offs and waste from oil palm and rubber processing mills contain nitrates and phosphates (in fertiliser), pesticide and herbicides. Fertilizers can cause eutrophication while herbicides and pesticides can dissolve the water and accumulate in organism as the go through the food chain. 2. U ntreated sewage (human faeces and domestic waste) contain suspended solids, microorganism, detergents, nitrates and phosphates. Sewage must be treated and we should use biodegradable detergents with low phosphate content. Eutrophication 1. E utrophication is the artificial nutrient enrichment of an aquatic system with organic material or inorganic nutrients, causing an excessive growth of aquatic plant life. 2. T hese substances enter the ponds , lakes or rivers and promote the rapid growth of photosynthesising organisms (algae) leading to a population explosion known as an algal bloom. 3. T he excessive algae growth restricts light penetration into the water. Other aquatic plants experience a reduced photosynthetic process and this further decreases the oxygen supply. 4. T he algae grow rapidly and many die unconsumed. This causes an accumulation of organic material at the lake bottom. An increase in decomposing microorganism (aerobic bacteria) at the lake bottom use-up more oxygen and increases the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). 5. L ow oxygen level kills larger aerobic aquatic animals (fish) and organism that need higher oxygen level (freshwater shrimps and mayfly nymphs). 6. T he oxygen level continues to drop and the water becomes completely deoxygenated.Anaerobic bacteria starts to to grow and releases toxic gases (hvdrogen sulphide) and kill all aquatic organism including fish. 7. L eeches, Tubifex worms and sludge worms can grow in a low oxygen concentration environment (high BOD)

Thermal pollution 1. T hermal pollution occurs when there is an increase in the temperature of a water source or excessive heat in the environment. 2. R iver and lake temperature can increase due to the release of industrial process effluents and electrical power stations cooling towers.  It reduces the level of dissolved oxygen in water. This affects the life of aerobic aquatic organisms.  It causes some aquatic organisms to die because they only survive at suitable temperatures. Some organisms also move away. This affects the food chain and also the entire ecosystem.  It encourages some algae to grow rapidly which can lead to a higher BOD value. Noise pollution 1. N

oise pollution occurs when our lives are disturbed by loud and persistent noise. 2. ound pollution causes by:



otor vehicles

onstruction works

oad repairs

E ntertainment outlets 3. A noise level of residential areas is between 45dB to 55 dB. 4. S urrounding noise level reaches 80dB or higher, it can lead to stress-related problems (headache, high blood pressure, coronary disease or depression). 5. E xcessive exposure to a noise level of 80dB or higher will causes the release of adrenaline (increased heartbeat rate, blood pressure and respiration rate), tensed muscles and blood vessels constrict.

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