You are on page 1of 8

lgikIf ;dfrf/ / k|:6 ljrf/sf nflu

www.janakhabar.com
x]g{ ge'Ng'xf]nf .

jif{ !@, c+s @#, @)&% ;fn r}t @$ ut] cfOtaf/ (April 7, 2019) d"No ?= !).–
;'Gg ge'Ng'xf]nf .
‘jt{dfg ;/sf/ /fi6«3ftL / hg3ftL’
‘hfs] fx] LnfO{ j+zhsf] gful/stf lbg] clwsf/ u[xdGqLnfO{ s;n] lbof] <’
sf7df8f}F . gful/stf P]g @)^#
nfO{ ;+zf]wg ug{ ag]sf] ljwo]s
hgfO/x]sf 5g\ . g]skf ;f+;b eLd
/fjnn] c+ u Ls[ t sf ;GtfgnfO{
gful/stf kfpg af6f] v'nf u/]kl5
pgn] o:tf] atfPsf x' g \ . u[ x
cj:yfdf /x]s} a]nf u[xn] dGqL:t/Lo
lg0f{o ub}{ c+uLs[tsf ;GtfgnfO{
sf7df8f}F . g]skf -qmflGtsf/L
dfcf]jfbL_ sf :yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o
uf}/jn] jt{dfg ;/sf/ /fi6«3ftL /
hg3ftL 7f]sj' f u/]sf 5g\ . b]zeQm

k|ltlglw ;efdf ljrf/fwLg cj:yfdf gful/stf lbg u[xdGqfnon] u/]sf] dGqfnon] d+ u naf/ hGdl;4 j+zhsf cfwf/df gful/stf lbg
5 . ljw]os ljrf/fwLg /x]s} a]nf ;s{'n/k|lt cfklQ hgfPsf 5g\ . gful/ssf ;Gtfgn] cfdf / afa' kl/kq u/]kl5 g]tf /fjnn] To;k|lt
u[x dGqfnon] ut d+unaf/ dGqL uDeL/ cfklQ hgfPsf x'g\ . ;/sf/
:t/Lo lg0f{o eGb} hGdsf] cfwf/df ;+;bk|lt pQ/bfoL x'gk' g]d { f To;sf]
gful/stf kfPsf gful/ssf pk] I ff u/L ;+ ; bdf ljrf/fwLg
;GtfgnfO{ j+zhsf] gful/stf lbg gful/stfaf/] lg0f{ o lnOPsf]
lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nox?nfO{ kl/kq k"ju{ x[ dGqL;d]t /x]sf g]tf /fjnsf]
u/]kl5 To;sf] kIf–ljkIfdf rrf{ cf/f] k 5 . …;/sf/ ;+ ; bk| l t
eO/x]sf] 5 . ;+zf]wg ljw]ossf] pQ/bfoL x'g] s'/f elg/xg' kb}{gÚ,
ljjflbt a'FbfdWo] Pp6f hGdsf] /fjnn] 6\jL6/df n]v]sf 5g\, …t/
cfwf/df gful/stf lnPsfx?sf la8Dagf, gful/stf;DaGwL ljw]os
;GtfgnfO{ j+ z hsf] gful/stf ;+ ; bdf 5nkmndf /x] s f a] n f tyf b]zeQm hgu0ftflGqs df]rf{, hgu0ftflGqs df] r f{ , g] k fnsf]
lbg];DaGwL xf] . pQm k|fjwfgnfO{ ;/sf/n] gful/stf ljt/0faf/] g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf ;LkL uh'/]n -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
/fi6«3ftL eGb} ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnf
;d" x x?n] lj/f] w ul//x] s f] /
ljw]ossf] 6'+uf] s;/L nfUg] eGg]
lgb]{zg hf/L u¥of] . of] g]kfnsf]
;+ l jwfg gcfpF b } @)^# ;fndf
gful/stf P] g Nofpg] xtf/f] s }
ljKnjåf/f kf6L{ k+lQmnfO{ p4f/df nfUg lgb]z{ g
sf7df8f} F . g] k fn sDo' l g:6 ;DalGwt 36gf:yndf cfˆgf ;Dk"0f{
lgSof}n
{ geO/x]sf] a]nf u[x dGqfnon] k'g/fj[lQ xf] ls <Ú kf6L{sf dxf;lrj ljKnjn] r}t !& kf6L{ k+lQm / hgjuL{o ;+u7gsf
eg] 7f8f] lgb]{zg lbP/ hGdsf] o:t} ;+ l jwfgljb\ eLdfh{ ' g ut] cftaf/ a]n'sf af/f / k;f{df sfo{ s tf{ x ?nfO{ p4f/df nfUg
cfwf/df gful/stf lnPsfx?sf cfrfo{n] klg u[xsf] lgb]{zgk|lt cfPsf] eLif0f cfFwL–x'/L;lxtsf] lgb] { z g;d] t lbPs 5g\ . pQm
;GtfgnfO{ j+zhsf] gful/stf lbg cfZro{ k|s6 u/]sf 5g\ . cfrfo{n] cl;gf / kfgLsf sf/0f #% hgfsf] k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf k/L Hofg u'dfpg]
eg] k l5 ljjfb rls{ P sf] xf] . u[ x dGqfnon] hGdsf] cfwf/df b'j}sf] gful/stf NofP gful/stf klg ;fdflhs ;~hfndfkm{t g} d[To' ePsf] / % ;oeGbf a9L 3fOt] ;a}kl| t xflb{s >4f~hnL JoQm ug{s
' f
/fhgLlts txb]lv ;+ljwfgljb\x?n] gful/stf lnPsf -hGdl;4_ agfOlbg && j6} lhNnf k|zf;g ;+;bdf ljw]os ljrf/fwLg /x]sf] x'gs ' f ;fy} 7"nf] hgwgsf] Iflt ePsf] ;fy} d[tssf kl/jf/k|lt ulx/f]
u[x dGqfnosf] kl/kqn] ;+;bsf] gful/ssf ;Gtfgn] afa' / cfdf sfof{nonfO{ lgb]{zg lbPsf] lyof] . cj:yfdf dGqL:t/Lo lg0f{o u/L 36gfk|lt l;Ëf] kf6L{ k+lQmnfO{ lgs} ;dj]bgf / 3fOt]x?sf] zL3| :jf:Yo
ckdfg;d]t u/]sf] eGb} cfklQ b'j}sf] gful/stf NofP j+zhsf] gful/stf P]g ;+;bdf ljrf/fwLg hf]sf]xLnfO{ j+zhsf] gful/stf lbg] b' M vL agfPsf] atfPsf 5g\ . nfesf] sfdgf klg ul/Psf] 5 .
dxf;lrj ljKnjn] k|; ] lj1lKt dfkm{t -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

‘Pg;]n’ sf] ‘l;dsf8{’ lkmtf{ ug{ clkn g]skfdflysf] k|ltaGwla?4 !! ljBfyL{ ;+u7g, @( ut] lj/fw] ;ef
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

sf7df8fF} . ljZj rlr{t o'jf Pg;]nsf] l;d lkmtf{ ug{ …gf] 6\ofS; ;fdflhs ;+hfn km];a's k]hdf sf7df8f}F . !! ;+o'Qm ljBfyL{ lj/f]w ;efsf] cfof]hgf ug]{ 3f]if0ff lg/fz kf/]sf] cf/f]k nufP . pgn]
cleoGtf tyf ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn gf] Ps;]nÚ cleofgdf h'6]sf x'g\ . :6f6; /fVb} Pg;]n l;d kmsf{pg] ;+u7gn] ;/sf/n] d"nwf/sf] /fhgLlt u/]sf 5g\ . d+unaf/ l/kf]6{;{ Sna ;/sf/n] …ljKnjÚdfly nufPsf]
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf g]tf g/axfb'/ g]tf sfsL{n] c/af} s/ 5ln u/]/ cfGbf]ng h?/L ePsf] s'/f pNn]v ul/cfPsf] g]qljqmd rGb …ljKnjÚ g]kfndf ;o'Q+ m ljBfyL{ ;+u7gn] u/]sf] k|ltaGw unt /x]sf] atfpFb} tTsfn
sfsL{ n ] Pg;] n l;d kmsf{ p g] ] Pg;]nn] g]kfnL hgtfdfly n'6 u/]sf 5g\ . sfsL{n] hgtfsf] &# ca{ g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{{ kqsf/ ;Dd] n gdf af] N b} g] k fn jftf{df af]nfpg ;/sf/nfO{{ cfu|x
cleofgdf h'6]sf 5g\ . g]tf sfsL{ dRrfPsf] eGb} pQm cleofgdf 5nL u/]sf], ldn]dtf]df 9fSg vf]lhG5, k|ltaGw nufPsf] / ljv08gsf] gf/f ljBfyL{ ;+ 3 sf k" j { pkfWoIf u/] . pgn] b]zdf lx+;f / clwgfos
Pg;]nn] /fHonfO{{ s/ glt/]sf] eGb} ;xeflu x'g clkn u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] xs dfUbf bdg ul/G5 eg] x]//] ga;f}+ 3Gsfpg] l;s] /fptnfO{{ ;+/If0f u/]sf] Clifs]zh+u zfxn] ;/sf/n] b'O{ k|j[lQ gb]vfpg klg ;/sf/nfO{{
eGb} …Pg;]nÚ sf] n'6la?å ;a} Psh'6 eGb} To;sf] lj?4df r}q @( ut] ltxfO{sf] bDe b]vfP/ hgtfnfO{{ r]tfjgL lbP . cg]/f:jljo" kfFrf}sF f
x'g cfXjfg u/]sf] 5g\ . sfsL{n] cWoIf 3gZofd ld>n] r'gfjsf]
;fdflhs ;~hfndf Pg;]nnfO{{ tx ;dodf u/]sf] jfrfx¿k|lt ;/sf/
nufpg df}lns cfGbf]ng ug{'kg]{ ulDe/ gag] s f] cf/f] k nufP .
atfPsf 5g\ . pgn] eg]sf 5g\ jt{dfg ;/sf/sf] ultljlw 7Ls
…Pg;]nn] 7u]sf] &# ca{ ¿k}ofn] gePsf] eGb} pgn] ;/sf/n] lghL
Psnfv g]kfnL o'jfnfO{{ dfl;s SofDk;x¿nfO{ { k| > o lbF b } uP/
^),*## tna lbP/ Ps aif{ b]z lqe'jg ljZjljBfnonfO{{ lj36g ug]{
lgdf{0fdf nufpg ;lsGYof] .Ú if8oGqdf nfu]sf] cf/f]k nufP .
o;}u/L nf]s lk|o gflosf Pjd\ gofF zlQm ljBfyL{ o"lgogsf
5f] / Lsf nflu :jl0f{ d g] k fn, cWoIf Zofdafa' uf}tdn] casf]
dxfcleofgsL cleofGtf /]vf yfkfn] cfGbf]ng k|ltkIf o"lgogsf] cfGbf]ng
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
‘g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{dflysf] k|ltaGwsf] la/f]w u/]s} xf]’
r}q @$, kmf;LjfbL k|ltaGw / hgk|lt/f]w
cfh xfdL @)&% r}q @$ sf]
k" j { ; GWofdf pleP/ ljutsf
u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf ul/of] . cfh xfdL
@)&% sf] cGTolt/ cfPsf 5f}+ /
/ z]/axfb'/ b]pjfsf] k]jf h:tf]
aGof] . clxn] t b'O{ ltxfO{sf] bDen]
nflu …ljKnj ;d"x /fhgLlts bn
x}g lsgls p sxLF btf{ 5}g eGb} of]
sf7df8f}F . gflosf /]vf yfkfn]
;dfrf/ lasfpg] gfddf /fhgLlts
;ª\ n Ugtf, cf:yf, ;xof] u /
;dy{gsf] km};nf ug]{ 5'6 s;}nfO{{
:6f6; /fv]/ d'n'sleqsf cGofo,
cTofrf/, / e|i6frf/sf] la/f]wdf
af]Nbf /fhgLlts /+u lbP/ ;Daf]wg
ug{' plrt gx'g] atfPsL 5g\ . pgn]
hgcfGbf]ngsf leif0f cfFwLj]x/Lx?sf] hgtfnfO{ u0ftGqsf gfddf bf; u0ftGqsf d'Vo 7]s]bf/ s]lk / lks] t s]jn n'6]/fx?sf] ;d"x xf]’ eg] . gePsf] atfPsL 5g\ . pgn] eg]sL 5g\, …d]/f] gfdaf6 ;dfrf/
ofb ul//x]sf 5f}+ . r}q @$ nfO{ agfpg] zlQmx?sf] ;Qfdf xfnLd'xfnL ag]sf 5g\ . cfh 1fg]Gb|eGbf klg hj ls ljv08gsf/L l;s] /fpt;Fu ;/sf/n] k|ltaGw nufPsf] g]kfn lasfpg] gfddf /fhgLlts ;ª\nUgtf,
hgtfn] Pp6f pT;jsf jf rln/x]sf] 5 . cfh km]l/ hgtf lg/+sz' s]lk cf]nL / k'iksdn bfxfn /ftf/ft ;Demf}tf u/] / Pstfsf] eGb} sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ …ljKnjÚ sf] af/]df cf:yf, ;xof]u / ;dy{gsf] km};nf
hgcfGbf]ng lbj;sf] ?kdf dgfpg] cfkm\gf] clwsf/sf nflu ljb|f]xsf] ag]sf 5g\ . /dfO{nf] s'/f s] eof] gf6s d+ r g u/] . of] b[ Z oaf6 cfk"mn] u/]sf] kljq …O/fbfÚ nfO{{ ug]{ tkfO{n+ fO{{ 5'6 5}g . d]/f] kf6L{,
u/]sf 5g\ . hj–hj /fHo cGwf], qm'/ glhs k'Ub}5 . eg] @)&% kmfNu'0f @* ut] s]lk hgtfdf Jofks cfqmf]z pTkGg eof] . aª\ o fP/ a' ‰ g] u/] s f] d f r/d d]/f ;xsdL{, d]/f] c8fg / dtaf/]
/ kmf;LjfbL aGb} hfG5, hj hj u0ftGq / bndflysf] k| l taGw cf]nLsf] dGqLkl/ifbn] ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] cfd hgtf, qmflGtsf/L, k|ultzLn, c;Gt'li6 ;d]t JoQm u/]sL 5g\ . ;:tf] / cfwf/lxg n]vg gug{x' f]; .Ú
hgtfdfly zf]if0f, bdg / pTkL8g of] u0ftGq cGtTjuTjf s]lk, lks] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{ k|ltalGwt b]zeQm tyf ;Rrf nf]stGqjfbL pgn] laxLaf/ laxfg km]za'sdf pgsf] :6f6; o:tf] 5M æd}n]
dfq nfb\g] sfd x'G5, ta ta hgtf ug]{ lg0f{o u¥of] . ;fob of] lg0f{on] zlQmx? ;/sf/L kmf;Ljfbsf lj?4 kfpg] dfof, klxrfg, cfˆgf]kg,
ljb|f]xdf plqG5 . hgtfs} ljb|f]xsf pgLx?sf] bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yf leq} pleP . u0ftGqdf bndflysf] lhDd]jf/L / cg'zf;g d]/f] ;dfhsf]
sf/0f @)$^ df k~rfot 9Nof] / 7"nf] xnrn dlRrof] . cfh;Dd ;of}+ k|ltaGw hfoh x'G5 of x'Fb}g < gf;f] xf] . ;fj{hlgs ;DkQL 7fG5'
ax'bn cfof] t/ ;Qfdf a:g]x? g]tf sfo{stf{x?sf] lu/km\tf/L ePsf] u0ftGqdf nfvf} + hgtfsf] cfˆgf] hLjg . t/ d]/f] larf/, /f]hfO
slxNo} hgtftkm{ kmls{Pgg\ . pN6f] 5, uf] n L k| x f/ ePsf] 5 . dfgjclwsf/ jf df}lns xs vf]:g / dt eg] Pp6f csf]{ sf]xL klg
;Qf, s';L{ / kb xTofpgsf nflu vfgtnf;Lsf] gfddf y'k|} ufpFnfO{ ldN5 jf ldNb} g < nf] s tGqdf AoQmL eGbf a9L / sd 5}g . kl/lrt
g]tfx? n8L /x] / hgtfnfO{ dxFuL cft+lst kfg]{ sfd ePsf] 5 . s]lk zflGtk"0f{ sfo{qmdx? dfly k|ltaGw gfd x'gs ' f] kmfO{bf :j¿k d cfˆgf]
e|i6frf/ / ljs[ltx? yf]k/]/ tdf;f afbnsf] of] lg0f{o ;j{q cfnf]lrt ug{ ldN5 jf ldNb}g < zfob oL dft[ed" Ldf c;n / v/fa laifo af/]
b]vfO{ /x] . ;+jw} flgs /fhtGq;lxtsf] aGof] . klxnf] s'/f t pgLx? cfkm}+n] k|Zgx?sf] hjfkm s]lk–afbn;Fu cfˆgf] dt /fVb5' .
ax'bnLo Joj:yf k"0f{ c;kmn eof] / agfPsf] ;+ l jwfgdf bndflysf] 5}g . ;/sf/sf] of] sbdn] Psflt/ hf] dnfO{{ cfkm', ;dfh, kf6L{ jf
cfd hgtf ljb|fx] df plqP . bz jif]{ k|ltaGwnfO{ cdfGo dflgPsf] 5 u0ftGq jf nf]stGqsf] dhfs jf ;/sf/ eGbf 7'nf] nfU5, dft[ed" Ldf .
hgo' 4 n] hgtfnfO{ ;+ u l7t / cyf{t\ bndflysf] k|ltaGw nufpg pkxf; u/]sf] 5 eg] csf]l{ t/ cfkm\g} d h:tf] w]/} c?n] klg cfˆgf] dt /
Pstfj4 agfPsf] lyof] . @)^@÷)^# gldNg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ljut jf Oltxf;k|lt crfSnL Joª\Uo ljrf/ /fVb5g . t/ slxn] sfxL d]/f]
sf] hgljb|f]xn] /fhtGqsf] cGTo ub}{ lji0f' kGt ;+ljwfgsf] of] Joj:yfnfO{ 5NgnfO{ -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
2 @)&% ;fn r}t @$ ut] cfOtaf/

‘cf]
n L g]
t T
[ jsf] ;/sf/nfO{
{ ckb:y ug]
{ if8\
o Gq u/] s'
g } cfZro{ gx'
g ’
]
ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8\5f}
– s= dfcf]T;] t'ª
- ;DkfbsLo sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ of] jQmJo hf/L ul/Psf] 5 . s'g} klg nufgL gePsf] pbfx/0f xfd|f cufl8 To;/L of] ;/sf/n] bnfnL ug]{ 5 eGg]
;/sf/sf] sfdsf/jfxL z+sf:kb -d;fn_sf dxfdGqL df]xgljqmd l;+xn]
cd]l/sf nufotsf ;fd|fHojfbL
b]zn] cfjZostfg';f/ cGo b]zaf6
;xfotf, C0f jf cg'bfg lng] sfo{nfO{{
5 . To;cg';f/ clxn] klg pgLx¿n]
hlt nufgL ug]{ arg lbPsf 5g\,
s'/fdf pgLx¿nfO{{ k"/f ljZjf;
gePsfn] klg jt{dfg ;/sf/k|lt
ax'/fli6«o sDkgLx¿n] jt{dfg s]kL k"/} lgif]w ug{ ;lsGg . t/ To;f] ug]{ To;cg';f/ pgLx¿n] nufgL gug]{ cfˆgf] c;Gtf]if b]vfpg clxn]sf]
s]kL cf]nLsf] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/sf] sfo{z}nLsf] zdf{ cf]nL g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/nfO{{ ckb:y a]nfdf cfˆgf] /fli6«otf, /fli6«olxt / s' / fsf] ;lhn} l ;t cg' d fg ug{ nufgL ;Dd] n gdf cd] l /sfsf]
rf}tkmL{?kdf cfnf]rgf x'g yfn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] /fi6«, ug]{ if8oGq u/] s'g} cfZro{ gx'g] :jtGq cy{tGqdf cfFr k'Ug glbg] s'/fdf k|ltlglwTj gePsf] s'/f a'‰g ufx|f]
/fli6«otf / hghLljsfsf ;jfnsf ljifonfO{ yftL /fv]/ atfPsf 5g\ . pgn] d+unaf/ Ps ;w}F Wofg lbg'kb{5 . ;fd|fHojfbL b]z, kb}g{ . Tof] qmddf pgLx¿n] jt{dfg
lj1flKt hf/L ub} { eg] s f 5g– pgLx¿sf ljQLo ;+:yf jf ax'/fli6«o ;/sf/nfO{{ ckb:y ug]{ if8oGq u/]
/fi6«lxt / hglxt ljk/Ltsf] sfo{ ug{ yfn]sf] eGb} æe]g]h'Pnfaf/] jt{dfg ;/sf/n] sDkgLx¿n] s'g} b]znfO{{ s'g} klg eg] klg Tof] cfZro{sf] s'/f x'g] 5}g .
cfda'l4hLlj, /fhgLlts ljZn]ifsx?n] rsf]{ cfnf]rgf ckgfPsf] gLltk|lt klg cd]l/sf k"/} k|sf/sf] ;xfotf, cg'bfg jf C0f lbFbf clxn] nufgL ;Dd]ngdf g]kfn
c;Gt'i6, If'Aw 5 eg] jt{dfg ;/sf/n] cfˆgf ;fd|fHojfbL :jfy{x¿dfly g} ;/sf/n] h'g k|sf/sf] gLlt ckgfof]
ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . k|wfgdGqL cf]nLnufot ;/sf/sf dGqLx? ;fd|fHojfbL b]zx¿n] h;/L rfxG5g\, d'Vo hf]8 lbG5g\ . To;cg';f/ zt{x¿ ljleGg ;fd|fHojfbL b]z jf ax'/fli6«o
efif0fdf 7'nf7"nf / rsf]{ s'/f ug]{ / ltgnfO{ Jojxf/df To;/L of] ;/sf/n] bnfnL ug]{ 5 eGg] dfGg lk5l8Psf jf ljsf;f]Gd'v sDkgLx¿sf] zt{x¿nfO{{ clwstd
s'/fdf pgLx¿nfO{{ k"/f ljZjf; b]zx¿nfO{{ bjfj lbG5g\ . sltko ;lsG5 . To;sf] sf/0f s] xf] < To; ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug{sf nflu h'g k|sf/sf]
nfu" gug]{ z}nLn] cfdhgtf cflht ePsf 5g\ . ;/sf/sf] gePsfn] klg jt{dfg ;/sf/k|lt b]zx¿n] cfˆgf] /fli6«otf, /fli6«o lxt ljifodf xfd|f] Wofg hfg'kg]{ cfjZostf k|lta4tf k|s6 uof],{ To;af6 g]skf
o:tf] sfo{zn } Llj?4 cfjfh p7fpg]nfO{ of] jf Tof] jxfgfdf cfˆgf] c;Gtf]if b]vfpg clxn]sf] ;d]tl;t ;f}bfjfhL u/]/ To; k|sf/sf 5 . s'g} b]zsf] ;/sf/ pgLx¿sf] k"/} jf jt{dfg ;/sf/sf] 9'nd'n, cj;/jfbL
nufgL ;Dd] n gdf cd] l /sfsf] zt{x¿ dfGg] klg u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;sf] bnfn eof] eg] dfq pgLx¿n] Tof] jf ;Demf}tfk/:t rl/q ePsf] s'/f g}
aGb]h nufpg] z}nLn] cfdhgtf q'm4 ePsf 5g\ . ;/sf/n] k|ltlglwTj gePsf] s'/f a'‰g ufx|f] kl/0ffd:j¿k s'g} b]zdf ljsf; jf ;/sf/nfO{{ k"/} ;dy{g jf ;xof]u k|i6 x'G5 . dfly plNnlvt tYox¿af6
hghLljsfsf ljifonfO{ eGbf cfˆgf] kf6L{, g]tf / kb}g{ . Tof] qmddf pgLx¿n] jt{dfg pGgtL x'ge] Gbf cfly{s b[li6sf]0fn] Tof] ub{5g\ . t/ jt{dfg ;/sf/k|lt / clxn]sf] nufgL ;Dd]ngk|lt cd]l/sL
sfo{stf{nfO{ s]Gb|laGb'df /fv]/ sfo{ ubf{ o:tf] l:ylt cfPsf] ;/sf/nfO{{ ckb:y ug]{ if8oGq u/] b]zsf] ktg dfq x'bF g} , t/ b]zsf] pgLx¿df To; k|sf/sf] k"/f ljZjf; ;fd|fHojfbn] b]vfPsf] c;Gtf]if jf
eg] klg Tof] cfZro{sf] s'/f x'g] 5}g .Æ /fhgLlts :jflwgtfdf klg cfFr k'Ug] 5}g . To;}n] pgLx¿n] klxnf] nufgL c;xof]usf] gLltaf6 klg jt{dfg
/fhgLlts ljZn]ifx?sf] 7DofO{ 5 . ;/sf/n] /fi6«, /fli6«otf dxfdGqL l;+xn] g]kfndf nufgL ub{5 . ;+;f/e/sf] cg'ejaf6 of] s'/f ;Dd]ngsf] sfndf cfˆgf] argcg';f/ ;/sf/ pgLx¿n] rfx]h:tf] bnfn
/ hghLljsfsf ;jfn p7fP/ zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ng ul//x]sf] ug{ s]kL cf]nL ;/sf/ bnfn g} aGg] af/Daf/ :ki6 x'bF } cfPsf] 5 . clxn]sf] nufgL ug]{ sfd u/]gg\ eg] clxn] gePsf] s'/fdf klg s'g} zÍf /xFbg} .
s'/fdf pgLx¿df cljZjf; /x]sf] atfpFb} nufgL ;Dd]ngdf ;/sf/n] /fli6«otf, klg To; k|sf/sf] ;Defjgf sd} xfd|f] kf6L{n] b]zsf] /fli6«otf / /fli6«o
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dfly k|ltaGw nufpg', Gofofno, t}klg nufgL ;Dd]ngdf ljleGg b]zsf] ljsf;nfO{{ ;'lglZrt ug]{ u/]/ b]lvG5 . Toltdfq xf]Og, pgLx¿n] k"/} lxtdf cfFr k'Ug] k|sf/sf s'g} klg ljb]zL
k|x/L / k|zf;gdf cfˆgf sfo{stf{, gftfuf]tfnfO{ dfq ljz]if ;fd| f HojfbL b] z jf ax' / fli6« o :ki6 / b[9 gLlt cufl8 NofPsf] kfOGg . ljZjf; ug{ g;s]sf] jf k"/} bnfndf nufgL jf ;xof]unfO{{ b[9tfk"js { lj/f]w
sDkgLx¿sf] zt{x¿nfO{{ clwstd¿kdf ;/sf/n] ljb]zL nufgLsf ;Gbe{df a9L kl/0ft gePsf] s'g} b]zsf] ;/sf/nfO{{ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] :jb]zL nufgLdf
:yfg lbg' / c+uLs[t gful/ssf ;GtfgnfO{ j+zhsf] :jLsf/ ug{ ;/sf/n] u/]sf] k|ltj4tfk|lt 9'nd'n / ;Demf}tfk/:t gLlt g} ckb:y ug]{ gLlt klg ckgfpg] g} ;DkGg ug{ ;Dej ePsf sltko
gful/stf lbg pbL{ hf/L ug'n { ] o; s'/fsf] k'li6 u/]sf] cfklQ hgfPsf 5g\ . ckgfPsf] kfOG5 . ub{5g\ . låtLo, clxn]sf] nufgL kl/of]hgfx¿nfO{{ klg Ps jf csf]{ ub}{
o; lazfdof g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ clxn] s f] nufgL ;Dd] n gsf ;Dd]ngdf cd]l/sfsf] k|ltlglw gcfpg' ljb]zL sDkgLx¿nfO{{ lbg] gLlt ckgfpFb}
pgLx?sf] 7DofO{ 5 . -d;fn_sf dxfdGqL df]xgljqmd l;+xn] ;Gbe{df b'Oj{ 6f s'/fx¿ ljz]if ¿kn] klg ;fdfGo s'/f xf]Og . Psflt/, cfPsf] 5 . dflyNnf] s0ff{nL kl/of]hgf
;/sf/n] Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ /fi6«3ftL / hg3ftL sfo{ hf/L u/]sf] lj1lKtsf] k"0f{kf7 M– pNn]vgLo 5g\ . k|yd, o;eGbf klxn] e] g ] h ' P nfaf/] jt{ d fg ;/sf/n] To;sf] Pp6f pbfx/0f xf], Tof] Pp6f
ul//x]sf] / o;sf lj?4 cfjfh p7fpg] hf]sf]xL ;r]t ……/fi6«lxt ljk/Ltsf] nufgL g]kfndf ePsf] nufgL ;Dd]ngdf ljleGg ckgfPsf] gLltk|lt klg cd]l/sf k"/} dfq pbfx/0f xf]Og . ;/sf/sf To;
xfn} ;DkGg nufgL ;Dd]ngaf/] g]skf b]zx¿af6 hlt nufgL ug]{ eg]/ c;Gt'i6, If'Aw 5 eg] jt{dfg ;/sf/n] k|sf/sf ;a} gLltx¿sf] xfd|f] kf6L{n]
gful/snfO{ of] jf Tof] jxfgfdf lu/ˆtf/ ug],{ e"m7f d'2fdf -d;fn_sf] b[li6sf]0f :ki6 ug{sf nflu af]nsaf]n ul/Psf] lyof], To;cg';f/ ;fd|fHojfbL b]zx¿n] h;/L rfxG5g\, lj/f]w ub{5 .Æ
km;fpg] / bl08t ug]{ sfo{ z+sf:kb ePsf] cfd;r]t
gful/ssf] a'emfO{ 5 . ;/sf/sf] o:tf] sfo{zn
hgtfsf] cl:tTjdfly ;+s6 cfOkg]{ lglZrt b]lvG5 .
} Ln] /fi6« / la:s]6 hfqfnfO{ zflGtk"0f{ agfOg]
sf7df8f}F . gofF jif{sf] cfudg;Fu} pk/LIfs lxdfnos'df/ >]i7n] ljutsf tyf dftxtsf ;Dk"0f{ ;'/Iff lgsfon] g]6js{ tyf OG6/g]6 ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn]
t;y{, ;/sf/n] o:tf z+sf:kb / u}/lhDd]jf/k"0f{ sfo{ tTsfn eQmk' / df gf} lbg;Dd tflGqs jif{df ePsf sdhf]/LnfO{ ;dLIff ub}{ hfqf cjlwe/ ;'/Iff Joj:yfnfO{ hfqf ;~rfng x'g] If]qdf cf–cfˆgf
ljlwcg';f/ dgfOg] k|l;4 la:s]6 cfjZos ;'/Iff Joj:yf dha't agfpg] k|efjsf/L agfpg nflu kg],{ u'7L tf/ tyf n¶f Jojl:yt ug]{ / eQmk'/
aGb u/L /fi6«, /fli6«otf / hghLljsfsf ;jfnnfO{ k|wfg hfqfsf] tof/L tLj| ?kdf cufl8 a9]sf] atfP . u'7L ;+:yfg eQmk'/sf k|dv ' ;+:yfg, e}/jgfy hfqf ;xof]u gkfsf hgk|ltlglw, ;'/Iff lgsfo,
dfGb} ;a} /fhgLlts bn;Fu ;xdlt / ;xsfo{ u/]/ cufl8 5 . cfufdL @& ut]bl] v ;fFem e}/jsf] xl/ ;'jb] Ln] ljutsf lbgdf b]lvPsf ;ldltnufot ;lDawt ;+:yfn] ;dod} ljleGg ;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglw, ljBfno
a9\gs ' f] ljsNk 5}g . cGoyf l:ylt eofjx x'g] lglZrt /y tfg]/ z'? eO{ j}zfv % ut] ;fFem sdL–sdhf]/L s;}n] klg bf]xf]¥ofpg zflGtk"0f{ / Jojl:yt ?kdf hfqf sn]h tyf :yfgLo hgtfsf] Jofks
k'gM e}/js} /y tfg]/ ;DkGg x'g] hfqfsf gx'gd] f ;r]t /xg'kg]{ cfFN} ofpFb} u'7L ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos tof/L ug],{ g]kfn ;xeflutfdf ¥ofnL tyf ;ef ug]{
5, r]tgf eof . nflu cfjZos kg]{ e}/j / eb|sfnLsf] ;+:yfgn] Joj:yfksLo e"ldsf lgjf{x ljB't\ k|flws/0f, g]kfn 6]lnsd, s]an
' ePsf 5g\ .
/y lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ePsf] 5 . hfqfnfO{ ug]{ atfP . sfo{qmddf e}/jgfy dlGb/
clwsf/sdL{åf/f k|ltaGwsf] la/f]w
sf7df8f}F . laKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{dfly ;/sf/n] k|ltaGw
emfkfsf] ;+of]hgdf ePsf] 5nkmndf
;xefuLx?n] ;+jfbxLgtf / bdg
zflGtk"0f{ / Jojl:yt ?kdf ;DkGg
ug{ gu/kflnsf, k|x/L, k|zf;g /
;/f]sf/jfnfn] cfjZos ;dGjo ub}{
cfjZos tof/L ug{ ;xdt ePsf 5g\ .
hL0ff]4{ f/ pkef]Qmf ;ldltsf cWoIf
Gx'5/] fd e]n,] ljB't\ k|flws/0f eQmk'/sf
sfof{no k|dv ' k|HHjndfg >]i7, g]kfn
6]lnsd eQmk'/sf sfof{no k|dv ' jL/]Gb|
gjjif{ – @)&^
nufP kl5 emfkfsf clwsf/sdL{ tyf
gful/s ;dfhn] ;/sf/nfO{
TofuL jftf{ / zflGtk"0f{ af6f]dfkm{t
;d:of ;dfwfg ug{s ' f] ljsNk gePsf]
eQmk'/ gu/kflnsfsf k|dv ' ;'lgn >] i 7, :yfgLo cu' j f cgGt sf] pknIodf ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL
k|hfkltn] eQmk'/sf] la:s]6 hfqf wf}e8]nnufotn] u'7L ;+:yfg / e}/j
va/bf/L u/]sf 5g\ / pgLx?n] jftf{
/ ;+ j fbdfkm{ t lgsf; vf] H g
atfP . /fHon] lhDd]jf/ 9+un] jftf{
/ ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] kxn ug{k' g]d { f
dof{lbt, zflGtk"0f{ / cg'zfl;t ?kdf
;DkGg ug{ ;a} lgsfosf] k|efjsf/L
gfOs]n] k"hf ;dod} ;DkGg u/L hfqf
;dod} z'? ug{ ;s] hfqf zflGtk"0f{
bfh'efO tyf lbbLalxgLx¿df ;'v,
;/sf/nfO cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ . g]kfn pgLx?sf] hf] 8 lyof] . lab| f ] x L
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ ;/sf/n] eg] h:t} g]skfnfO{ zflGt k"0f{af6f]df cfpg
e"ldsf cfjZos /x]sf] atfP . pgn]
la:s]6 hfqfnfO{ zflGtk"0f{ ?kdf ;DkGg
?kdf ;DkGg ug{ d2t k'Ug] atfP .
la:s]6 hfqf zflGtk"0f{ / dof{lbt zflGt, bL3f{o' Pj+ pQ/f]Q/ k|ultsf]
ck/flws ;d"x gePsf] / p;n] ;d]t pgLx?n] cfu|x u/] . ug{ gu/kflnsfn] cfjZos e"ldsf v]Ng] ?kdf ;DkGg ug{ eQmk'/ gkfsf k|dv '
p7fPsf dfux? /fhgLlts k|sf/sf
ePsfn] /fhgLlts zlQmsf] ?kdf
5nkmndf /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/
k|lti7fgsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o 8f= ?ks
atfpFb} hfqfdf ePsf ljs[ltnfO{ x6fpFb} k|hfkltsf] ;+of]hsTjdf !! hgfsf] nflu xflb{s dËndo z'esfdgf
;+ : s[ l tnfO{ cufl8 nfg ljz]if sfo{bn u7g ug],{ eQmk'/ gkfn]
Jojxf/ ug{ ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbPsf
5g\ . g]skfnfO{ /fhgLlts d"nwf/df
vgfn, dfgjclwsf/ ;~hfnsf g]tf
lji0f' k | ; fb v/] n , afda' l 4hLlj
:yfgLoafl;Gbfn] ;lqmo x'gk' g]{ cf}NF ofP .
eQmk'/sf k|dv ' lhNnf clwsf/L
dfOlsª, ;"rgf k|jfx, krf{ kDKn]6
k|sflzt ug]{ / gu/jf;LnfO{ ljleGg
JoQm ub{5f}F .
cfpg] jftfj/0f ;/sf/n] nf]saGw' sGbª\jf, /fli6«o pkef]Qmf gf/fo0fk|;fb e§n] la:s]6 hfqfsf] ultljlwdfkm{t\ zflGtk"0f{ ?kdf hfqf
agfpg'kg]{df latf{df]8df cfof]lht d~rsf cWoIf dbguf]kfn ;'Aaf,
5nkmnsf ;xefuLsf] hf]8 lyof] .
;d:ofsf] zflGtk"0f{ ;dfwfg / jftf{sf]
g]kfn af/ P;f]l;Pg emfkfsf pkfWoIf
gf/o0fk|;fb kf}8]n, g]kfn /]8qm;
Joj:yfkg lgs} r'gf}tLk"0f{ /x]sf] atfpFb}
hfqfnfO{ zflGtk"0f{ agfpg ;DalGwt
;/f]sf/jfnfn] cf–cfˆgf] 7fpFaf6
;~rfng ug{ cfu|x ug],{ gu/el/ hfqf
;~rfng ug]{ If]qdf ;/;kmfO ug]{
;xdlt ePsf] 5 .
ljsf; a8L js{zk kl/jf/
ljsNk gePsf] eGb} pgLx?n] To;sf
nflu ;/sf/ / lab|f]lx g]skf plQs}
;f];fO6L latf{df]8sf ;efklt ;h]z
lzjfsf]6L, :jtGq /fhgLltsdL{ ;'/G] b|
e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{k' g]{ atfP . k|x/L To;}u/L, lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no :joDe", sf7df8f}F
lhDd]jf/ x'gk' g]d { f hf]8 lbP . lab|fx] L
g]skfnfO{ zflGtk"0f{ ultljlw ug{
sfsL{, dlxnf ;'/Iff bjfa ;d"x
emfkfsL cWoIf zf/bf l/hfn, jL/tf :j:y kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf; :jtGq / xsclwsf/sf] hu]gf{,
;'emfj lbFb} clwsf/sdL{ tyf gful/s
;dfhsf k| l tlglwx?n] pQm
/fhgLlts zlQmdfly ;/sf/n]
h]l;;sf cWoIf ljzfn yfkf, jL/tf
n]8L h]l;;sL cWoIf ;? e't]{nn]
jftf{af6} zflGtk"0f{ dfu{ cjnDag
/fli6«o ;j{dfGo k|rng / dfGotfnfO{ ;dfof]hg ub}{ cufl8
k|ltaGw nufpg' unt ePsf] l6Kk0fL
u/] . g] s kfsf sfo{ s tf{ n fO{
u/L /fhgLlts d"nwf/df cfpg
lab|f]xL g]skfnfO{ cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ .
a9\g' cfhsf] ckl/xfo{ cfjZostf xf] .
cgfjZos w/ks8 ug]{ / em'6f d'2f pgLx?n] d'n'sleq} 5'§} :jtGq
nufpg] sfd /fHon] aGb ug{k' g]{ eGb} /fHosf] dfu ug]{ l;s] /fpt ;d"xnfO{
pgLx?n] ;/sf/nfO{ lhDd]jf/ aGg /fhgLlts d"nwf/df Nofpg] ;/sf/n]
;'emfj lbP . lab|f]xL g]skfnfO{ k|ltaGw u/fpg'
lab|f]xL g]skfn] cufl8 ;f/]sf eg]sf] ljb|fn ] fO{ g} dnhn x'g] atfpFb}
dfux? /fhgLlts ;d:of ePsfn] jftf{sf] jftfj/0f agfpg cfu|x
o;nfO{ /fhgLlts ?kd} ;dfwfg u/]sf x'g\ . pgLx?n] ;/sf/nfO{
ug{ ' k g] { d f hf] 8 lbF b } pgLx?n] ;+jb] gzLn, kf/bzL{ / hgd}qL x'g g] k fn ;/sf/
;/sf/nfO{ uDeL/ aGg cfu|x u/] .
lab|f]xL g]skfsf ultljlw, pTkGg
;d]t ;'emfj lbPsf 5g\ . ;/sf/
ljb|fx] / lx+;fsf] sf/0f geO{ ;d:ofsf]
;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
kl/l:ylt / zflGtk"0f{ lgsf;sf
ljsNkx? ljifodf ;+ j fb ;d" x
zflGtk"0f{ ;dfwfg ug]{ lhDd]jf/ kIf
x'gk' g]d
{ f pgLx?sf] hf]8 lyof] .
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
@)&% ;fn r}t @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 3
k|r08nfO{{ ;lxb kl/jf/sf] v'nfkq k|wfgdGqLnfO{{ v'nfkq
‘k|ltaGw xf]Og, ca zflGt rflxG5’ ‘uf]nL 3'8“ f d'lg xf]Og 5ftLdf yfKg tof/ 5f}’+
cfb/0fLo sfd/]8 k|r08 Ho' nfn ;;+lst ePsf 5g\ / b]zdf zflGt xf] . Tolx b'ef{Uosf] /]vf lsg sf]g{ k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nL Ho', xhf/f}s+ f] ;+Vofdf alnbfgL eof], s] g]skfnfO{{ k|ltaGw nufpg' eof],
;nfd Û cdg rogsf cfzfx¿ km] / L vf]Hb} 5 tkfO{+ ;lDdlnt sf7df08f}sf] ;j{k|yd t ljb|f]xL g]• s• ;fFlRrs} hgtfsf lardf ul/Psf tL tkfO{+n] t xfdLnfO{{ n'6]/f eGg' eof],
d ;lxb kl/jf/ x'F . tkfO+{sf] cf]Onfpg yfn]sf] cfef; x'Fb}5 . /fHo Joj:yfn] < kf•nfO{ { k| l taGw nufP/ jfrf s;d k"/f ePs} x'g t < tkfO{x+ ¿ rGbf dfUg] eGg" eof] tkfO{+ s} s'g}
g]tT[ jdf ePsf] !) aif]{ hgo'4sf] olta]nf b]zdf km]/L k|ltaGwsf] xNnf cfh km]/L laKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]skf qmflGtsf/Lx¿df ljj]sk"0f{ cfqmf]z slt ;lhn} hafkm lbg' x'G5 xlu, c•f cbfntdf ljKnj kf6Ln] slxst}
bf}/fgdf d]/f] cfˆg} dfOnf] bfh' …s'n rln/x]sf] 5 Û dfly k|ltaGw ug{ k|r08 sfd/]8n] / pmhf{ k}bf u/L xfd|f] nflu qmflGtnfO{{ eGg' x'G5 cfh ;a}n] af]Ng kfPsf n'6]sf] ph'/L b]vfO{ lbg' k¥of], slx
axfb'/ 3lt{Ú k|Hjn u'dfPsf] 5' . >bo k|r08 sfd/]8…= . tkfO{+n] xftdf xft ldnfO{{ /xFbf km]/L klg hLjg / d/0fsf] n8fOFdf ¿kfGt/0f 5g\ , /fhtGq 9n] s f] 5, st} ha{hl:t rGbf dfu]sf], wlDs
d]/L cfdfsf] d'6'sf] Ps 6'qmf lk|o rfx] gx'g] s] 5 / oxfF < lautdf zlxbsf] v]lt ug]{ sfo{nfO{{ k|;o lbP ul/lbg' ePsf]df tkfO{+ nufot ;ljwfg;efaf6 ;+ljwfg ag]sf] 5, d b]sf] ph'/L b]vfO{ lbg' k¥of] . /Xof]
bfh'sf] @)^( ;fndf c3f{vfFrLsf] tkfO{ + s f] g] t [ T jdf ePsf] dxfg h:tf] nfUb} 5 . laKnj klg k|r08 sd/]8 k|r08 / sd/]8 afbnnfO{{ ;f]W5' n eGg'; t, s] s'g} ;dfh k'/fg} s'/f rGbf dfUg] ljZjdf o:tf]
;lGwvs{ cfqmd0fdf ;xfbt ePsf] hgo'4nfO{{ bafpg of] /fHo ;Qfn] g]tT[ jsf] hgo'4sf Ps lx:;]bf/ g]tf ljz]if ¿kdf wGojfb . ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf clxn] /x]sf] 5 /fhgLlt kf6L{ b]vfO{lbg' k¥of] hf] lagf
xf] . s7f]/ k|ltaGw nufPsf] lyof] . tkfO{+ x'g\ . cyf{t lautsf] hgo'4sf] tkfO{+x¿ nfO{{ yfx g} 5 g]kfn ultzLn ;do;Fu w]/} yf]/ t cfkm} rGbf dfu]/ rn]sf] 5 of km]/L oxfFn]
5f]/fsf] ;Demgfdf d]/L cfdf / tkfO+{sf ;xofqLx¿sf] 6fpsfsf] lnu];L hf]l8Psf] Pp6f /fhgLlts sf] Oltxf; a8f] lgd{d 5, k|ltaGw klg ablnG5 xf]Og{ / < csf]{ s'/f hGd lbg] cfˆgf] lk|o cfdf s;d
clxn] klg ljlIfKt x'g'x'G5 . ;fob d"No %) nfv tf]Sg]x¿ klg log} zlQm xf] . Tolx /fhgLlts zlQm dfly
s}of} cfdfx¿ o;l/ g} ljlIfKt cfhsf u0ftGq afbLx¿ lyP . d}n] k'gM k|ltaGw nufpbf k[YjLn] g} pN6f]

xf]nfg . pxfFsf] ;xfbtnfO{{ d}n] olta]nf Tolx s7f]/ k|ltaGwsf] s'/f lbzf lt/ ultlng] xf]sL eGg] 8/ nufpg]x¿ snlGst O{ltxf;df dfq} tkfO{n + ] agfPsf] ;+ljwfgsf] s'/f u/f} vfP/ eGg'; tkfO{+n] emfkf ljb|f]xdf
hgtfdfly x' g ] ;a} v fn] ul//x]sf] 5', hxfF !& xhf/ of]4fx¿ w] / } n fO{ { 5 . pgLx¿sf klg l;ldt 5g\ . emfkf ljb|fx] / hgo'4sf] n eGg'; t, ToxfF s] n]Vg' eof] 5f]8g';, rGbf dfUg' ePg, r'gfjtfsf s;}af6
k|ltaGwx¿nfO{{ tf]8g\ alnbfg ePsf] k|ltaGwsf] k|ltafb ubf{ dfl/P . d /fhgLlts dfu x'g . b]zsf bnfn Oltxf; la;] { / oxfF x ¿ c;fWo} Tof] ;+ljwfgn] s'g dhb'/n] k]6 e/L ;xof]u dfUg' ePg, s} 5 hafkm <
¿kdf a' e m] s f] 5' . b] z dflysf] 7f]s'jf u/]/ eGg ;S5', d]/f] bfh' tyf e|i6rf/Lsf la?4 af]Ng' ck/fw zflGtk|d ] L x'g' ePsf]df klg wGojfb vfg kfPsf] 5, s'g ul/jn] ;flhn} lk|o cf]nL / bxfn Ho' oxfFx¿ t
k|ltaGw x6fpg !& xhf/ of]4fx¿n] nufot !& xhf/ w]/} hgtfsf xf]Og . ltg} dfux¿nfO{{ Joj:yfkg g lbO{sg /xg ;Sb}g . tkfO{x+ ¿ eGg' :jf:yf]krf/ kfPsf] 5, s'g ljBfyL{ eujfgdf ljZjf; ug{' x'G5 k'hfkf7
/ut aufPsf] cy{df a'em]sf] 5' . d 5f]/f5f]/Lx¿n] alnbfgsf] sf/s tTj ug{ 5f]8/] d'8a] n nfP/ ;dfwfg ug{ x'G5 ca s;sf nflu n8g] /fhtGq cfˆgf] Ifdtf / ?lr cg';f/ ;lhn} ug{' 5 cfWoflTds s'/fdf ljZjf;
o'4 v]lk/x]sf] kl/jf/df x'ls{Psf] o'js g} s7f]/ k|ltaGw xf] . @)%!/%@ vf]Hg' unt 5 sfd/]8 . o;n] lng] 5}g, oxfFx¿ t eujfg klg dfGg' k9g kfPsf] 5, s'g o'jfn] cfˆg} b]zdf ub}{ uO/xg' ePsf] 5 tkfO{+x¿nfO{{
x'F . To;sf/0f b]z kl/jt{gsf] tftf] ;fndf k| r 08 sfd/] 8 sf] d' 2 f kl/0ffd / ult af/] >bo k|r08 g} x' G 5, k' h fkf7 ub} { lxF 8 g' x' G 5 ul/vfg] jftfj/0f kfPsf] 5, s'g ltg} eujfg / :ju{af6 x]l//x]sf
/ut d]/f k|To]s c+ux¿df ;Nanfpg] /fhgLlts d'2f xf] eg]/ ;f;sx¿n] w]/} hfgsf/ x'g'x'G5 . of] b]zdf tkfO{x+ ¿ nfO{{ ltg} eujfg sf] s;d ls;fgn] s[lif ;DalGw k|ljwL ;Ë} pGgt ;lxbsf] s;d o;/L hgtfnfO{{ g
u5{ . kl/jt{gsf vf+lt/ alnbfgL a'em]sf] eP olt 7'nf] o'4 lsg x'GYof] k| l taGwsf] Oltxf; /fd| f ] 5} g . cfˆgf] 5ftLdf xfy /fv]/ ;lDemg'; vfnsf] dn aLp kfPsf] 5, Tolt dfq} 9f6g'; gq oxfFx¿nfO{{ gs{df klg
efj cem} h'd/'{ fpg] u5{ . b]zsf nflu xf]nf / < ha b]zdf k|ltaGwsf] s'/f k|ltaGwn] pAhfPsf eoÍ/ o'4x¿n] s] emfkf ljb|f]x /fhtGqsf lj?4df xf]Og{ cfh /fli6«o kFh ' LktL bnfn af; gldNnf .
x'g] alnbfgLnfO{{ d}n] ;sf/fTds 9+un] rN5, ta hgdfg;df 8/qf;sf] cfkm} n fO{ { lgld6\ o fGg kf/] s f
dfq} lyof], s] hgo'4 /fhtGq kmfNg kFh
' Lsf] rk]6fdf k/]/ rf}k6 ag]sf k|wfgdGqL Ho',
a'em]sf] 5' . a'af 8Aan axfb'/ 3lt{ dxn 7l8G5 . k|ltaGwn] c;/ ug]{ Oltxf;x¿ 5g\ . h;n] k|ltaGw
dfq} lyof] t < sbfkL xf] O { g . 5g\, a}s + df w/f}6L g ePsf] s'g 3/ d}n] of] kq n]vL /xFbf xf] d
@)%$ b] l v ;+ u l7t sfo{ s tf{ t ufpFaf;LnfO{{ xf] . /fhwfgLdf pTkfbg u/], ltg}sf] cl:tTj cfh
x'g'x'GYof] . d]/L h]7L lblb ;Demgf a:g]nfO{{ s] km/s k5{ / < ;'/Iff :jfxf ePsf] 5 . blIf0fkGyL ePklg ljkL sf]O/{ fnfsf] / s'g v]t afFsL 5, cfh ;'sD' af;Lsf] :jLsf/ u5{' ls d ljb|fx] L g]skf lgs6
3lt{ /f]Nkfdf dlxnf 5fkfdf/sf] k|yd 3]/fdf a:g]x¿nfO{{ t emg\ l;Gsf]n] :d/0fxf];\, k|ltaGwn] lab|f]xL ;dfhjfb klg k9]sf] 5' s] pgn] xfnt s] 5, d'Qmsd}ofx¿sf] hLjg ljBfyL{ ;Ë7gsf] g]tf xf] t/ Pp6f
dlxnf sdfG8/ x'g'x'GYof] . /f]Nkfdf klg 3f]Rg] s'/f ePg . zlQmnfO{{ g} kmfObf k'Ug] u5{ . pQm hgtfsf] k| T oIf hLjg ablng] slt lg/z 5, ;8sdf h'Qf l;pg] g]kfnL gful/ssf] x}l;otn] of] kq
…;Demgf 3lt{Ú ;}Go sdfG8/sf] gfddf /f] N kf ?s' d af6 hlGdPsf] zlQmnfO{ d'nwf/sf] /fhgLltdf Nofpg ul//fv] s f ljifox¿ clxn] sf df]rL bfOnfO{{ s/ nufPsf 5fF} / b]zsf] nv]sf] 5' / jf:tljstf olx xf] .
kl/lrt gfd xf] . ;fob tkfO{+ klg dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngnfO{{ bafpg ;}lgs ;Sg] /fHo a' l 2dfgL x' G 5, t/ ;Gbe{df k"/f eP t < ;+zf]wgjfbL ;a} ;DklQ n'6/] ljb]z n}hfg] Ncell dnfO{{ yfx 5 d k|x/Lsf] vf]hLsf]
of] gfdaf6 hfgsf/ x'g'k5{ . ;f;g nfu' ug{ b:vt ub}{ lsnf] k|ltaGwsf] 808f a;f{pg] /fHo d'v{ ePklg dbg eG8f/LnfO{ { klg h:tf bnfn ;+:yfaf6 lng'kg]{ nfes/ ;'rLdf 5' / tkfO{n + ] k|x/LnfO{{ c;fWo}
tTsflng ;}Go sdfG8/ kf;fªsf] ;] / f 6' h:tf h3Go ck| ] ; g x'G5, lx6n/L x'G5 . To;}n] b]zn] ca ;lDemG5' pxfF eGg' x'GYof] zf;g /sd p7fpg ;Sb}gf}, Pp6f e|i6frf/Ln] pQ]lht kfg{' ePsf] 5 ls ca
dlxnf 5fkfdf/ x'g ;Demgf 3lt{ . rnfpg]x¿ cfh gofF g]kfnsf gofF o'4 rfx]sf] 5}g . zflGt rfx]sf] 5 . ;Qfdf hf];'s} ePklg hgtfsf] !) s/f]8 e|i6frf/ u/]sf] 5 eg] ljKnjn] k|x/L rf}sL xfG5, PSn} kfP
5fkfdf/ lblbsf] sfd/]8 d'lQm;Fu b]zeQm ag] . o;sf] dtnj pgLx¿ k|ltaGw xf]Og :jtGq rfx]sf] 5 . jf:tljs hLjgdf k| T oIf¿kdf cbfnt af6 ! s/f]8 lt/]/ l/xfO{ df5{g eg]/ k|x/L bfh' efO{nfO{{
o'4d} hgafbL laafx ePsf] xf] . hLljt /xg' x'bF g} eGg] d]/f] dfGotf cGtdf, b]zsf] /fhgLltnfO{{ lbzf abnfj g cfpFbf;Dd / ;Qfsf] x'G5 / p;sf] ( s/f]8 art x'G5, pQ]lht kfg{' ePsf] 5 t/ ljb]zLsf]
sfd/]8 d'lQm a6flnog ;xfos x'Fb} xf]Og . a? xfdL ;a}sf ;femf lgb]{z lbg ;Sg] v'aL / x}l;ot rl/qdf abnfj g cfpGh]n;Dd ;Qf cfh Pp6f ;'/IffsdL{ hf] cxf]/fq cf8 e/f];fdf ljb|f]xL g]skfnfO{{
sdfG8/ x'Fb} sdfG8/ x'g'x'GYof] . d'2fx¿n] Gofo kfPsL kfPgg eGg] tkfO{ + ; F u 5 sfd/] 8 . ;a} hf];'s} sf] xfydf xf];\ To;sf] s'g} tkfO{s + } ;'/Iffdf v6]sf] 5 / oxfF s} l;Wofpg tkfO{ + nufot k| r 08
legfh' o'4sf 3fOt] klg x'g\ . t/ d'Vo s'/f xf] . lxhf] ;+u} n8]sfx¿ :jfy{x¿nfO{{ yfFtL /fv]/, /fhgLlts cy{ x'Fb}g ;+3if{ lg/Gt/ hf/L /fVg' lgb]z { gdf xfdLnfO{{ vf]Hb}, lu/ˆtf/ sd/]8sf] of]hgf slxn] klg ;kmn
laut ^/& aif{ cl3 Kof/fnfO{l;; cfh km]/L lsg c;Gt'li6 ag] eGg] zlQm dflysf] k| l taGw x6fO, k5{, s] dbg eG8f/Ln] eg] h:t} ub},{ uf]nL xfGb} lxF8s ] f] 5 s] p;n] x'g] 5}Gg . g]kfnL /fhlgtLdf ljKnjsf]
/f]un] u|:t x'Fbf lx8\g, 8'Ng g;Sg] s'/f d'Vo xf] / ;Qf ;+rfng k|lqmofdf /fhgLlts Joj:yfkg ug]{ tkfO+s { f] hgtfsf] hLjg / ;Qfsf] rl/qdf s]6fs]6L k9fpg / kl/jf/ ;lhn} kfNg g]tT[ jdf j}slNks /fhgLlts zlQmsf]
cj:yfdf x'gx' G' 5 . sNsnfpbf] pd]/ ;a} c;Gt'li6x¿ ;dfKt x'G5g eGg] df:6/ dfOG8sf] cfjZostf 5 . gq km]/abn cfof] t < ;s]sf] 5 < x/]s jif{ ;}lgs lbj;df pbonfO{{ oxfFx¿n] g l:jsfg]{ s'/f
cj:yfdf o'4df s'bg\ ] /Qm g;fx¿ klg xf]Og, a? ltg} c;Gt'li6x¿df b]z km]/L 7'nf] åGbdf km:g] lglZrt h'g p2]Zo / k|:tfj ;lxt hgo'4 !( cf}+ ztfAbLsf] h:tf tf]kuf]nf :jfles g} xf] . tkfO{+nfO{{ hgsf/L
aNemLP/ cfh Kof/fnfO{l;; ePsf] l3p yk]/ cfuf] d';'Nsf lgsfNg 5 . To;sf] 7'nf] lhDd]jf/ tkfO+{ klg z'? ul/of] / n8fOFdf hgtfx¿ nfO{{ b]vfP/ hu x;fO{ x'bF 5 } ljZjdf Pp6f u/fp ls xfdL jf:tjdf zflGt
eGg]df s'g} b'Odt 5}g . ef]s}, Kof;} /fHon] hf]8lbg' b]zsf nflu b'ef{Uo x'gk' 5{ . ;xeflutfsf nflu clkn ul/of] O{ltxf; /r]sf] uf]vf{nL ;]gfnfO{{ p;sf] rfxG5f} , hgtfsf] dg} lht] / ,
lbg /ft ;}Go hLag latfpg] d'lQm Ifdtf j[l4 ug{ / clxn]sf] ljZj kl/j]z hgtfnfO{{ /fhgLlts ¿kdf ;r]t
sfd/]8, cfh g;f ;DaGwL la/fdLn]
ynf kg{' k¥of] . s'g} a]nfsf] hNbf]
aNbf] dflgg] d]/L 5fkfdf/ lblbn]
6«flkms lgod pNn+3g ug]n{ fO{{ !) xhf/ hl/jfgf Û
sf7df8f} F . 6« f lkms lgod x'Fb} cfPsf]df ca To;nfO{{ a9fP/ ! # xhf/ bf];f| ] k6s km]nf k/] % xhf/
cg';f/ ;Go} Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{ s'g}
/0fgLlt 5}g, l;dfgf If]qdf a;f]af;
ug]{ hgtf ef/tLo SSB sf] b'Jo{jxf/
agfP/ cufl8 a9g rfxG5f} t/
oxfFx¿ lgif]w u/]/ hfg], bdg u/]/
hfg] af6f]df x'gx' G' 5 Tof] eg]sf] tkfO{n
+ ]
ltg} ckfË e]gfh'sf] ;';f/] ag]/ a:g' pNn+3g ug]n { fO{{ ! xhf/;Dd hl/jfgf xhf/b] l v !) xhf/ ¿k} o fF ; Dd / t];|f] k6s km]nf k/] !) xhf/
x'Fb} cfPsf]df ca To;nfO{{ a9fP/ ! hl/jfgf ug]{ Joj:yf ug{ nfluPsf] ¿k}ofF;Dd sf/jfxL ug]{ Joj:yfsf] / x:tIf]kaf6 kLl8t 5g\ g]kfnL cfˆg} /fhgLlts eljio dfyL
k/]sf] 5 . pgLx¿sf] kfl/jfl/s
xhf/b] l v !) xhf/ ¿k} o fF ; Dd kGtn] atfP . hl/jfgf lgdo k|:tfj dxfzfvfn] u/]sf] 5 . lx6 nfnk'hf{ xfydf 5 t/ 3/ agfpg k|ltaGw nufpg' xf] . xfdL t hLjgdf
cefasf s'/f gu/f} . pxfFx¿sf] syf
hl/jfgf ug]{ Joj:yf ug{ nfluPsf] ldRg]sf nflu ePsfn] Tof] a9L g} P08 /g s];df % xhf/ ¿k}ofF, jfg kfPsf 5}g, hflto lje]b / dlxnf d/f}nf afrf}nf xfdLnfO{{ s'g} lrGtf
Aoyf sf]6\ofP/ cy{ 5}g, lsg ls
syf c?sf nflu x'G5g / Aofyfx¿ 5 . oftfoft Joj:yf ljefun] x'g' kg]{ eGb} kGtn] eg], …hl/jfgf j]df ;jf/L u'8fpg]nfO{{ % xhf/ ¿k}ofF lx+;f sfod} 5, ;dfhsf] ;f+:s[lts 5}Gg, x'g ;S5 of] kq k|sflzt
cfˆg} nflu x'G5g . pxfFx¿sf] o'4 dxfgul/o 6«flkms dxfzfvf;Fusf] a9L ePkl5 lgod ldRg]sf] ;+Vof hl/jfgf ul/g] Joj:yf ug{ nfluPsf] rl/q k/Dk/fut / ?9LafbL g} 5 . eO;s] kZrft cem} a9L vf]lh x'g
;dGjogdf 6«flkms lgod pNn+3g :jtM 36\g] 5 . uNtL gug]n { ] hl/jfgf kGtn] atfP . oL ljifox¿df tTsfn lk|o s]kL cf]nL Ho' s] tkfO{s + f] ;S5, hgtf e8sfPsf] cf/f]k nfUg
syfn] hGdfPsf] /fHo;Qf /fhwfgLdf ubf{ nfUg] hl/jfgf a9fpg] tof/L ltg{' kb}g{ .Ú hl/jfgf a9fpgsf nflu oftfoft
5 . Tolx ;Qfsf] b'O / b'O k6s ;+ljwfgn] pko{Q' m ljifoj:t' xn u/]s} ;S5 / b]zb|fx] sf] d'2f nufP/ h;/L
u/]sf] xf] . ;jf/L lgod pNn+3g u/] 6«flkms lgod pNn+3g ug]n { fO{{ ljefudf k| : tfj k7fOPsf] 5 . x'g t < sbflk xf]Og{ . oxfFx¿ hgtfn] klg h]n xfNg] s'/f x'g;S5 t/ qmflGtsf]
k|wfgdGqL x'g] ;f}efUo >bo sfd/]8 nfUg] hl/jfgf sd ePsf] / To;n] ul/g] hl/jfgf a9fpgsf nflu hl/jfgf lgdo ldRg]sf nflu ePsfn]
k|r08n] kfpg' eof] . of] xfdL zlxb ubf{ w]/n} ] lgod ldr]sf] eGb} o:tf] oftfoft ljefudf k|:tfj k]z ul/Psf] Tof] a9L g} x'g' kg]{ eGb} kGtn] eg], dt lbPsf] s'/f ug{' x'G5 xfdL a'‰5f} kIfdf n]Vg 5f]l8Gg, cfˆgf] hLjgsf]
kl/jf/sf nflu v';Lsf] s'/f lyof] . tof/L u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . gofF pgsf] egfO{ 5 . …clxn] ;a}df …hl/jfgf a9L ePkl5 lgod ldRg]sf] ls ha;Dd hgtfx¿ k'0f{¿kdf lev dfUb} tkfO{x+ ¿;Fu nDk;f/ k/]/
lsg eg] xfd|} hg;Qf, xfd|} hgtfsf] cfpg nfu]sf] P]g;Fu} hl/jfgf a9fpg] hl/jfgf Go" g td dfq 5, oL ;+Vof :jtM 36\g] 5 . uNtL gug]{n] /fhgLltk|lt ;r]t x'Fb}g ta;Dd of] kf6L{ 5f]l8Gg, z/L/df /utsf] Ps
/fh Nofpg bfh' k|Hjn 3lt{x¿n] tof/L ul/Psf] dxfgu/Lo 6«flkms ljifox¿df tTsfn a9fpg'k5{ eg]/ hl/jfgf ltg{' kb}{g .Ú tkfO{x+ ¿ h:tf] sDo'lgi6sf] vf]n cf]9g] yf]kf / clGtd ;f; /x'Gh]n v'§fdf
of] wtL{df /ut aufPsf x'g . t/ d k|x/L dxfzfvf k|dv ' j;Gt kGtn] xfdLn] oftfoft ljefudf k|:tfj hl/jfgf oftfoft Joj:yf P]gd} / hgtf nfO{{ em'7f] cfZjf;g / gf/f dfq} xf]Og{ 5fltd} uf]ln yfKg tof/ eO{
at{dfg kl/j]z lgofNb} 5' Û ;Qf hfgsf/L lbP . xfn dfk;], lx6 P08 u/]sf 5f}F,Ú kGtn] atfP . :jLs[tL tf]lsPsfn] Tof] j[l4sf nflu klg P]g lbg]x¿n] hgtfnfO{{ cfw'lgs bf; agfO{ tkfO{x+ ¿sf n'6kf6sf lj?4df nl8G5 .
s;sf] nflu cfof] / /fh s;sf] rNb} /g, jfg j], df]l8kmfO, ef8f a9L lagf df]l8kmfO{, tf]lsPsf] ef8feGbf g} ;+zf]wg ug{' k5{ . To;sf nflu /xg' x'g5 ] t/ Tof] s]xL ;dosf nflu lk|o cf]ln, bfxfn / yfkf sd/]8
5 < Tof] b'lgofn] eGg] s'/f xf] . Pp6f p7fpg] , Ohfht lagf ;jf/L a9L lng], ;jf/L b'3{6gf u/fpg] / ;/sf/n] xfnsf] ;jf/L tyf oftfoft dfq} xf] . tkfO{+x¿nfO{{ km]l/ km]l/ klg of]
uDeL/ kl/j]zsf] hGd x'Fb} u/]sf] rnfpg]nufotsf 6«flkms lgod ;jf/L cfjudgdf jfwf k'/fpg]nfO{{ Joj:yf P]g ;+zf]wg u/]/ ;+3Lo
pNn+3g eP 6«flkms k|x/Ln] hl/jfgf % xhf/ ¿k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf a9fpg oftfoft P]g agfpg] tof/L u/]sf] k|wfgdGqL cf]nL Ho', k|ltaGwsf nflu wGojfb .
laifon] eg] d olta]nf km]/L ;;+lst ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . xfn;Dd 6«flkms lgod nfu]sf] pgn] hfgsf/L lbP . o:t} 5 . ljefusf cg';f pQm P]gsf] sd/]8 tkfO{+ nufot sd/]8 -n]vsM clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ sf
ePsf] 5' . ;f/f ;a} dfgj al:t pNn+3g ug]n { fO{{ ! xhf/;Dd hl/jfgf dfkf;] ug]n { fO{{ klxnf] k6s km]nf k/] ;+zf]wgsf] k|s[ofdf /x]sf] 5 . k|r08, sd/]8 afbn ldn]/ ljb|f]xL s]Gb|Lo ;lrjfno ;b:o x'g
4 @)&% ;fn r}t @$ ut] cfOtaf/

nfu" cf}ifwd'Qm ;dfh :yfkgf, dfgj hLjgsf] st{Jo


k|sl[ tdf /x]sf ljleGg tTjx¿sf]
;ld>0faf6 cb[Zo zlQmsf] ;+of]hgdf
5 . cfxf/, lgGb|f, eo / d}yg' k|f0fL
;a}df x'G5 . O{Zj/ / k|s[ltn]
pic Substances) sf] b'¿kof]u
o'jfo'jtLdf a9\b} uPsf] kfOG5 .
nfu" cf}ifwsf] sf/f]jf/nfO{{ cfˆgf]
cfosf] dfWod agfPsf] kfOG5 . To;}n]
;fdflhs pTyfgsf] o; dxfg sfo{df
nfUg} k5{ . xfdL o; sfo{df cu|;/
JoQmLnfO{{ hfgsf/Lsf] ;Totf k|dfl0ft
x'gf ;fy k'/isf/ lbg g;s]sf] cj:yf,
dfgj z/L/sf] /rgf ePsf] x'G5 . dflg;nfO{{ ljj]s / ;+rf/ Ifdtf o'Qm ;lhn} pknJw x'g,] sd d"No kg]{ / dlxnf nfu" cf} i fw k| o f] u stf{ gx'g,' s'g} k|sf/sf] lzlyntf b]vfpg' /fHon] k|To]s If]qdf k'g:yf{kgf s]Gb|
k|f0fLdfqdf cTdfsf] ¿kdf eujfgsf] agfO{ c? k|f0fL eGbf km/s u/]sf] nfdf] ;do;Dd c;/ ul//xg] ePsf]n] of}gsdL{x¿df Pr= cfO{= eL= ;+qmd0f jf cgfjZos ljjfb ul//xg' klg nfu' :yfkgf ug{ g;s]sf] cj:yf, k'g:{ yfkgf
c+z /x]sf] ;Dk'0f{ dfgj hftLsf] ljZjf; 5 . dfgj eP/ xfdLn] of] km/s s] nfu" cf}ifwsf] b'Jo{;g a9\b} uPsf] pNn]vgLo ¿kdf al9/x]sf] ljleGg cf}ifwsf] /f]syfd / lgoGq0f sfo{nfO{{ s] G b| x ¿sf] cg' u dg / lgodg
5 . dfgj hfltsf nflu of] sd{kw| fg xf] < / s]sf nflu xf] eg]/ a'‰g} b]lvPsf] 5 . g]kfndf nfu" cf}ifwsf] cWoogn] k|i6 u/]sf] 5 . ;fdflhs k|fyldstfdf g/fv]sf] b]lvG5 . k| e fjsf/L¿kdf ug{ g;lsPsf]
;+;f/ xf], hxfF sd{ u/] kl5 s]xL g k5{ . dflg;sf] dl:tis c? k|f0fLsf] cj}w cf];f/–k;f/df ;+nUg ;+ul7t k|lti7fsf] 8/n] sltko cj:yfdf xfn nfu' cf}ifw / lgolGqt cj:yfx¿ nfO{{ ;Djf]wg ul/g' kg]{
s]xL kmn cjZo kfO{G5 . O{Zj/sf] eGbf a9L ljZn]if0f ug{ ;S5, a9L lu/f]xsf] ultljlw l;dfjtL{ If]qdf emg 5f]/f 5f]/Lsf] b'Jo{;g cleefjsn] g} cf}iflwx¿sf] b'Jo{;gsf] /f]syfd / clgjfo{tf 5 . ;a}nfO{{ o; ljifodf
rfxgf xf] ls dfgjn] k[YjL nf]sdf laj]s 5, pTs[i7 ;+rf/ Ifdtf 5, a9\b} uPsf] b]lvG5 . :yfgLo :t/df 9fs5f]k ug]{ u/]sf] kfO{Psf] 5 . lgoGq0fdf nfu]sf g]kfn ;/sf/, u[x a9L hfu?s / b[9 ;+slNkt agfpg
eujfgsf] rfxgf adf]lhd sfo{ ub}{ of] oyfy{k/s ts{ xfdLn] ug{ ;S5f}+ . pkef]u x'g] jf g]kfn x'bF } cGo d'ns' df
hfcf];,\ h;af6 O{Zj/ cfˆgf] sNkgf t/ s] o; km/saf6 xfdLn] xfd|f] cj}w cf];f/–k;f/ x'g] x]/f]Og :yn
cg';f/sf] kl/If0fdf ;kmn xf];\ . hLjg c? k|f0fLsf] eGbf km/s agfpg dfu{ / xjfO{ dfu{ x'bF } g]kfndf cfpg]
;s]sf 5f}+ < jf xfdL klg c? k|f0fLn] u/]sf] 5 . clkmdsf] pTkfbg tyf
h:t} vfg], 8'Ng], cf/fd ug],{ aRrf cf];f/–k;f/sf] s]Gb|ljGb' dflgPsf]
hGdfpg], 3/ agfpg] / cx+sf/, sfd, Golden triangle / Golden
qmf]w, nf]e, df]xdf dfq} ;Lldt /fvL Crescent glhs /x]sf] g]kfnsf]
;do Joltt ul//x]sf 5f}+ < /fd|f] ef}uf]lns cjl:yltsf sf/0f klg
sfd xg{s} nflu eujfgn] xfd|f] cGt/f{li6«o ;+ul7t lu/f]x (Drug
cfTdfnfO{{ dflg;sf] rf]nfdf hGdfPsf] Mafia) n] cj}w sf/f]jf/sf kf/jxg
5 . eujfgsf] rfxgf cg'¿k klg ljGb'sf] ¿kdf g]kfnsf] e"ldnfO{{ k|of]u
o; wtL{df /fd|f sfdx¿ ug{ xfdLn] u/L /x]sf / eljiodf cem a9L ug{
dfgjLo Ifdtfsf] ;xL ;b'kof]u ug}{ ;Sg] ;+efjgf k|jn b]lvG5 .
kb{5 . t/ hLjgsf] /rgf dfq clt xfn ljZjdf ;a}eGbf lrGtfsf]
ljlzi6 xf]Og{ , o;nfO{{ sd{ 4f/f xfdLn] ljifo nfu" kbfy{sf] agfpg] ljleGg
clt ljlzi6 agfpg' kb{5 . xfdLdf ;xfos /;fogx¿ (Precursors)
sd{ ug]{ Ifdtf lglxt ul/Psf] 5 . sf] k|of]unfO{{ ;d]t lng] ul/Psf] 5 .
/0faxfb'/ rGb xfdL sd{of]uL k|f0fL xf}+ . xfdLn] ljleGg pBf]ux¿sf nflu cfjZos
O{Zj/sf] rfxgfnfO{{ ;fsf/ kfg{ dfgj kg]{ s'g} /;fogdf cGo s'g} /;fog;Fu
To;}n] eujfgn] cfˆgf] ;jf]{Ts[i7 hLjgsf nflu lgb]z { Lt sd{x¿ ug{' ld>0f u/]df To;n] ljleGg lsl;dsf
sd{of]uL cjtf/ dfgjsf] ;[li6 u/]sf] kb{5 . O{Zj/sf] O{R5f klg oxL xf], nfu" cf}ifwsf] ¿k lnG5, h:tf] cf}ifwL
xf]nf . elgG5, :ju{df cfˆgf] sd{af6 h'g xfd|f] st{Jo xf] . o; nf]sdf ;To pBf]ux¿df cfjZos kg]{ ;xfos
cflh{t kmnsf] ef]u ug]{ dfq ;'ljwf sfdx¿ eO{/x]sf 5g . sd{ u/] ;f] /;fogx¿ Precursors af6 s8f
5 . sd{ ug]{ cj;/ k[YjL nf]sdf dfq} cg';f/sf] kmn kfO{G5 gu/] ;f] lsl;dsf] Methamphetamine
5 Tof] klg dfgj hftLn] dfq cg';f/sf] kmn kfO{G5 . h:tf nfu' cf}ifwLx¿sf] lgdf{0f x'G5 .
kl/jt{gzLn sfo{ ug{ ;S5 . To;}n] ;+;f/df dfgj hLjgsf lt g]kfndf nfu" cf}ifwsf] Jofks ¿kdf
dfgj hftLnfO{{ ;af]T{ s[i7 k|f0fLsf of]4fx¿n] oL sfdx¿ ul/ /fv]s} 5g . ;]jg / cj}w sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ul/Psf]
¿kdf lnO{G5 . hLj zf:qLx¿n] dfgj of] laifo ;a}sf nflu klg ;f]rgLo ljleGg cg';Gwfgx¿af6 v'Ng uPsf]
hLjgsf af/]df h] hlt la1fg / laifo x'g' kb{5 . xfd|f k[ys k[ys 5 . g]kfndf x]/f]Og, r/]z, clkmd
l;4fGt k|ltkflbt u/] klg p7]sf ¿kdf xfdLn] cf–cfˆgf] :yfgaf6 nufotsf nfu" cf}ifwx¿ k|ltjlGwt
l6Kk0fLx¿sf] a}1flgs hjfkm lbg O{Zj/, dftf–lktf, k|sl[ t, u'? ;dfh 5g\ . hfF8, /S;L nufotsf nfu"
;s]sf 5}gg . clxn] klg wd{, ;+:s[lt / dft[ed" Lsfnflu s]xL u/]sf klg 5f}+ kbfy{x¿ ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts ¿kdf
/ hg ljZjf; 5 ls xfd|f] hLjg xf]nf . t/ To; k[ys k|of;n] xfdLn] g} :jLs[t dflgG5g eg] xf]nL, lzj/fqL
O{Zj/sf] of]hgfj4 sfo{sf] kmn xf] . z/L/df O{Zj/, dftf–lktf, k|sl[ t, u'? h:tf rf8kj{x¿df ufFhf ;]jgnfO{{ of] nfu' cf}ifwsf] ;fdflhs ;d:of dGqfno, g]kfn k|x/L, nfu' cf}ifw z+;f]wg x'g] P]g lgodfjnLdf g]kfnaf6
dflg;sf] z/L/, cfTdf, Åbo / ;dfh / dft[ed" Lsf] nflu s]xL ug{ 5'6 lbPsf] xf] sL eGg] b]lvG5 t/ tL ;dodfg} lg/fs/0f ug{ g;lsPdf lgoGq0f Jo"/f], nfu' cf}ifw lgoGq0f aflx/ hfg' kbf{, ;jf/L rfns cg'dlt
dlitis af/]df xfd|f wd{ zf:t{x¿df ;s]gf}+ eg] xfdLdf Tof] C0f /xG5 . kbfy{x¿ h'g;'s} kj{sf gfddf ;]jg /fi6«n] pTkfbgzLn / l;h{gzLn o'jf sfo{qmd cf}ifwL Joj:yf ljefu :jf:Yo kq ln+bf jf l/Go" ubf{, xftxltof/sf]
kl/sNkgf o:tf] ul/Psf] 5 . d[To" ;×Ø
} ofdf ePsf] a]nf od/fhn] / sf/f]jf/ ug{ sfg"gn] 5'6 eg] lbPsf] hgzlQm u'dfpg'sf ;fy} cfk/flws dGqfno dftxtsf sfof{nox¿ / lglh O{hfht kq ln+bf jf l/Go" ubf{, s'g}
of] ef}lts z/L/ xfdLn] dft[ed" L olb xfdLnfO{{ s] ul/; eGbf klg xfdLn] 5}g . g]kfndf hfthfltsf cfwf/df lqmofsnfk klg a9\g] kSsf 5 . o; If]qdf ;~rflnt cf}ifwL Joj;foLx¿ ;fj{hflgs kbdf jxfn /xFbf jf
/ k|sl[ taf6 C0f lnPsf tTjx¿sf] ;dfhsf nflu of] u/] eGg] lrQ a'‰bf] nfu" cf}ifwsf] k|of]u ug]{ / gug]{ u/]sf] k|of]hgsf nflu nfu" cf}ifwsf] pTkfbg k'gM{ :yfkgf s]Gb|x¿n] nfu' cf}ifwsf] ;/sf/L tj/df hgk|ltlglwsf] ¿kdf
;+of]hgaf6 ag]sf] 5 . C0f lnPsf hjfkm x'g} kb{5 . hLjgsf st{Jo klg kfOG5 . sltko hfthfltdf hfF8 tyf cf];f/–k;f/sf] jblnbf] :j¿k /f]syfd lgoGq0f tyf k'g:{ yfkgfsf] /xg] x/]s JolQmnfO{{ klg d]l8sn
aZt'x¿ o; nf]saf6 cfkm' ;+u} lnP/ leqsf ^ j6f If]qsf sfdx¿ dWo] /S;L nufotsf dfbs kbfy{ ;]jgnfO{{ / k|jl[ tnfO{{ lgoGq0f ug{ cGt/f{li6«o sfo{df nfu]sf] b]lvG5 . nfu' cf}ifw l/kf]6; { u+ ;+u} gfsf]l{ 6s 6]:6 l/kf]6k{ lg
hfg ;ls+bg} , h'g tkfO{+ xfd|} cfFvf ;dfhsf] ljsf;sf nflu nfu' cf}ifw wfld{s / ;f+:s[lts ¿kdf g} 5'6 tyf If]qLo dxf;lGwsf] efjgf cg'¿k lgoGq0fsf] sfo{df clxn]sf] ;+/rgfn] lng' kg]{ clgjfo{tf ePdf nfu' cf}ifw
cuf8L ;To 5 . cfkm'n] cfkm}n + fO{{ d'Qm ;dfh lgdf{0fsf] cleofgdf h'6g' :jLsf/]sf] kfOG5 . g]kfnsf] xfnsf] sfg"g lgdf{0f Pj+ kl/dfh{g u/L sfg"g h'g pknlAwsf ;"rsx¿ b]vfPsf] 5, lgoGq0fsf] cleofgn] al9 dxTj
;f]Wbf klg hjfkm kfO{G5 ls …dÚ eg]sf] klg Ps xf] . nfu' cf}ifw d'Qm ;dfhsf] cJojl:yt zx/Ls/0f, ;+ u l7t sfof{GjognfO{{ cem a9L ;'b9[ , ;Ifd To;df k|ejsfl/tf Nofpg nfu' cf}ifw kfpFg5 ] .
of] z/L/ xf]Og{ , …dÚ z/L/ eGbf k[ys ljsf; pTs[i7 ;dfh lgdf{0fsf] klxnf] ck/flws ;+hfnsf] k|efjdf j[l4, tyf ;fwg ;DkGg t'Nofpg ckl/xfo{ ePsf] lgoGq0f P]g @)## ;+zf]wgsf] qmddf o;sf ;fy} x/]s cleefjs, ;r]t
x'F . z/L/ d]/f] sfo{ oGq dfq xf] . v'6lsnf dflgG5 . slyt cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] lj:tf/, 5 . nfu'cf}ifwsf] /f]syfd lgoGq0f ug{' 5 . g]kfn nfu" cf}ifw ;DalGw gful/sx¿n] klg cTdfnfO{{ ;fIfL /fvL
o;af6 d}n] sd{ed" Ldf sd{ ug{' k5{ . jt{dfg ;dodfnfu" cf}ifwsf] a]/f]huf/L cflbsf sf/0fn] xfnsf xfdL ;a}sf] bfloTj xf] . o;sf] /f]syfd cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGwx¿sf] kIf /fi6« cf–cfˆgf] 7fFpaf6 nfu' cf}ifwsf]
s'g} klg sd{ ug{sf nflu hfgsf/L ;d:of ljZjdf ;j} e Gbf 7" n f] lbgdf nfu" cf}ifwsf] b'Jo{;gL / / lgoGq0fdf xfdL nfu]gf}+ eg] ;dfhsf xf] . lt cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGwx¿n] lj?4df sfd ug}{ kg]{ x'G5 . To:t}
xfFl;n ug{ of] z/L/df O{lGb|o / r'gf}tLsf] ¿kdf b]vfk/]sf] 5 . s'g} sf/f]af/ Jofks ¿kdf j[l4 ePsf] xf]gxf/ o'jfx¿ o;sf] ntdf km:g u/]sf k|lta4tfnfO{{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ ljBfno, sn]h, xf]:6]nx¿n] tL
sd]l{ Gb|ox¿sf] ;+/rgf /flvPsf] xf] . klg ljsl;t, ljsf;f]Gd'v, cNk– kfOG5 . sf7df8f}F pkTosf, kf]v/f, hfg] clt g} a9L ;Dejgf /xg hfG5 . k|of]hgsf nflu ul7t /fli6«o ;+oGqnfO{{ ;+:yfx¿df ljBfyL{x¿nfO{{ To:tf
ctM z/L/sf] ;xfotfaf6 hLjgsfndf ljsl;t /fi6« of] ;d:ofaf6 c5'tf] w/fg nufotsf d'Vo d'Vo zx/L If]q efjL k':tfsf tL of]Uo gfu/Ls nfu' cem k|efjsf/L agfpg Pj+ nfu" cf}ifw s'ntdf nfUg] /lte/ klg ;+efjgf
s]xL st{Aox¿ k'/f ug{' k5{ . hLjgsf /xg ;s]sf] 5}g . kl5Nnf] ;dfodf tyf vf;u/L g]kfn–ef/t ;LdfjtL{ cf}ifwdf km;]kl5 b]z / ;dfhdf k|of]ustf{sf] dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f g/x]sf] / cfkm'x¿ nfu' cf}ifwsf]
cg]s st{Jox¿ 5g . h;nfO{{ xfdLn] nfu" cf}ifwsf] dfu cToflws ¿kdf zx/x¿df of] ;d:of a9\bf] dfqfdf rflxg] k|efjzfnL JolQmx¿sf] cefj ub}{ xfnsf lbgx¿df nfu" cf}ifwsf] la?4df 5f} eGg] s'/fsf] pbfx/0f ;lxt
lhDd]jf/Lsf ¿kdf :jLsf/]sf 5f}+ . j[l4 e}/x]sf] 5 . clt /fd|f] d'gfkmf /x]sf] kfOG5 . vf;u/L hf]lvd ;d"xsf x'g hfg] 5 . ;dfh / /fi6« h'g k| o f] u df b] v fk/] s f ljljw k|:t't ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . ;Dk'0f{ ;r]t
lt lhDd]jf/Lx¿ xfdLn] hLjgsfndf cfh{g ug{ ;kmn o;sf] sf/f]jf/ o'jfo'jtLdf nfu" cf}ifwLsf] b'¿kof]u uGtJo tkm{ cuf8L tkm{ a9\g' kg]{ xf] hl6ntfx¿nfO{{ ;+jf]wg ug{ ;Sg] u/L b]zjf;Lx¿n] nfu' cf}ifw d'Qm ;dfh
g} k'/f ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . st{Jox¿ cGt/f{li6«o ¿kdf g} Jofks ¿kdf tyf b'Jo{;gsf] k|jl[ Q al9/x]sf] 5 Totf guO{ cjfl`5\t lbzf tkm{ hfg] df}hb' f nfu" cf}ifw lgoGq0f P]g @)##, :yfkgfsf] sfo{ cfˆgf] dfgj hLjgsf]
k'/f gePsf] hLjg cw'/f] x'G5 . ;a} km}lnPsf] 5 . nfu" cf}ifwsf] cj}w eg] ljutdf ufFhf, r/]z / x]/f]Og 5 . tkfO{+ xfd|f] rfxfgf / cfsf+Iff nfu" cf}ifw /fli6«o gLlt @)^#, nfu" st{Jo xf] elg ;xsfo{df h'6g\ ] xf] eg]
st{Jox¿ ;kmntfk"js { ;Dkfbg ug{ cf];f/–k;f/ /b'Jo{;g ;j{kIfLo ;]jgdf ;Lldt /x]sf] nfu" cf}ifw k|of]u xfd|f ;Gtfgx¿n] k'/f ug{ g;Sg] cf}ifw /fli6«o /0fgLlt @)^^ nufotsf dfq :j:Yo / ;'Gb/ ;dfhsf] sNkgf
;s]sf] v08df dfq} hLjg ;kmn /x]sf] ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] . of] ;d:of s'g} ug{ yfn]sf] kfOG5 . ljleGg cf}ifwLsf] cj:yf cfpg ;Sg] 5 . nfu' cf}ifwsf] gLlt tyf sfg"gx¿df ;d;fdlos ;fsf/ x'g5 ] . x/]sn] cfˆgf] dfgj
dflgg]5 . xfd|f] z/L/df O{Zj/, dftf– klg :yfg jf If]q ljz]ifsf] ;d:of k|of]u / b'Jo{;g ug]{ ljlwdf cfPsf] b'Jo{;g Ps ;?jf /f]u g} xf] . o;sf] ;'wf/sf] vfFrf] b]lvPsf] 5 . hLjgdf Pp6f pNn]vgLo pknlAw
lktf, k|sl[ t, u'? ;dfh / dft[ed" Lsf] dfq geO{ dfgj ;d'bfos} ;fd"lxs kl/jt{ g sf sf/0f nfu" cf} i fw las[lt a9\b} uof] eg] hf] klg h'g;'s} clxn] z+;f]wgdf /x]sf] nfu' cf}i+ fw xfFl;n ug]{ 5g\ . x/]s JolQmsf] hLjgsf]
nufgL ePsf] 5 . z/L/df cfTdf ;d:ofsf ¿kdf /x]sf] ;d:of xf] . k|of]ustf{x¿ / ljz]8 u/L o'jfx¿df a]nf o;sf] ;d:ofaf6 u|l;t x'g x'g P]g @)## ;+;f]wgdf cfPkl5 ;f] P]g cd'No pknlJw ;dfh / /fi6«n]
eujfgsf] c+z /x]sf], dftf lktfn] g]kfn nufoft ljZjsf s'g} klg /fi6« s'kf]if0f, /QmcNktf, x]kf6fOl6;, ;S5 . Ps k6s zfGt dgn] PsfGtdf / lgodfjlndf xfn b] v fk/] s f kfpg]5 . ;fy;fy} O{Zj/, dftf–lktf,
xfdLnfO{{ hGdfPsf], k|sl[ tn] hlGdg o; ;d:ofaf6 c5'tf] /xg ;s]sf of}ghGo /f]u / Pr= cfO{= eL= P8\; a;L cfkm'n] cfkm}nfO{{ k|Zg u/f} ls ;d:ofx¿ -Jo"/f]sf] k'g;+/rgf ug{' kg]{ k| s [ l t, u' ? / dft[ e " d L k| l tsf
x'ls{g jftfj/0f k|bfg u/]sf], u'¿n] 5}gg\ . g]kfndf ;g\ !(^) sf] bzs h:tf vt/gfs /f]uaf6 ;+qmldt x'g] ljsl;t b]zx¿n] o; If]qdf Jofks cj:yf, nfu" cf}ifw lgoGq0f Jo"/f]nfO{{ lhDd]jf/Lx¿ tkm{ klg xfdL cu|;/
xfdLnfO{{ laåtf k|bfg u/]sf], ;dfh b]lv lxKkL ;+:s[ltsf] cfudgsf ;fy} qmd a9\b} uPsf] 5 . cWoog u/L lsg Tolt w]/} hgzQmL ck"lt{ lgoGq0f / r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmd /x]sf] dflgg]5f}+ .
lqmofsnfk ug]{ 7fFp / dft[el" d xfd|f] nfu" cf}ifwsf] ;d:of hl6n x'bF } uPsf] nfu" cf}ifwsf] s'ntn] ljz]if u/L / ;fwg ;|ft] vr{ ul//fv]sf xf]nfg < ;d]t ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf, nfu" cf}ifw -n]vs rGb )@! ;fn >fj0f #)
cGgbftf, kfns, cf>o :yn xf] . b]lvG5 . ;g\ !(^) sf] pQ/f4{;Dd dlxnf tyf lszf]/ pd]/sf JolQmx¿ olb of] If]qn] ;dfhdf vt/fgs lgoGq0f Jo"/f]nfO{{ cfjZos cnUu} ah]6 ut] z'qmjf/ /f]klgn]s, afusf]6,
pxfFx¿sf] ;xof]un] xfd|f] hLjg of] nfu" cf}ifw (Narcotics) sf] a9L dfqfdf k|efljt /x]sf] kfOG5 . k|efjx¿ kfb}g{ Yof] eg] ;fob o; sfo{df g5'§Lg] cj:yf, nfu' cf}ifw /f]syfd d]nf}nL g=kf= -# a}t8L lhNnfdf
cj:yfdf 5 . cGoyf xfd|f] hLjg b'¿kof]u tyf cf];f/–k;f/ s]xL b'Jo{;gsf] ntdf km;]sf dlxnfn] kmh'n vr{ s;}n] klg ub}g{ Yof] . ct, / lgoGq0fsf] ;+/rgfsf] :j¿kdf hGd] s f] x' g \ . pgn] lqe' j g
clxn]sf] cj:yfdf ;fob x'bF g} Yof] clkmdhGo vf]sL cf}ifwL / dgf]låks kfl/jfl/s / ;fdflhs alxisf/sf] g]kfndf nfu' cf}ifwsf] b'Jo{;g, v]tL, Jofkstf Nofpg' kg] { , cf} i fwL o'lgel;{l6af6 Pd P tyf xfn d]jf/
xf]nf . xfd|f] hLjgnfO{{ of]Uo agfpg] kbfy{ (psychotropic Sub- ;fdgf ug{k' g]{ ePsf]n] pgLx¿df o; pTkfbg j;f/ k;f/, ;~ro / ljqmL sDkgLx¿n] Nofpg] ;xfos s]ldsn o'lgel;{l6 /fh:yfgaf6 xfn PHD
O{Zj/, dftf–lktf, k|sl[ t, u'? ;dfh stance) df dfq ;Lldt /x]sf]df ljifodf s;}nfO{{ hfgsf/L gu/fpg] ljt/0fnfO{{ /f]syfd / lgoGq0f ug{ –lk|s;{/, nfu" cf}ifwsf] sf/f]jf/df ul//x]sf] 5g\ . rGb g]kfn k|x/Lsf
/ dft[ed" Lsf nflu xfdLn] s]xL ug{' ;g\ !(() sf] bzssf] ;'?jft b]lv k|jl[ t a9]sf] b]lvG5 . clwsf+z dlxnf g]kfn ;/sf/, ;DalGwt lgsfodf, k|of]u ePsf] cj:yf b]lvPsf]n] o;sf] k"j{ P cfO hL kL tyf jl/i6 ;dfh;]jL
kg]{ lhDd]jf/L xfd|f] sfFwdf 5 . nfu" tyf dgf] l åks kbfy{ nfu" cf}ifw k|of]ustf{x¿n] cfˆgf] /0flglts/ sfof{Gjog txdf /x]sf ;a} k|efjsf/L cg'udgsf] Joj:yf, nfu' ;d]t x'g . pgn] xfn ljleGg ljwfdf
;+;f/sf k|f0fLx¿ ;a}sf] hLjgsfn (Narcoticsand psychotro- s'ntnfO{{ lg/Gt/tf lbg b]xJofkf/ / JoQmLx¿ klg dg arg / sd{n] cf}ifw af/]sf] cfjZos hfgsf/L lbg] lg/Gt/ snd rnfpb} cfPsf 5g\ .
@)&% ;fn r}t @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 5

gofF /fli6«o k'ghf{u/0f cfjZos


kl/jt{g, kl/jt{g / kl/jt{g Û /fli6«o rl/qn] /fi6«nfO{{ sdf08 ug]{ /fli6«o nf]stflGqs qmflGt klg !((& @))& ;fn of @)$^ / @)^@÷^#
kmnkm'nsf af]qmf cg'xf/df
rds Nofpg ;xof]uL Û
cfh g]kfnL ;dfhsf] Pp6} dfq gf/f a]nf eO;s]sf] 5 . ;fn b]lvsf] @)&@ ;fn;Dd ;+ljwfg xf];,\ xfd|f cu|h k':tfx¿sf] lgd{d sf7df8f}F . kmnkm'n dfgj z/L/df kf]ifs tTj lbnfpg] cfxf/df kb{5 .
ePsf] 5 . ;+;f/ kl/jt{g eP/ sxfF g]tT[ jdf lxhf] qmflGtsfnsf] h:tf] gag" G h] n ;Ddsf] Pp6f /fli6« o cfudg lagf qmflGt ;kmn ePsf o;n] xfd|f] z/L/nfO{{ rflxg] le6fldg pAnAw u/fpg'sf] ;fy} cg'xf/df rds
k'lu;Sof] Û xfdL eg] w]/} l9nf] lj/f]wLnfO{{ Wj+z ug]{ rl/qsf] cGTo cleofg lyof] . To;}n] ca ;a} lyPgg\ . Nofpg ;xof]u ub{5 . kmnkm'n vfPkl5 xfdL To;sf] af]qmfnfO{{ kmf]x/df ldNsfO{
eO;Sof}+ . vf]O{ Û ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f x' g ;ls/x] s f] 5} g . lxhf] hgtfx¿n] a'em\g'kb{5, ca hflu/] g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf lg0ff{os lbG5f} lsgsL xfdLnfO{{ o;sf] kmfO{bfaf/] 1fg 5}g h'g o;k|sf/ 5g\ –
ePkl5 /fhgLlts :yfloTj / /fli6«o qmflGtsfndf qmflGtsf] efjgfn] lht]/ dgf]jl[ Qsf g]tfx¿nfO{{ /fhgLlt ;'Dkg' j}slNks zlQm hgtf 5g\ . of] d]jfsf] af]qmf – d]jfsf] af]qmf tf:bf Ps ls;Ldsf] ;]tf] rf]ko"Qm t/n
rl/qnfO{{ bx|f];Fu cfTd;ft u/]/ ;a}nfO{{ Ps 7fpFdf Nofof] . qmflGt x'Fb}g . ef/tdf g]x¿ / df]bL h:tf /fi6« s f] /fli6« o tf / /fhgLlts kbfy{ cfp5 of] ;lxtsf] af]qmfn] wf]Psf] cg'xf/df s]xL ;do bn]/ 5f8\g] /
/fli6«o /fhgLlt cl3 a9]sf] < of] ;kmn eof] . /fhgLlts :yfloTjsf] /fhg]tfx¿nfO{{ hgtfn] ef]6 lbP/ kl/jt{gsf lg0ff{os :jfldTjstf{ klg cg'xf/ ;'s] kl5 cg'xf/ wf]Pdf d'nfO{d tyf rlDsnf] dx;';\ x'G5 . of] k|so[ f
g]kfnL hgtf dfq 5g\ . lsg k6s– xKtfdf b'O{ k6s u/]df w]/} km/s cg'ej ug{ ;lsG5 .
k6ssf ;/sf/n] /fhgLlts–
s]zj/fh kf}8n
] j} r fl/s :yfloTjsf] g] t [ T j ub} {
v/a'hfsf] af]qmf – v/a'hf o:tf] df};dL kmn xf] h'g udL{ dlxgfdf dfq
kfOG5 . o;n] xfd|f] z/L/df kfgLsf] sdLnfO{{ s]xL xb;Dd k"/f ug]{ ub{5 .
/fi6« n fO{ { k4ltdf 9fn] / cufl8 v/a'hfsf] af]qmfsf] k]i6nfO{{ cg'xf/df nufpFbf bfbsf] ;d:of x6\5 eg]
a]Odfg, e|i6, t:s/ / a9fpg ;Sb}g < lsg xfd|f] /fi6«sf] o;n] 5fnfnfO{{ ljz]if rlDsnf] klg /fV5 .
dflkmof¿kL kmf]xf]/nfO{{ kfvf /fhgLltn] k' / :sf/ / ;hfosf] ;'Gtnfsf] af]qmf – ;'Gtnfdf le6fldg l; kfO{G5 . of] xfd|f] 5fnfsf] nflu
af6f]df xf];\ jf x/]s s'/fdf Ps lgs} kmfObfhgs dflgG5 . ;'Gtnfsf] af]qmfnfO{{ k]:6 agfP/ cg'xf/df nufpFbf
gnufO{ xfd|f] /fhgLlts kf]v/L kfOnf cufl8 a9\of] eg]/ hgtfnfO{{ ANofsx]8\; 6f9f efU5 / 5fnfsf ljleGg ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f kfOG5 .
;ª\lng] 5}g . Pp6f gofF cfzfjfbL agfpg ;Sb}g < lsg s]/fsf] af]qmf – s]/fsf] af]qmfaf6 k|z:t dfqfdf kf]ifs tTj kfOG5 .
hgtfsf] 9' s ' 6 Lsf] ;+ / If0f x' g o;df le6fldg aL ^ / aL !@ kfO{g'sf ;fy;fy} DofUg]l;od / sfaf]{xfO8«]6
;sf/fTds / /rgfTds /fli6«o ;Sb}g < ca Joj:yf k|flKtsf] n8fO kfO{G5 . s]/fsf] af]qmfdf PlG6clS;8]G6 x'G5 h;n] :6«];nfO{{ sd ug]{ ub{5 .
cleofgsf nflu ;a} cleoGtfx¿ ;lsPsf] 5, t/ hgtfnfO{{ lg0ff{os s]/fsf] af]qmfnfO{{ cg'xf/df nufpFbf 3fdn] 89]sf] / 8l08kmf]/sf] ;d:ofaf6
hfuf}+, hgtf hufpg tof/ eP/ j}slNks hgd'vL ;Qf rflxPsf] 5, /fxt kfOG5 .
/f0ff / /fhfx¿sf] bf; gePsf
cufl8 a9f}+ . of] afx]s /fi6« hgtfx¿ ca s;}sf] bf; x'g] 5}gg\ .
cfh /fi6«nfO{{ /fli6«otfaf/] ;lx
anfTsf/LnfO{{ d[To'b08, rf]/sf xftv'§f sfl6g] Û
agfpg vf]Hg]x¿sf nflu csf]{ sf7df8fF} . blIf0f k"jL{ PlzofnL d'ns ' a|g' fO{n] ;dlnËLnfO{{ 9'Ëfn] lxsf{P/
kl/efiff, /fhgLlts kl/jt{gsf]
af6f] 5}g . ta dfq JolQm, kf6L{ ;'¿cft / uGtJo tyf ;dfhsf] dfl/g] ;hfo ePsf] gofF O:nflds sfg'g a'wjf/b]lv nfu' u/]sf] 5 . gofF
;fdflhs cfly{s kl/jt{g u/]/ ;d[4 sfg'gdf rf]/Lsf] ;hfo xftv'§f sfl6g] h:tf Joj:yfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ .
dfq 7"nf] geO{ /fi6«, k4lt, cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfodf w]/}n] of] sfg'gsf] lj/f]w u/]sf 5g\ . a|'gfO{n] ;g\
g]kfn agfpg]af/] j}rfl/s :ki6 ;f]r
/fhgLlts :yfloTj, ;+ljwfg 7"nf] xf] eGg] ;lx /fhgLlts clg Tof] To;cg';f/ nIo / PS;gsf] @)!$ df ;l/of sfg'g nfu' u/]sf] lyof] / ;'Ntfgn] s]xL jif{df gofF d'n'sL
h¿/L 5 . To;nfO{{ g]t[Tj lbg] gofF ;+lxtf nfu' x'g] atfPsf lyP . a|g' fO{sf k|wfgdGqL klg /x]sf ;'Ntfg ;+;f/sf
;+:sf/sf] ljsf; x'g]5 . ta dfq ;d[4 g]kfnsf] af6f]df /fi6«n] ;a}eGbf wgL dWo]df kb{5g\ . uPsf] zlgjf/ ;/sf/n] j]a;fO6df Ps
j} s lNks nf] s tflGqs zlQm /
lg0ff{os 5nfª xfGg]5 eGg]df b'O{dt x'g ;Sb}g . k|efjzfnL g]t[Tj, cfh /fi6« / lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ a'wjf/b]lv ;l/of d'ns ' L ;+lxtf nfu' x'g] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] xf] .
;dfhsf] /fli6«o cfjZostf ag]sf] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;‹n] klg d'n'sL ;+lxtfnfO{{ …q"m/, cdfgjLo / ckdfghgsÚ
b]z s'g} hft, JolQm / /fhgLlts Uof/]G6L eof] . ca lgdf{0fsfndf /fi6«sf] lhDd]jf/L lbP . xfdLn] klg 5 . To:tf] g]t[Tjn] dfq /fhgLlts ePsf] / dfgj clwsf/ ;+/If0fdf afwf kfg]{ atfPsf] 5 .
kf6L{sf] Psnf}6L xf]Og . o;sf] ;a}sf] /fli6«o ;f]r Pp6} eP/ cl3 /fi6«kl| t hjfkmb]xL To:tf] g]tf lsg :yfloTjsf] g]t[Tj ub}{ d'n's / anfTsf/, Jolerf/, n'6kf6 / df]xDdbsf] ckdfg ug]s { f nflu d[To'b08sf]
/fli6«otf / nf]stflGqs qmflGtk|ltsf] a9\g'kb{5 . Pp6f /fli6«o k4lt gvf]Hg] < ;do cfO;s]sf] 5 . d"n hgtfnfO{{ cfTdut / j:t'ut ¿kdf Joj:yf gofF sfg'gdf 5 . ue{ktg u/]df ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf sf]/f{ xfGg] / rf]/Lsf
ckgTj / :jfldTj ;a}sf] 5 . g lgdf{0f ug]{ ;jfndf /fli6«o ;'/Iff / s'/f uf8Lsf] 8«fOe/ km]g]{ xf], To;}n] lg0ff{os nIolt/ 8f]¥ofpg ;S5 . nflu xftv'§f sf6\g] Joj:yf 5 . ;fy} !* jif{eGbf d'lgsf lszf]/ lszf]/LnfO{{
l5d]sL ef/t / rLgdf h:tf] Ps k//fi6« gLltaf/] ;a}n] Pp6} ;f]r b]znfO{{ Pp6f ;d[l4sf] gofF Oltxf; cfh klg xfd|f] b]zsf] /fhgLltdf O:nfdeGbf c¿ wd{sf af/]df l;sfpg' klg u}/sfg'gL agfOPsf] 5 . sfg'g d'nt
JolQm / Ps kf6L{ n ] /fli6« o agfO{ /fli6«o Pstfsf] af6f]df /fi6«sf] /Rg] ln Sjfg rflxPsf] 5 . ;a}n] 7"nf dfG5] tyf cGwljZjf; / s'l/tL O:nfd wdf{nDaLdf nfu' x'g] eP klg o;sf s]xL Joj:yfx¿ ;a}dfly nfu' x'G5 .
:jtGqtfsf] g]tT[ j u/]sf] uf}/jzfnL
Oltxf; xfd|f] b]zdf 5 . clg lsg
/fhgLltnfO{{ lgd{dtfk"j{s cl3
a9fpg' kb{5 . cfh oxL sdhf]/Lsf]
To;tkm{ ;f]rf}+ . g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf
ca To;sf] ljsNk 5}g .
xfjL x'g] ;+:sf/ 5 . lsg xfd|f] b]zdf
x/]s If]qsf dflyNnf]:t/sf g]tT[ jnfO{{
‘t]hkQf’ ;fª\nf, h'd|f, d';f eufpgb]lv
;a} ldn]/ g]kfnL ;femf /fi6«jfb / sf/0f kl/jt{g lj/f]wL /fli6«o / clxn];Ddsf] g]kfnL /fhgLlt uNtL ubf{ ;hfo lbg] k4lt 5 eg] ;k{sf] laif dfg{;Dd cToGt} pkof]uL
b]zelQmk|lt ;dlk{t eO{ ljsl;t cGt/f{li6«o zlQmx¿ ;NanfO{/x]sf /f0ffsfn xf];\ jf /fhtGqsfn, cg'el" t hgtfn] ug{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ < sf7df8fF} . t]hkQf klg 3/]n' cf}ifwLn] el/k'0f{ u'0f ePsf] kft xf] . o;n]
d'n'ssf] h:tf] k4lt lgdf{0f u/]/ 5g\ . kl/jt{gsf] uf8L xfFSg] 8«fOe/n] /fli6«otfsf] s]Gb|ljGb" Ps JolQm g} lsg xfd|f] /fhgLlt pTkL8s / pTkLl8t, df5f, df;'sf kl/sf/ :jflbnf] agfpgsf] nflu k|of]udf NofOG5 . t/ o;sf]
cfly{s ;fdflhs ¿kfGt/0fsf] af6f]df hgtfsf] nf]slk|o OR5fsf] dd{ af]s/] ePsf] xf] . t/ cfw'lgs ;+3Lo zf]ifs / zf]lift, zf;s / zfl;t b'O{ cf}ifwLo u'0fsf] af/]df eg] w]/n
} fO{{ yfxf gx'g ;S5 . o;n] :jfbsf] dfq sfd
lg0ff{os ¿kn] cl3 a9\g g;s]sf] < cl3 a9\g g;Sbf hgtfdf cfzf / nf] s tflGqs u0ftflGqs sfndf ju{ lgdf{0f ug{ p4t 5 < lxhf] t gu/]/ cr's cf}ifwLsf] sfd u5{ .
/fhtGqnfO{{ g]kfnL hgtfn] dfof pT;fx sdhf]/ eP/ uPsf] 5 . hgtfn] ;+ljwfg;efaf6 ultzLn zf;sx¿;Fu aGb's lyof], ufx|f] lyof], t] h kQfsf kmfObf o:tf 5g\
ubf{ub}{ ;+:+ yfdf ¿kfGt/0f x'g g;Sbf cfh ;QfkIfsf dflg;x¿df g} ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f u/]kl5 /fli6«otfaf/] cfh klg d'l¶e/ pTkL8snfO{{ oqf] != ;k{ s f] ljif emf5{
kl/jt{gsf] cfFwLn] a9f/]/ nUof] . lg/fzf 5fpg' /fhgLltsf] 7" n f] a[ x t\ ax; h¿/L 5 . g] k fnL ax'dt OdfGbf/ hgtfn] sdf08 ug{ ;k{n] 6f]Sg] ljlQs}sf] cfnf] 3fpnfO{{ lgsf] kfg{ t]hkQfn] cf}iflwsf] sfd
kf6L{x¿df klg gofF o'un] lbPsf] sdhf]/L ePsf] 5 . x/kn cfkm\gf] /fi6«jfbnfO{{ ulx/f] tl/sfn] lng x'bg} lsg g;s]sf] < To;}n] cfh gofF /fli6«o u5{ . ljiffn' ls/fn] 6f]s/] ag]sf] 3fpdf t]hkQfsf] /; k|of]u ubf{ 3fp l7s
lhDd]jf/LnfO{{ ;Qf :jfy{eGbf dfly ;Qfsf] / g]tfsf] u'0fufg ufpg tof/ eGg] lrGtg dflyNnf] :t/df xfjL eP k'ghf{u/0f h¿/L 5 . ca x/If]qsf x'G5 . ;k{n] 6f]s]sf] 7fpFdf t]hkQfsf] /; nufpFbf ljif em5{, elgG5 t/
p7]/ kfng ug]{ rl/q b]lvPsf] 5}g . sfo{stf{x¿sf] dgf]an sdhf]/ x'g' klg o;nfO{{ lr/]/ guO{ ;d[4 g]kfnsf] OdfGbf/ hgtf / g] t [ T j hfu] / t]hkQfs} e/df gk/L k|fylds pkrf/sf nflu ;k{n] 6f]s]sf] 7fpFdf o;sf]
@)^@–^# sf] qmflGt Pp6f gofF eg]sf] kSs} klg xNsf ljifo x'g lgdf{ 0 f c;Dej 5 . g] k fnsf] /fhgLltnfO{ { gofF tl/sn] cl3 k|of]u ubf{ kmfObfsf/L x'G5 . t]hkQfsf] t]ndf …PG6L km+unÚtyf…PG6L
r]tgf / ;Eotftkm{sf] ofqf lyof] . ;Sb}g . ;}4flGts ¿kdf km8\sf] /fhgLltdf dflyNnf] :t/df g} a9fpg'k5{ . qmflGt ;lsP klg g]kfnL AofS6]l/onÚu'0f x'G5, h;n] 5fnfsf] Ogkm]S;gaf6 ;d]t arfpF5 .
of] kl/jt{gn] lgMz:q / ;z:q dfl/;s]sf] /fli6«o /fhgLltnfO{{ /fhgLltnfO{{ sdfpg] efF8f], Sofl/o/sf] /fhgLltsf cleoGtfx¿ gofF tl/sfsf] @= h'd|f dfg{
qmflGtsf] dd{nfO{{ cfTd;ft u/L g]kfnL Jofjxfl/s ¿kdf klg km8\sf] df/]sf] ¿kdf x]g{] unt k|jl[ Q 5, o;n] ubf{ af6f]df gnfuLsg\, xfd|f] /fhgLltn] ;lx 6fpsf]df h'd|f k/]/ lbSs x'g]nfO{{ t]hkQf j/bfg aGg ;S5 . kfgLdf
qmflGtnfO{{ k"0f{tf lbPsf] 5 . o;n] cg'el" t lbg ;lsPg eg] of] cj:yf g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] df}lnstfnfO{{ lg0ff{os ofqf lx+8g\ ] 5fF6 5}g . a]Odfg, t]hkQf /fv]/ w]/} a]/ pdfNg] . o;/L pdfn]sf] dgtftf] kfgLnfO{{ skfnsf]
/fi6« / ;]gf hgtfsf] xf] eGg] gofF ef]lnsf] :yfloTjnfO{{ g} vt/gfs x'g gsf/fTds ¿kdf k|efljt ul//x]sf] e|i6, t:s/ / dflkmof¿kL kmf]xf]/nfO{{ h/fdf nufpg] . tLg–rf/ 3G6f /fv]kl5 kfgLn] 6fpsf] kvfNg] u/]df h'df| sf]
;Gb] z lbPsf] 5 . /fli6« o ;S5 . k5fl8 kmsf{ p g vf] H g] 5 . ToxL+ eP/ /fhgLltdf ;sf/fTds kfvf gnufO{ xfd|f] /fhgLlts kf]v/L ;d:of x6\5 . ;fy} skfn lgs} rdsbf/;d]t aG5 .
/fhgLltnfO{{ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs k|ltlqmofTds dflg;nfO{{ kmfObf k'Ug / /rgfTds lrGtg xfjL ePsf gofF ;ª\lng] 5}g . Pp6f gofF ;sf/fTds / #= lgb|f /fd|f] nfU5
u0ftGqfTds ;dfhjfbsf] ljrf/n] hfG5 . oxfFsf /fhgLlts kl/jt{gsf dflg;x¿sf] h¿/L 5, h;n] /fi6«sf] /rgfTds /fli6«o cleofgsf nflu ;a} olb tkfO{+nfO{{ /ftdf lgb|f nfUb}g eg] ;'Tg'cl3 t]hkQf pdfn]sf] kfgL
:yfoL ¿kdf ;}4flGts[t u/]sf] 5 . cleoGtfx¿ k|ltufdL /fhgLltsf] cfTdfnfO{{ :ki6 uDeL/ lrGtg / cleoGtfx¿ hfuf},+ hgtf hufpg lkpFbf /fte/ lgb|f /fd|f] nfU5 .
s]xL hfltx¿df cfkm\gf c;Gt'li6 ;xof]uL x'g ;Sb}gg\ . ca k5fl8 df}lns Ifdtfaf6 pHofnf] af6f]lt/ tof/ eP/ cufl8 a9f}+ . of] afx]s $= gfsaf6 /ut aUg /f]S5
5g\ t/ tL ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg kms{g vf]Hg] x/]s ;DefjgfnfO{{ 8f]¥ofpg / nDsfpg ;s"g . gofF /fi6« agfpg vf]Hg]x¿sf nflu csf]{ udL{ df};ddf sltnfO{{ gfsaf6 /ut lgl:sg] ;d:of x'G5 . b'O–{ tLgj6f
;+ljwfg ;+zf]wgaf6 ug{ ;lsG5 . ;dfKt kf/]/ /fhgLltnfO{{ ;sf/fTds g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts cleofgn] g]kfnL af6f] 5}g . ta dfq JolQm, kf6L{ dfq t]hkQfnfO{{ kfgLdf /fd|f;] uF w]/} a]/ pdfNg] / lr;f] agfP/ lkpgfn] gfsaf6
/fi6«sf] /fhgLltnfO{{ :yfloTj / /rgfTds lbzfdf cl3 /fli6«otf / nf]stflGqs u0ftflGqs 7"nf] geO{ /fi6«, k4lt, /fhgLlts /ut aUg aGb x'G5 .
k|bfg ul/;s]kl5 Pp6f /fhgLlts a9fpg}kb{5, o;sf] ljsNk 5}g . qmflGtsf] dd{nfO{{ bx|f;] uF cfTd;ft :yfloTj, ;+ljwfg 7"nf] xf] eGg] ;lx %= ?3f–vf] s L 7Ls kf5{
kl/kSjtfsf] cfzf ul/G5, x/]s cfh cfly{ s ;d[ l 4sf] s' / f u/]sf TofuL, tk:jL / alnbfgL /fhgLlts ;+:sf/sf] ljsf; x'g5] . ta ?3f–vf]sL;lxt cGo s}of}F k|sf/sf Ogkm]S;gaf6 5'6sf/f kfpg t]hkQfn]
b]zsf] /fhgLltdf . cfh ToxL+ eP/ rf}tkmL{ cfO/x]sf] 5, s] cfly{s ;d[l4 dflg;sf] gofF k':tfnfO{{ a8f] gd|tfsf dfq ;d[4 g]kfnsf] af6f]df /fi6«n] e/k"/ d2t lbG5 . b'O–{ tLgj6f t]hkQf kfgLdf !) ldg]6;Dd pdfNg] /
gofF /fli6«o /fhgLlts :s"lnªsf] Pp6f kf6L{sf] klg Pp6f u'6sf] dfq ;fy ;d[4 g]kfnsf] lgdf{0fsf] nflu lg0ff{os 5nfª xfGg]5 eGg]df b'Od{ t To; kfgLdf s6gsf] sk8f lehfP/ lgrf]/]kl5 tfn'df /fVg] . o;f] ubf{
h¿/L eO;s]sf] 5 . Pp6f sdfl08Ë Psn cleofg x'g ;Sb5 < lxhf] lgdGq0ff u/]sf] 5 . qmflGtsfn cl3 x'g ;Sb}g . -dw]z bk{0f lkmr/ ;]jf_ ?3f–vf]sL / cGo Zjf;sf la/fdLnfO{{ cf/fd ldN5 .
6 @)&% ;fn r}t @$ ut] cfOtaf/

k| f /De
casf] k|n;
] ;d:of cfpg] u/] s f 5g\ . of] k|lt w|j' Lo wf/fsf] t'ngfdf u'0f tyf hg;f+ : s[ l ts cfGbf] n g Pp6f
c;n gful/s aGg] lj1fkg
tkfO{+nfO{{ c;n gful/s aGg dg 5 < –
5 eg] cfpFg;' –
an/fd ltdlN;gf
xfdL oltv]/ Pp6f sDo'lg:6 ljZjb[li6sf]0fsf] ;d:of xf] . o;y{ ;ª\Vof b'j} b[li6n] pRrtf xfl;n bL3{sfnLg df]rf{ ePsf]n] klg o;n]
kf6L{n] csf]{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dfly k|n];df ;j{k|yd ljZjb[li6sf]0fsf] ug]{ cleofgdf k|n]; ;dy{ aGb} gLlt / g]tT[ jsf] u'0fj]Qfsf] vf]hL ug'{ xfdL uhj c:ktfndf n}hfG5f}+ Û
k| l taGw nufO/x] s f] ;Gbe{ d f ;d:of xn ul/g'kb{5 . lgM;Gb]x cfPsf] kfOG5 . g]kfnsf] ;dsfnLg cGoyf x'Fb}g . of] s'/f …/fO6 Dofg, oxfF,
Zofdk|;fb zdf{x¿sf] ljz]if kxndf ¿kdf P]ltxfl;s tyf åGåfTds k| u ltzLn ;flxlTos cfGbf] n g /fO6 Kn];Ú l;t klg ;DalGwt 5 . afuL–ljb|f]xL ag]sf
@))( ;fndf jL/u~hdf :yfkgf ef}ltsjfb g} k|n;] sf] ljZjb[li6sf]0f …;flxlTos ;fdGtjfbÚ / …;flxlTos xfdLn] 7Ls dflg;nfO{{ 7Ls 7fpFdf k|Zg dfq ;f]w]/ x}/fg kfg]{
ePsf] g] k fnsf jfd–sDo' l g:6 xf] . ;ª\lIfKtdf o;nfO{{ dfS;{jfbL ;fd|fHojfbÚ ¿kL b'O{ sfnf kxf8l;t ;] 6 ug} { k b{ 5 . s} o f} F g] t fdf …xf], x'G5 x;Ú slxn} geGg]
kf6L{ ; Da4 k| u ltzLn n] v s– jf ef}ltsjfbL ljZjb[li6sf]0f klg h'lw/x]sf] 5 . c´ kl5Nnf] r/0fdf ;ª\ s L0f{ t fjfb / Jojxf/jfb …s] lsg s;/LÚ dfq eg]/ x}/fg kfg]{
;flxTosf/x¿sf] ;f´f df] r f{ eGg ;lsG5 . ljZjb[li6sf]0f eg]sf] /ftf] asf]{ cf]9]/ cfPsf] …;flxlTos b]vfkb{5 . cfGbf]ngdf ;ª\sL0f{tfjfb af6f] lj/fPsf gful/sx¿sf] pkrf/ ul/G5
k|ultzLn n]vs ;ª\3sf] !! cf}F s'g} klg n]vs jf ;flxTosf/n] s] ;fd|fHojfbÚ cToGt ljiffSt / 3fts / Jojxf/jfb b'j} 3fts x'G5g\ . oxfF,
/fli6« o ;Dd] n gsf] k" j { ; GWofdf n]Vg], lsg n]Vg], s]sf nflu n]Vg] ¿kdf JoSt eO/x]sf] 5 . o;nfO{{ pQ/–cfw'glstfjfb / 8]l/8fnfO{{
plePsf 5f}F . k|n]; cg]sg\ hl6n k|Zgsf] ;dli6 xf] . snf–;flxTo lg:t]h kfg]{ u/L xfdLn] ;ª\3if{sf >Lk] r agfP/ xfdLn] vf] h ] s f] k|wfgdGqLn] eGbf a9L k9\g]
;ª\3if{sf aLraf6 oxfF;Dd cfOk'us ] f] gofF–gofF df]8]nsf] ljsf; ug{ ;flxlTos–;f+:s[lts cfGbf]ng cl3 /fi6«kltn] eGbf /fd|f] ;f]Rg]
s'/fdf s'g} zª\sf 5}g . o;n] cfjZos 5 . k|lt/f]wL ;+:yfdf a;]/ a9\g ;St}g . pQ/–cfw'lgsjfb ;]gfn] eGbf ;Ldfgfsf] dfofF ug]{
:yfkgfsfnb]lv g} afXo / cfGtl/s k|lt/f]wsf] …k|Ú klg pRrf/0f ug{ d" n tM ;f+ : s[ l ts ;fd| f Hojfbsf] k|x/Ln] eGbf hLpm wgsf] Vofn ug]{
b'j} If]qdf ljleGg lrGtg / k|jl[ Qsf g;Sg] ;ª\u7gsf] s'g} cy{ x'bF g} . ;flxlTos l;4fGt xf] . 8]l/8f o;sf GofofwLz eGbf Gofok|]dL
lj?4 oyf;Sbf] ;ª\3if{ klg ub}{ wfl/nf], k|lt/f]wL / ;Qfsf] tfj]bf/L k|0f]tf / k|jStf x'g\ . o;n] pkef]Stf lzIfs eGbf lzlIft
cfPsf] s'/f ;xL xf] . s'g} a]nf o;sf] xf]Og, va/bf/L ug{ ;Sg] k|n]; ;+ : s[ l tsf] kIfkf] i f0f ub{ 5 . of] oL dflysf h'g ;'s} /f]u nfu]sf
g]t[ Tjdf /x]sf Psfw dflg; k|ltw|a' Lo cfhsf] cfjZostf xf] . casf] ax'njfb, zª\sfjfb / lg/fzfjfb / x/]s gful/ssf] pkrf/ x'G5 Û
lsQfdf pleg k'u]sf] oyfy{ klg k|n; ] n] of] cfjZostf ;Daf]wg ug{ lj36gjfbl;t klg ;DalGwt 5 . of]
xfdLl;t /x]s} 5 . k|n; ] df x'g] ;ª\3if{ ;Sg'kb{5 . k|n];nfO{{ j}rfl/sL, t ;fd|fHojfbsf] ;ª\s6 / ;d:ofsf]
d" n tM /fhtLlts–j} r fl/s, l;h{gfTds / ef}ltsL zlStsf ¿kdf zf:q xf] . ;fd|fHojfb k'FhLjfb, oxfF, /ftel/ ;kgf b]Vg]
;fª\u7flgs, cfGbf]ng–;ª\3if{, gLlt– gp7fO{ s g ;fdGtjfb / ;+zf]wgjfb, kmfl;jfb, ;fdflhs lbgel/ ;f]lr/xg]
g]t[Tj / l;h{gfdf cfwfl/t 5g\ .
v]d yklnof ;fdfHojfbsf lj?4 ;ª\3if{ ug{ kmfl;jfb, ;fDk|bflosjfb, wfld{s 3'; uGxfpFg] d'vd} gxfNg]
s}of}F ;LdfaLr hlGdPsf] k|n];n] hgtfsf nflu, kl/jt{gsf nflu, s7Lg x'G5 . ;Qf / zlStsf] cf8df k'g?Tyfgjfb cGt/3'lnt ¿kdf sldzg cdg ePsf
kl5Nnf] cj:yfdf cfOk'Ubf cfk"mnfO{{ ¿kfGt/0fsf nflu x'gk' b{5 eGg' klg ax' ¿ kLo aGb} cfPsf] If] q Lo /x]sf] 5 . wd{n] lj1fgsf] v08g ug{ rfs/L ;'Gbf lbSs dfGg]
k"jf]Q{ / s}of}F ;LdfnfO{{ ;Rofpg] k|oTg ToxL b[li6sf]0fsf] s'/f xf] . of] eg]sf] kmfl;jfb, /fli6«o ;fdflhs kmfl;jfb g;s]h:t} ;fdfHojfbsf k|jStfx¿n] bnfnL ;'Gbf emsf]{ dfGg]
gu/] s f] klg xf] O g . j:t' u t snf–;flxTosf] juL{otf / juL{o tyf ;f+:s[lts /fi6«jfbsf gfddf dfS;{jfbsf] v08g ug{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ . af6f] lj/fPsf ;j}sf] pkrf/ ul/G5 Û
kl/l:yltdf cfpg] km]/abn;Fu} s'g} kIfw/tf ljifo klg xf] . To;n} p7\ g vf] H b} u/] s f] ;f+ : s[ l ts ax'njfbLx¿ sDo'lg:6 xf]Ogg\ . oxfF,
klg ;ª\u7gdf gofF–gofF ;d:of casf] k|n; ] df ljZjb[li6sf]0f ;d:of kmfl;jfbsf lj?4 k|n; ] n] lg0ff{os ;flxTos, snf, ;+ : s[ l t /
l;h{gf x'g] s'/fdf klg xfdLnfO{{ s'g} ;dfwfg u/]/ hfg'kb{5 . /fhgLlts– ;ª\3if{ ug{ cfjZos 5 . k|n];n] ;f} G bo{ l rGtgsf] c;nL dfkb08
au{ au{ eGb} kmtkmtfpFg]
b'ljwf 5}g . k|n];sf] d"n p2]Zo j}rfl/s If]qdf casf] k|n; ] n] ug'k{ g]{ nf]s;+:s[ltsf] j}1flgsstfnfO{{ P]ltxfl;s tyf åGåfTds ef}ltsjfb larf/wf/f eGb} jj{/fpFg]
;fdGtjfb tyf ;fd|fHojfbsf] lj/f]w klxnf] sfd klg oxL xf] . ;d] 6 \ g ' k b{ 5 . n] v s–;flxTosf/ xf] . of] t hg;d'bfosf] ju{;ª\3if{sf dfs{\;jfb eGb} dl:sg]
/ /fli6«otf, hgtGq tyf j}1flgs @= ;fª\ 7 flgs k| Z g eg]sf ;flxlTos kN6gsf klg x'g\ . /fhgLlts tyf snfTds dfgs x'g\ . ;dfhjfb ;fDojfb o:t} o:t}
;flxTo–;+:s[ltsf] kIfdf n]vs– s' g } klg ljrf/nfO{ { ef} l ts logsf …/fhgLlts ;] g fkltÚ / of] s' / f gLlt / g] t [ T jl;t xfjf ukm u/]/ dfG5] efF8\g]
;flxTosf/x¿nfO{{ ;ª\ul7t ug'{, zlStsf] ¿kdf cleJoSt ug]{ ;fwg …j}rfl/s ;]gfkltÚ u/L b'O{ ¿k cGt;{ D alGwt 5 . To;} n ] gofF ;a} /f]uLx¿sf] pkrf/ ul/G5 .
k|ultzLn ;flxTosf] l;h{gf ug{' / eg]sf] ;ª\u7g xf] . k|n; ] k|ultzLn x'G5g\ . /fhgLlts ;]gfklt cGt{ut kl/l:yltdf gofF gLlt / g]tT[ jaf/] oxfF,
;f] p2]Zo k|flKtsf nflu ;ª\3if{/t n]vsx¿sf] Pp6f ;f´f j}rfl/s ;j{xf/fju{sf cu|b:tf kb{5 eg] ;':ki6 wf/0ff agfpg' k|n];sf] csf{ ;fdGtjfb eGbf d'G6f] a6fg]{
/xg' /lxcfPsf] kfOG5 . ;fy}, o:tf ;+:yf xf] . To;}n] of] ;f´f j}rfl/s j}rfl/s ;]gfkltcGtu{t dfn]dfjfb sfo{ef/ xf] . ;fd|fHojfb eGbf cfFvf tg]{
;ª\u7gdf cfpg] k|fljlws ;d:ofdf dfGotf / Pstf–cfnf]rgf–Pstfsf] kb{5 . cfhsf] dfn]dfjfb eg]sf] %= l;h{ g fsf] k| Z g
xfdL Tolt 6fpsf] b'vfpFb}gf}F t/ ljlwcg';f/ rNb} cfPsf] 5 . k|n]; cfhsf] dfS;{ j fb xf] . cfhsf] g]kfndf !@# efiffx¿ dft[efiffsf] ;+zf]wgjfb eGbf lkRr y'Sg]
gLltut s'/fdf eg] xfd|f] uDeL/ rf;f] ljleGg ljrf/, lrGtg, ?lr / z}nLsf] dfS;{ j fbnfO{ { kqm] / j} r fl/s ¿kdf af]lnG5 . ltgdf clwsf+z s}n] a}7s s}n] h'nz '
/xG5 . k|n; ] sf] hLjgdf hg;flxTo, ;f´f ;+ : yf x' g ' s f] gftfn] of] ;]gfkltsf ¿kdf k|n; ] n] :jfwLg ef/f]kn ] L tyf ltAatL efiff kl/jf/sf s}n] wgf{ s}n] uf]i7L eGg]
k|ultzLn, cfnf]rgfTds oyfy{jfb, ;f/;ª\u|xjfbLh:tf] klg nfUb5 . /fi6« tyf hgtfsf] kIfdf efiff /x]sf 5g\ . g]kfn ;fgf] b]z ;a} ;a} dgf]/f]uLx¿sf]
k|ultjfbL jf oyfy{jfbL jf dfS;{jfbL k/Gt', k|ultzLn ;flxTosf/x¿sf] e"d08nLs[t cfGbf]ngsf] ljsf; ug'{ eP klg eflifs ¿kdf ljljwtfo'St Uof/]G6Lsf ;fy pkrf/ ul/G5 Û
;flxTo–l;h{ g fsf aLr ¿k / ;f´f sfo{ef/x¿sf] ;+jxg / ;f´f csf]{ sfo{ef/ xf] . 5 . g]kfndf ;Dks{sf] efiff eg] g]kfnL
cGt/j:t' s f aLrdf, c´ a9L xslxtsf] /Iff ug{sf nflu k|n];n] $= gLlt–g] t [ T jsf] k| Z g g} /x]sf] 5 . oxfF g]kfnLafx]s d}lynL, ;Dks{M
hLjg–Jojxf/df ;ª\ u lt / ;Sbf] e"ldsf v]Nb} cfPsf] 5 . s]xL dflg;x¿ eG5g\— gLlt / ef] h k' / L, yf?, tfdfª, g] j f/L, dgf] lrlsT;f s]Gb|
c;ª\ultaLrdf cGt/lj/f]w b]vfkb}{ g]kfndf h]–h:tf] ;ª\u7gfTds g]tT[ j km/s–km/s xf] t/ of] laNs'n alHhsf, du/, 8f]6]nL, pb{', cjlw,
d'Vo sfof{no
cfPsf] 5 . snfsf] ¿k / cGt/j:t' ;+/rgfsf] k|of]u x'Fb} cfPsf] 5, ca unt s'/f xf] . gLlt / g]t[Tj lnDa', u'?ª, a}t8]nL, /fO{, c5fdL,
tyf stf{sf] hLjg–Jojxf/sf] ;'Gb/ To;nfO{{ k'g;+/{ rgf ug{ cfjZos 5 . kl/k" / s ljifo x' g \ . gLlt / afGtjf, /fhj+zL, z]kf{, lxGbL, rflDnª, w'Djf/fxL sf7df08'
;+of]hgaf6 dfq} To;sf] ;f}Gbof{Tds af]w /fhgLlts kf6L{bl] v ljleGg ;ª\3– g]tT[ jl;t l;ª\uf] sfo{lbzf hf]l8Psf] a´fªL, ;GyfnL, r]kfª, bg'jf/, ;xfos sfof{no
x'g] s'/fdf xfdLnfO{{ s'g} zª\sf 5}g . ;+:yfx¿ Pp6} ;+/rgfdf afFlwPsf x'G5 . gLlt / g]t[TjnfO{{ 5'6\ofP/ ;'g'jf/, duxL, p/fp cflb efiff k]l/;8fF8f sf7df08f} Û
!= /fhLlts–j} r fl/s k| Z g 5g\ . k/Dkl/t clwsf+z ;+/rgf a'‰gfn] cfGbf]ng sdhf]/ x'g] u/]sf] af] l nG5g\ . efiff cfGtl/s lrlsT;sx¿–
;dsfnLg g]kfn /fhgLlts el6{sn /x]sf 5g\ . of] el6{sn 5 . o;af/] dfcf]n] eGg'ePsf] 5, /fli6«otfl;t hf]l8Psf] ljifo klg xf] . 7§f lz/f]d0fL– >L >L >L !)* dxf/fh
¿kdf …;fdflhs kmfl;jfbÚ, cfly{s ;ª\ u 7gfTds ;+ / rgfsf] d" n æljrf/wf/fTds tyf /fhgLlts dfcf]n] eGg'ePh:t} efiffsf] ;DaGwdf Odf]zg lz/f]d0fL– >L >L >L !)* dxf/fh
¿kdf …bnfn k'FhLjfbÚ -lgudLo cGt/j:t' ;fdGtjfbL 5 lsgeg] sfo{ l bzf ;xL jf unt x' g ' n ] s'g} klg ?vsf] kft x]bf{ p:t} b]lvP dflysf s'g} klg nIf0f b]vfk/]sf
k'FhLjfb_ tyf ;f+:s[lts ¿kdf o;n] dflysf hlt ;a} cAan x'g\, ;a}yf]ssf] lgwf{/0f ub{5 . ha klg ltgsf kft leGgfleGg} x'G5 t/ g]kfnL gful/sx¿n]
…;fdfGtjfbÚ -cfGtl/s_ tyf tnsf hlt ;a} sdhf]/ cyf{t\ s]xL kf6L{sf] sfo{lbzf ;xL x'G5, Tof] a]nf klg o;n] ;d'Rrodf /fli6«otfsf] efj
…e"d08nLs[t ;f+:s[lts ;fd|fHojfbÚ xf]Ogg\ h:tf] u/L dgf]lj1fg ;Dk|i] f0f ;a} rLh k| f Kt x' G 5g\ , olb jxg ul//x] s f] x' G 5 . o;nfO{ {
l;wf ;Dks{ ug{' xf]nf
-afXo_ sf ¿kdf /x] s f] 5 . ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ca o;nfO{{ el6{sn cg'ofoLx¿ 5}gg\ eg] tL klg k|fKt dfS;{jfbL ljZjb[li6sf]0fsf] cfwf/df pkrf/ lgMz'Ns ul/g] 5
k|ultzLn n]vsx¿n] oL tLgj6} / xf]/fOh]G6n b'j} agfpg cfjZos x'g ;S5g\ . olb aGb'sx¿ 5}gg\ ;dfhzf:qLo JofVof ug{ cfjZos
ljifodf ;xL b[ l i6sf] 0 f agfpg 5 . cyf{t\ tn / dfly clg bfofF / eg] tL klg k|fKt x'g ;S5g\, olb x'G5 . cfh l;h{gf / ;+:s[ltdf xfjL gf]6M–
cfjZos 5 . of] If]qdf klg cfwf/ afofFsf] ;Gt'ng ePsf] ;ª\u7gfTds /fhgLlts ;Qf 5}g eg] Tof] klg ePsf] ahf/jfbn] cg]sg\ ;d:of k}bf ;fO8 Okm]S6 jf/]
/ pk/L;+/rgfn] 7"nf] cy{ /fVb5 . ;+/rgfn] dfq casf] gofF r'gf}tLsf] k|fKt x'g ;S5, olb o;sf] sfo{lbzf u/]sf] 5 . k|n]; l;h{gf / ;+:s[ltsf] 8fS6/ lhDd]jf/ x'g] 5}g Û
…/fhgLltnfO{{ zLiff{;gdf /fvÚ eGg] ;fdgf ug{ ;lsG5 . gofF – gofF unt 5 eg] ePsf klg ;a} If]qdf xfjL x'Fb} uPsf] ahf/Ls/0fsf
s'/fnfO{{ cfTd;ft ug]{b]lv lnP/ ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{ k' / fgf u'Db5g\ . sfo{lbzf eg]sf] hfnsf] lj?4 lgd{d ;ª\3if{ ug{ cfjZos 5 . d'vl/t ub}{ cfPsf] 5, of] ;sf/fTds sf/0faf6 cfPsf] eP klg k|n];n]
k|n; ] df l;h{gfTds l;4fGt / ljlwsf ;ª\u7gfTds ;+/rgf sfdfofjL x'g 8f]/L xf], ha of] tflgG5 k"/} hfn xfdLnfO{{ yfxf 5, k|n; ] s}of}F ;Ldf;lxt s'/f xf] . ;f´f df]rf{sf] ¿kdf o;af6 ljrlnt x'g ;Sb}g . b'lgofFdf
b[ l i6n] :jM:k" m t{ tyf k' F h LjfbL ;St}g . To;}n] gofF r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf v'Nb5 .Æ ;fdGtjfb, ;fd|fHojfb oxfF;Dd cfOk'u]sf] 5 . k|f/Dedf of] k|n;] nfO{{ j}1flgs / k|efjsf/L 9ª\un] k|Zg ug{ gkfOg] s'g} klg ;+:yfsf]
oyfy{ j fb, cfnf] r gfTds jf ug{ ;Sg] gofF ;ª\u7gfTds ;+/rgfsf] tyf ;a}vfn] kmfl;jfbsf lj?4 k|ultzLntf–k|ultjfb, oyfy{jfb– ljsl;t t'NofpFb} cufl8 a9fpg cg'dfg klg ug{ ;lsGg . k|n];
;dfhjfbL oyfy{jfbnfO{{ cª\uLsf/ lgdf{0f ug'{ casf] k|n];sf] csf]{ ;ª\3if{ ug]{ k|n];sf] cfwf/e"t gLlt ;dfhjfbL–oyfy{jfbaf/] :ki6 gb]lvP cfjZos 5 . jf:tljs cy{df k|ultsf] ;+jfxs
ug]{ ;flxTosf/x¿ ;lDdlnt 5g\ . sfo{ef/ xf] . xf] . o;} s f cfwf/df k| n ] ; n] klg, sltko cj:yfdf k|ultzLn / lgisif{ aGgsf nflu dfS;{jfbL ;f}Gbo{lrGtg
To;} u /L, k| n ] ; df kykbz{ s #= cfGbf] n g–;ª\ 3 if{ s f] k| Z g k| l tlqmofjfbL /fHo;Qfåf/f k|lt w|'jLo wf/faf/] s]xL e|ldt /x] !! cf}F /fli6«o ;Dd]ng glhlsFb} / ;dfhjfbL–oyfy{jfbsf] cfnf]sdf
l;4fGtsf b[li6n] dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb cfhsf] ;ª\3if{ jf cfGbf]ngsf hg;d' b fo tyf n] v s– klg, blIf0fkGyL ;+ z f] w gjfbsf ubf{ k|n;] ;DaGwL ljleGg dt klg ;a} k|ultzLn ;flxTosf/x¿nfO{{
jf dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb–dfcf]jfb jf ;a} cfofd e"d08nLs[t /x]sf 5g\ . snfsf/x¿dfly ul/g] ;a} lsl;dsf lj?4sf] ljrf/wf/fTds ;ª\3if{sf] ;fj{hlgs ePsf 5g\ . sltko dt ;d]6b\ } bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'hF Ljfb,
ljrf/wf/fnfO{{ kyk|bz{s l;4fGt ;fd|fHojfbLx¿n] h;/L e"d08nLs[t bdgsf] lj/f] w / cleJolSt If]qdf k|n; ] lzlynh:tf] b]lvP klg, t ;' l gof] l ht, cfoftLt / ;fdGtjfb / ;fd|fHojfb, lj:tf/jfb,
dfGg] jf s'gn } fO{{ klg gdfGg] n]vsx¿ ¿kdf cfO/x]sf 5g\, xfdLn] klg To;} :jtGqtfsf] kIfdf cfk"mnfO{{ pEofpFb} k|n;] df lqmofzLntfsf] sdL / ;':ttf 5\ofª\5\ofª\tL k|fof]lht b]lvG5 . gjpklgj]zjfbsf lj?4 ;ª\3if{ ub}{
klg /x]sf 5g\ . k|n];df /fli6«otf u/L cfGbf] n gdf klg hgkIfLo cfPsf] klg 5 . cg]sf}F uf]i7L, lj/f]w /x] klg ;f´f df]rf{sf] x}l;ot / k|n; ] Pp6f k'/fgf] ;flxlTos ;+:yf cufl8 a9\g cfjZos 5 . k|n];
tyf hgtGq, gofF hgjfb, gf}nf] e"d08nLs[t ug{ cfjZos 5 . x'g k|bz{g, k|sfzg / jStJo o;sf ;Ldfa4tfsf] sf/0f k|n];sf] lg/k]If ePsf] n ] o;dfly /fli6« o tyf oyfl:yltjfb / kZrudg
hgjfb, ax'bnLo hgjfb, ;dfhjfb, t b'Zdg cfˆgf] lsl;dn] n8\5, xfdL pbfx/0f x'g\ . s:tf] gLlt / s:tf] cfnf]rgf ug]{ l:ylt b]vfkb}{g . of] cGt/f{li6«o zlSts]Gb|sf] lu4]gh/ lrGtgaf6 d'St x'g cfjZos 5 .
j}1flgs ;dfhjfbnfO{{ :jLsfg]{ cfˆg} lsl;dn] nl8/x]sf x'G5f}F . s'g} g]tT[ j eGg] ljifon] cfGbf]ngsf] If]q s'/f l;h{gfsf] x/]s s'/fdf nfu" x'Fb} plxNo}b]lv nfu]sf] xf] . cGt/f{li6«o ;flxlTos ;+zf]wgjfbsf lj?4sf]
ljleGg sDo' l g:6 /fhgLlts klg /fk–tfk k}bf gug]{ l;h{gfsf] lgwf{/0f x'g] ub{5 . j}rfl/s tyf cfPsf] 5 . t/ klg o;n] ;du|df zlSts] G b| n ] g] k fnsf] sDo' l g:6 ;ª\3if{lagf k|ultzLn ;flxTosf]
bn;Da4 jf :jtGq n]vsx¿ cfa4 s'g} cy{ x'bF g} . xfdL o:tf] d[t snf– /fhgLlts k|;f/nfO{{ Jofks agfpg cfˆgf sfd–sf/afxLnfO{{ cfˆg} ult /fhgLltnfO{{ e'OFb]lv g} ;dfKt kfg]{ ljsf; ;Dej 5} g . cfpg' ; \ ,
5g\ . o;/L x]bf{ k|n];df ljrf/ / ;flxTosf] kIfdf 5} g f} F . klg gLlt / g]tT[ jsf] ljifo dxTjk"0f{ / nodf cufl8 a9fpFb} cfPsf] 5 . u'?of]hgfsf ;fy of]hgfa4 ¿kdf k|n;
] nfO{{ k|lt/f]wL ;flxlTos df]rf{sf]
ljZjb[li6sf]0fsf] If]qdf ljljwtf k|ultzLn÷dfS;{jfbL l;h{gfsf] If]qdf x'G5 . of] s'/f ¿kfGt/0fsf lbzfdf k| n ] ; n] /fli6« o tf, hgtGq / cfˆgf sfo{ g Llt–/0fgLltx¿nfO{ { ¿kdf c´ dfly p7fcf},F k|n; ] nfO{{
/x]sf] ;xh} b]Vg ;lsG5 . oxL ljzfn ;ª\Vofdf ;flxTosf ljleGg /x]sf ;xfouL kIfx¿nfO{{ ;d]6\g] hghLljsfsf] ;jfnnfO{ { cfˆgf b|'t¿kdf cufl8 a9fO/x]sf] s'/f bL3{sfnLg ;flxlTos ;+oS' t df]rf{sf]
ljljwtfsf sf/0f k|n];df j}rfl/s ljwf tyf ;flxTosf/sf] lgdf{0f / s' / fl;t klg ;DalGwt 5 . l;h{gfsf dfWodaf6 h] hlt ljifo ;':ki6 g} 5 . h'g;'s} lgot / ¿kdf ljsf; u/f}F .
@)&% ;fn r}t @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 7

hgqmflGtnfO{{ ;xL lbzf lbg' cfjZos


sfn{ dfS;{n] d'Vo s'/f abNg' xf] 9f]sfx¿ aGb u/]/ qmflGtsfl/ xf}+ eGbf o:n] k'Ug]jfnf g} 5}g . cjz/jfbLn] ug]{ eGg] ul/Psf] 5 .
Gofofnodf /fhgLlt Û
k|wfgGofofwLz /f0ffsf] cfnf]rgf
eg]sf] s'/fnfO{{ cfTd;ft gu/L s;n] kTofpnfg\ < kTofOxfn] klg ;'/lIft / ;Ddflgt hLjg hLpg ljKnjn] csf]{ gofF df]8n ] /f]hs
] f sf7df8f}F . lgo'Qm x'g] lalQs} Gofofnosf] e|i6frf/ lj?4 s8f¿kdf
sDo'lg:6 g} x'bF g} . sDo'lg:6 x'g / To:tf lar/faf6 s]xL g]tf t xf]nfg, kfpg] cj;/ /lx/x]sf] l:yltdf 5g\ . PsLs[t hgqmflGt elgPsf] plqPsf k|wfgGofofwLz rf]n]Gb|zdz]/ /f0ff /fhgLlts/0f /f]Sg c;kmn
kf6L{ lgdf{0f tyf ;~rfng ug{ s]xL ju{n] rflx+ s] kfpnfg\ < xfdL ju{kl| t qmflGtdf cjz/jfbL zf] r / o'4s} r/0fdf hgjfb x'bF } j}1flgs ePsf 5g\ . Gofo kl/ifb\n] GofofwLz lgo'lQmsf nflu u/]sf] kl5Nnf] l;kmfl/;
cfwf/e't lgodsf] cfjZostf k5{, slt Odfgbf/ eof}+ < o:tf k|Zg}kZ| gsf lrGtgx¿ ;Nanfpg yfN5g\ / ;Qfdf ;dfhjfbL qmflGt ug]{ gLltdf 5g\ . / lg0f{o ljjfbdf k/]kl5 k|wfgGofofwLz /f0ffsf] cfnf]rgf x'g\ yfn]sf] 5 .
h'g sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngdf vl8\sPsf efl/ af]s/] klg slx+ qmflGt x'G5 < c•f hdfpg] k|oTgdf /xG5g\ . of] bnfn tyf gf}s/zfxL b]zdf Go'gtd\ k|wfgGofofwLz rf]nG] b|zdz]/ /f0ffn] ;+;bLo ;'gj' fO ;ldltdf Gofofnoleqsf]
laifo x'g\ . ;j{xf/f b[li6sf]0f lgdf{0f :ki6 5, lautdf dfcf]jfbnfO{{ af/]df a]nd} f uDeL/ x'g' cfjZos 5 . nIo gofF hgjfb x'bF } lg/Gt/ qmflGt e|i6frf/ lj?4 s8f¿kdf k|:t't\ x'g] pb\3f]if u/]sf lyP . ;f]xL adf]lhd
ge} s g / ;j{ x f/f clwgfstf cfTd;ft ug{ / ju{kl| t Odfgbf/ x'g clxn] qmflGtsf # j6f ug]{ gLltdf klg ;fob sdL 5 eGg] unt cfr/0fdf ;+nUg s]xL GofofwLzx¿nfO{{ sf/afxLsf] bfo/df Nofpg
7fg]/ xf]nf pgn] klg Ps}k6s pgL ;kmn klg eP . t/, Gofofnosf] bnLos/0f jf /fhgLlts/0f /f]Sg]
ljgf]b bfxfn ;dfhjfbdf k'Ug] c? sDo'lg:6
kf6L{x¿n] eGg] u/]sf] ;dfhjfbdf
;jfndf eg] pgL r'ss ] f 5g\ . ;+;bLo ;'gj' fOsf qmddf /fhgLlts g]tT[ jaf6
pgn] …Pp6f uf}+8f t kf; x'g'eof] . cGo uf}+8f klg 5g\, ljrf/ u/]/ sfd
ug{x' f]nf ÛÚ eGg] wDsL jf r]tfjgL ;lxt k|wfgGofofwLzsf] …dfs{l;6Ú kfPsf
hgqmflGt ug]{ / hfg] s'/f NofPsf 5g\ . k[i7e"ld x]bf{
ls/0fsf] nfO{g;Fu dfq} cGt/;+3if{ lyP . kl5Nnf] ;dodf ;Qfdf h'g bn x'G5, p;n] GofofnonfO{{ cfˆgf]
lgoGq0fdf /fVg vf]h]sf] cf/f]k nfUb} cfPsf] 5 . Gofofnodf GofofwLzsf
o;sf] g]t[Tj ug]{ ub} { cfPsf] ljKnjsf] df] 8 ] n n]
cfk"mnfO{{ cEof;df nlu/x]sf] 5 . nflu ul/g] l;kmfl/; / k|wfgGofofwLz x'g]x¿sf] /f]nqmd x]bf{ of] cf/f]kdf
;Totf klg 5 . d+unaf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf nflu l;kmfl/; ePsf /
;jfn km/s laifo csf] { df] 8 ] n 5 bL3{ s flng
pRr cbfntdf lgo'Qm ePsf GofofwLzx¿sf] gfdnfO{{ lnP/ of]UoeGbf
hgo' 4 af6 gofF hgjfb x' F b }
x' g \ . /fhgLlts / kfl/jfl/s kx'r F ePsf JolQm 5flgPsf] eGb} lj/f]w ePsf] 5 .
;dfhjfbsf] ljsf; ub}{ hfg] . jl/i7 clwjQmfx¿sf] ts{ 5–…o:tf] lgo'lQmn] Gofofnosf] ul/df sfod
lautdf !) jif]{ hgo'4df d'Vo
/fHoJoj:yfdf g]t[Tjn] dfcf]jfbnfO{{ cfTd;ft ug]{
/xg ;Sb}g / o;n] Gofofnodf /fhgLlts/0f a9fpF5 .Ú GofofwLz lgo'lQmsf
nflu ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !%# df Gofo kl/ifb\sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . h;df
;jfndf sdhf]/L /Xof] . olb To;f]
kl/jt{gsf nflu ul/Psf] eP ljho cj;DefjL lyof]
Gofo kl/ifb\sf] cWoIfdf k|wfgGofofwLz /xg] Joj:yf 5 .
o;}u/L, ;b:ox¿df ;+3Lo sfg'gdGqL, ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf jl/i7td\
eGg] 5 . cGo g]t[Tjx¿ cfnf]rs
;z:q qmflGt ePsf aGg] u'0fsf e}lbPsf] eP klg g]tT[ jdf
GofofwLz /xG5g\ . k|wfgdGqL / g]kfn af/ P;f]l;P;gsf] l;kmfl/;df
/fi6«kltn] lgo'Qm u/]sf Ps / Ps hgf sfg'gljb\ tyf jl/i7 clwjQmf
Oltxf;sf k|To]s of] :t/sf] larng cfpFb}gYof] jf
;kfg{ ;lsg] :t/;Ddsf] x'GYof] eGg]
klg kl/ifßf ;b:o /xg] k|fjwfg 5 . of] ;+/rgf x]bf{ Gofo kl/ifßf /fhgLlts
lgo'lQm jf JolQmx¿sf] afx'Notf b]lvG5 . cem kl5Nnf] ;dodf /fhgLlts
36gfx¿df hgtfsf] ;xof]u k|fKt ePs} 5g\ . tL 5 . u}/ dfcf]jfbLnfO{{ sflvdf Rofk]/ efuaG8fdf hfg]x¿ k|wfgGofofwLz aGg] ;'lglZrttf;lxt hfg yfn]kl5
d'Vo g]t[Tjn] /flv/fVg ;Sg] kf6L{ Gofofnosf] g]t[Tj klg /fhgLlts k[i7e"ldsf JolQmsf] xftdf hfg] ePsf]
k|foM ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . s]xLdf g]t[Tj lbg tTsflng aGg' cToGt} sdhf]/L /x]sf] :ki6g} 5 . oxL ;d:ofsf sf/0f kl5Nnf] ;dodf Gofo kl/ifb\sf] ;+/rgf / GofofwLz
5 . cGt/;+3if{ ug]{ Ifdtf gePsf 5gf]6 k|0ffnLdf k|Zg p7\g yfn]sf] 5 . Gofo kl/ifb\sf] ;+/rgf /fhgLlts
g]t[Tj ;kmn ePsf lyPgg\ / s]xL ;+emf}tfdf uP/ cGo g]t[Tjx¿ s;/L Tolt 7"nf] efuaG8fdf k/]df GofofwLz lgo'lQm klg ;f]xLcg';f/ x'g] cf/f]k 5 . Gofo
lhDd]jf/Ldf k'Ug ;S]sf x'g\ eg]/ klg kl/ifßf Psdt ug{ ;a} ;b:on] vNtLaf6 …ln:6Ú lgsfNg] / efuaG8f
csf{ vfnsf p:t} zf;s pTkfbg ePsf lyP . ;f]Rg' kg]{ x'G5 . kf6L{ ;b:osf] of]Uotf ldnfP/ lg0f{o ug]{ u/]sf] Gofofnoleqs} JolQmx¿ atfpF5g\ . oxL sf/0f
/ hgjfbL s]lGb|s/0fsf] cefjdf d+unaf/sf] lgo'lQm / l;kmfl/;kl5 klg lj/f]w eO/x]sf] 5 . oL ;a} ljs[lt /
hgtfsf nflu tL ;a} a]sf/sfem}+ ePsf lyP . g]t[Tj s;/L ;j{ x f/f ju{ s f] cu| b :tf lj;+ult a'em]/ k|wfgGofofwLz ag]sf /f0ff o;nfO{{ /f]Sg eg] c;kmn ePsf
5g\ . csf]t{ km{ ;b}j Gofofnoleqsf] ljs[lt / lj;+ult lj?4sf] cfjfh
ug]{x¿ k|foM g} ckl/lrt em}+ nfUg] jf /fHon] u}/;j{xf/f ju{sf] sAhfdf kg{ k'Uof]
eg]/ uDeL/ aGg' kg]{ x'G5 . clxn] p7fpg] g]kfn af/ P;f]l;P;g klg o;nfO{{ /f]Sg c;kmn ePsf] 5 .
GofofwLz l;kmfl/zdf dGqLsL efGhLb] l v Gofo kl/ifb\ ;b:osf
glrg]sf JolQmx¿ lyP . kl/lrt g]t[Tjx¿ c;kmn k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qfdf g]tT[ j km]l/Psf]
a]nf / sDo'lg:6sf gfddf cg]sg HjfO{ + ; Dd M
Gofokl/ifb\n] ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf kfFr / pRr cbfntdf !* GofofwLz
x'g] t/ ckl/lrt g]t[Tjn] b]zd} a;]/ qmflGtnfO{{ e|dx¿ k}bf ePsf] a]nf bL3{sflng
l;kmfl/;df dGqLsL efGhLb]lv Gofo kl/ifb ;b:osf HjfOFnufot 7'nfa8fsf
hgo'4sf] ljsf; s;/L ug]{ eGg]
cufl8 a9fO/fVg ;kmn ePsf b]lvG5g\ . ToxL ljifodf gofF df]8n ] sf] ljsf;df s]xL
5f]/f5f]/L / ;fnf;fnLnfO{ GofofwLz lgo'lQmsf] l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] eGb}
Aofks la/f]w / l6sfl6Kk0fL ;'? ePsf] 5 . Tolt dfq xf]Og, l;kmfl/;df
JolQmTj tyf ;d'xx¿ nflu k/]sf
eP/ qmflGtsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ ;jfndf g]t[Tj s:tfn] 5g\ . dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngsf] k'gu{7g
k/]sf ljjflbt elgPsf GofofwLzsf] a]Grdf d'2f gx]g{ / a]Gr alxisf/ ug{
klg cfXjfg x'g yfn]sf] 5 . kl/ifb\sf] d+unaf/sf] lg0f{ocg';f/ ;jf]R{ rsf]
/ bL3{sflng hgo'4sf] ljsf;df
ul//x]sf 5g\ eGg] s'/fn] klg s'/fn] klg dxTj s]lb|t /x]/ gofF df]8n ] sf] ljsf; ug{
GofofwLzdf pRr cbfnt kf6gsf d'Vo GofofwLz k|sfzs'df/ 9'u+ fgf,
pRr cbfnt ;'v]{tsL d'Vo GofofwLz ;'idfntf dfy]df, jl/i7 clwjQmf
lqmofzLn /x]sf 5g\ . o;af/] cWoog,
/fVg] u/]sf] 5 . hgqmflGtsf] g]t[Tj lbg] ;jfndf cg';Gwfg ul/ ult lbg k|oTg
s'df/ /]UdL, k"j{ dxfGofoflwjQmf xl/k|;fb km'oF fn, clwjQmf 8f= dgf]hs'df/
zdf{ l;kmfl/; ePsf 5g\ .
o; laifonfO{{ klg Wofg lbg' h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 . ug{k' 5{ . km]l/ klg hgqmflGtnfO{{ ;lx
lbzflt/ df]8g' cfjZos 5 .
8f= zdf{ k"jk{ w| fgGofofwLz bfdf]b/ zdf{sf elth x'g\ . ;|ft] sf cg';f/
k|wfgGofofwLz rf]nG] b|zdz]/ /f0ffsf] c8fgdf zdf{ l;kmfl/;df k/]sf x'g\ .
g:jLsfl/Psf] cj:yfdf g} ;b:otf tTsflng g]t[Tjn] g;s]s} xf] . df]8n] x¿af/] ax; rNb}5 . ls/0fn] hgqmflGt ug]{ / o;sf] g]tT[ j ug]{ pRr cbfntdf l;kmfl/; !* hgfdWo] /]0f'sf ;fx k"jk{ w| fgGofofwLz
lbg dfS;{jfbn] lbG5 < sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ cfnf]rgflaxLg eQm / g]tT[ jdf k'Ug] ljsf; ug{ nfu]sf] df]8n] / bL3{sflng ;jfn km/s laifo x'g\ . /fHoJoj:yfdf /fds'df/k|;fb ;fxsL 5f]/L x'g\ . pRrd} GofofwLz l;kmfl/; gj/fh yklnof
eg]sf] ;j{xf/f cu|b:tfsf] lgoGq0fdf dxTjfsf+Iffn] g]tf tyf sfo{stf{nfO{{ hgo'4sf] ck"0f{ /x]sf s'/fx¿ ljsf; kl/jt{gsf nflu ;z:q qmflGt ePsf Gofokl/ifb\ ;b:o /fdk|;fb l;6f}nfsf HjfOF x'g\ . gLnd kf}8n ] pkk|wfgdGqL
/x]sf] ;Qf / ;]gf;lxtsf] ;+u7g xf] g/fd|/L ufFhs ] f] lyof] . cGweQm / ;Qf ub}{ hfg] df]8n] . oL # j6} df]8n
] af/] Oltxf;sf k|To]s 36gfx¿df hgtfsf] O{Zj/ kf]vn ]| sL efGhL x'g\ . ;jf]R{ rdf l;kmfl/; ePsf GofofwLz k|sfzs'df/
h'g hgjfbL s]lGb|otfsf] l;4fGt dxTjfsf+Iffn] dflg;nfO{{ slt;Dd ax; clxn] klg cfjZos 5 . ;xof]u k|fKt ePs} 5g\ . tL k|foM 9'u+ fgf / ;'idfntf dfy]dfnfO{ tTsfnsf nflu ;jf]R{ rd} sfhdf tf]lsPsf] 5 .
cg' ; f/ rN5 eg] / a' ‰ g' k5{ . lu/fpF5 eg] hgqmflGtdf g]tT[ j ug]{ e"ldsflt/ g} elgPsf] 5 ls qmflGtdf ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . s]xLdf g]tT[ j lbg pRr cbfnt kf]v/fsf d'Vo GofofwLz s'df/ r'8fnnfO{ pRr cbfnt
u}/;j{xf/f b:tfsf] x'n kf/]/ lg0f{o pQ/flwsf/L aGg] ;a} af6fx¿ aGb b]lvPsf s]xL uDeL/ s'/fx¿n] !) tTsflng g]tT[ j ;kmn ePsf lyPgg\ kf6g / lbkfonsf d'Vo GofofwLz o1k|;fb a:ofnnfO{ kf]v/fsf] d'Vo
lng] clwsf/ s;}nfO{{ 5}g . lautdf ubf]{ /x]5 . k|r08sf] g]tT[ jdf /x]sfx¿ jif{ rn]sf] dxfg\ hgo'4 ljhodf k'Ug / s]xL ;+emf}tfdf uP/ csf{ vfnsf GofofwLzdf l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 . pRr cbfntdf l;kmfl/; ePsf ^ hgf
s] b]lvof] eg] g To:tf g]tf / sfo{stf{ clxn] qmflGtsf nflu gfnfO{ s ;s] g . clxn] b' : dg ju{ s f] p:t} zf;s pTkfbg ePsf lyP . JolQmnfO{ d'2fsf ljifodf o;cl3 Gofo kl/ifb\n] :ki6Ls/0f ;f]ws ] f] lyof] .
/x] gt hgjfbL s]lGb|otfsf cfwf/df alg;s]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 . zlQm;Gt'ngdf s]xL km]/abn cfPsf] hgtfsf nflu tL ;a} a]sf/sfem}+ sf] – sf] k/] GofofwLz l;kmfl/;df <
g]tf tyf sfo{stf{ eP . of] ;ldIffsf] clxn]sf] ;dodf t dfn]dfjfbnfO{{ 5 . o;af/]df klg ;f]r/] lg0f{o lng' ePsf lyP . g]tT[ j ug]x{ ¿ k|foM g} pRr cbfntdf gfoa dxfGofoflwjQmf ls/0f kf}8n ] , ;jf]R{ rsf /lh:6«f/
kf6f]nfO{{ kG5fP/ s;}n] qmflGtnfO{{ cfTd;ft gu/L sDo'lg:6 x'g] s'/} kg]{ l:ylt 5 . ckl/lrt em} + nfUg] jf /fHon] dx]Gb|gfy pkfWofo, ;To lg¿k0f / d]nldnfk cfof]usf ;lrj /d]z
6'Ëf]df k'¥ofpg klg ;Sb}gg\ / /Iff x' F b } g . k' i ksdn / afa' / dx¿ cfˆg} k|lta4tfx¿df klg Wofg glrg]sf JolQmx¿ lyP . kl/lrt 9sfn, k'g/fj]bg cbfntsL k"j{ cltl/Qm GofofwLz lgnd kf}8]n, ;nf{xL
ug{ klg ;Sb}gg\ . dn]dfjfbL x'g g;Sg'sf] sf/0f klg glbP/ g]tT[ jk|lt g} k"0f{tM e/f];f g]t[Tjx¿ c;kmn x'g] t/ ckl/lrt lhNnf GofofwLz /fh]zs'df/ sfˆn], /f}tx6 lhNnf GofofwLz n]vgfy 9sfn
;Dk"0f{ ls;fg tyf dhb'/ Pstf oxL xf] . cem Tof] eGbf cl3 uPsf] /fVg] ls/0fsf] sdhf]/L kl5 clxn] g]tT[ jn] b]zd} a;]/ qmflGtnfO{{ cufl8 l;kmfl/;df k/]sf 5g\ . o:t} lrtjg lhNnf GofofwLz s'nk|;fb zdf{,
u/]/ qmflGt ;DkGg ug]{ / >dsf] ;Qf 5 ;do, hgo'4sf] :jfldTj lnG5' eGb} pgn] hglab|f]xdfkm{t\ gofF hgjfbL a9fO/fVg ;kmn ePsf b]lvG5g\ . eQmk'/ lhNnf GofofwLz dxDdb h'g]b cfhfb, nlntk'/ lhNnf GofofwLz
afnd'sG' b bjf8L / k;f{ lhNnf GofofwLz gfu]Gb|nfn s0f{ pRr cbfntsf]
cyf{ t >dlhjLsf] lgoGq0fdf Pp6f gofF z lQmsf gfddf qmflGtsf] af6f]df hfg] gLlt lnPsf] ToxL eP/ qmflGtsf] g]t[Tj ug]{
GofofwLzdf l;kmfl/; ePsf 5g\ . sfg'g Joj;foLaf6 pRr cbfntsf]
/fHo;Qf lgdf{0f ug]{ ;jfnnfO{{ la;h{gePsf] 5, csf]{ Pdfn]df lalng bfaL u/]sf 5g\ . lg/Gt/ qmflGtsf] ;jfndf g]tT[ j s:tfn] ul//x]sf 5g\ GofofwLz l;kmfl/; x'gd] f hutaxfb'/ yfkf, ;/nfs'df/L kf08], ljdnf ;'jb] L,
cfTd;ft gu/L sDo'lg:6 x'g} ;ls+bg} . ePsf] 5 . dfcf]jfbL dfq eGbf ck'u nflu Go'gtd\ jf ;Qfk|flKtsf] nIo eGg] s'/fn] klg s'/fn] klg dxTj /]0f'sf ;fx, 8fns'df/ v8\sf, pHjn z'Sn, gj/fh yklnof / c~h' pk|t] L
a'hj'{ f n'6sf] k|lt:kwf{df l6Sg g;s]/ x' g ] s' / f a' ‰ 5g\ sf] x L rflx+ . gofF hgjfb 5 . of] df] 8 ] n n] /fVg] u/]sf] 5 . hgqmflGtsf] g]t[Tj 5g\ . pk|t] LnfO{ cfufdL j}zfv # ut]bl] v nfu" x'g] u/L GofofwLz l;kmfl/;
c;Gt'i6 ag]sf / zf}lvg eL8x¿ dfcf] j fbLdWo] klg sf] x L rflx+ bL3{sflng hgo'4sf] af6f] 5f]8]sf] lbg] ;jfndf o; laifonfO{{ klg Wofg ul/Psf] 5 . pQm ldltaf6 pRr cbfnt lj/f6gu/sf GofofwLz pd]z/fh
hDdf kf/]/ qmflGt u5f}+}{ eGbf ju{ qmflGtsfl/ /] . sf]xLnfO{{ rflx+ dfcf]jfbn] 5 . hglab|f]xsf] gofF df]8]n ljsf; lbg' h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 . kf}8n ] cjsfz x'Fb} 5g\ . ;f]xL :yfgdf pk|]tLnfO{ l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] xf] .
b':dgn] dhf lng] sfo{sf] k'g/fa[lQ k'ug] /] . dfn]dfjfbnfO{{ cfTd;ft ug{
x'g] l;jfo s]xL x'g] 5}g . g;s]/ cfPsf o:tf larngx¿ x]bf{
cfˆgf bf]ifx¿ n'sfpg aflx/
b] v fpg] k| a [ l Qn] qmflGt x' G 5 <
aflx/af6 sf]xL jf s]xL cfP/ hgo'4
Wj:t kf/]sf x'g\ / < s–s:sf] s]–s]
l:ylt hl6n ag]sf] 5 eGg ;lsG5 .
clxn]sf s'g} klg gfddf ag]sf
kf6L{x¿nfO{{ hgtfn] jf ju{n] kTofPsf
5}g . juL{o w/ftndf 5}gg, aflxl/
t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+
sf/0fn] /IofTds l:yltdf k'us ] f 5f}+ klª\tLaf6 rrf{ kl/rrf{df /dfO/x]sf
eg]/ st} ;ldIff ul/Psf] 5 < o;sf] 5g\ . u2f/x¿nfO{{ ju{b:' dgn] ;Ddfg
cfjZostf 7fg]sf 5f}+ ls < km]l/ klg ug]{ / cjz/jfbLx¿n] k|zz + f ul//xg]
uNtL gbf]xf]l/g] l:ylt agfpg / k|a[lQsf] k'g/fa[lQ e}/x]sf] 5 .
lautaf6 kf7 l;Sg cfTd;ldIff /fodfemLx¿ b/af/sf] u]6df kfn] ag],
u/]sf] vf]O{ < cfnf]rs gaGg] / g;xg]
klg, cfnf]rgfsf] 9f]sf aGb ug],{ u}/
e08f/L, dgdf]xg, x'bF } afa'/fd–k|r08
;+;bsf kfn] eP . kl5Nnf lbgdf
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8
kf6L{sfnfO{{ clwsf/ 5}g eGg] / c? gxf]nfg\ eGgsf] nflu jlnbfgLk"0f{ kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
;'l4s/0f tyf ¿kfGt/0fsf ;a} ;+3if{ g} lasNk xf] eGb} cfOPsf] 5 .
8 @)&%
sf= lh=;fn
k|= r}
sf=t b=
@$g+=ut]!^#÷@)^#÷^$
cfOtaf/
ljKnjåf/f===== Pg;]nsf]===== xf] eGg] s'/f hgtfn] a'lem;s]sf]
pgsf] egfO{ 5 . pgn] sDo'lgi6
k| s f08, s+ r g;lxt ;a} g] t f
sfo{stf{nfO{ cfhLjg h]ndf xfNg] g]skfåf/f sfnf] em08f / Jofg/ k|bz{g
leif0f cfFwL x'/Laf6 b'Mvt 38Ldf klg pQm cleofgnfO{ { ;dy{ g
d[tssf kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt, 3fOt]x?sf]
zL3| :jf:Yo pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ug{s ' f
hgfPsL 5g\ . pgn] g]tf sfsL{sf]
:6f6;nfO{ { ;fef/ u/] / cfˆgf]
;/sf/sf] gfddf cf]nL ;/sf/n]
;j{;fwf/0f hgtfdfly s/sf] ef/L
af]sfP/ /fHoJoj:yfsf] k|i6 klxrfg
wDsL lbPsf] lyof] . k|ltpQ/df r}q
dlxgf leq k|ltaGwsf] lg0f{o lkmtf{
geP ;/sf/L sfo{qmd dfly k|ltaGw
cfh b]zJofkL hgk|bz{g / hg;ef
;fy} 3/af/ljxLgx?sf] Joj:yfkgsf] km]za'sdf /fv]ls 5g\ . ljleGg sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] z'qmaf/ / zlgaf/ b]ze/ sfnf]
dfu klg ul/Psf] 5 . ;DalGwt u/fPsf] bfjL u/] . pgn] eg] …jt{dfg nufOg] ljKnjsf] r]tfjgL 5 . r}q em08f k|bz{g u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] k|ltaGwsf] afah't g]skfn] ;a} :yfgLo
snfsf/, ;fdflhs cleoGtf tyf ;/sf/n] cfk"mnfO{{ sDo'lg:6 ;/sf/ dlxgfsf *–!) lbg dfq afFsL 5g\ .
If]qsf] kf6L{ k+lQmnfO{ ;a} If]qaf6 ;j{ ; fwf/0f hgtfn] ;d] t of] txdf sfnf]em08f k|bz{g u/]sf] xf] . kf6L{sf] k"j{ 3f]lift sfo{qmd cg';f/ cf–
;xof]u ug{ lgb]{zg klg u/]sf] 5 . eG5 t/ sDo'lg:6n] ug]{ ;fdfGo sfd ;/sf/n] Ps kIfLo ?kdf bdg /
cfˆgf] cg's'ntfdf b]ze/ g]skfsf g]tf sfo{stf{n] sfnf] em08f k|bz{g ub}{
cleofgnfO{ { ;fy lbPsf 5g\ . klg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g, ;f/df of] w/ks8nfO{ a9fPsf] 5 . b]]z}el/
g]kfn===== hg:t/df Pg;]nn] c;fWo} n'6 bnfnx¿sf] ;Qf xf], hgtfsf] xf]Og .Ú g]tf, sfo{stf{sf] lu/km\tf/L a9]sf]
laleGg :yfgdf sfnf] 6fFu]sf 5g\ . o;}qmddf g]skf s}nfnLn] wgu9L
kljq O/fbf aª\ofP/ a'‰g] klg dRrfO/x]sf] u'gf;f] /xFb} cfPsf] 5 . pkdxfgu/kflnsfsf] df]ltrf]s / a'4 rf]s, km'naf/Ldf sfnf] emG8f /
pgn] b] z df xTof, lx+ ; f / 5 . ca s] x'g] xf]nf eGg] k|Zg ;a}sf]
Jofg/ 6f;]sf] 5 . lhNnfsf] To]s gu/kflnsf / ufpFkflnsfdf em08f k|bz{g
ul/G5 . Pokf]{6{df dhb'/sf] ;fdfg dxFuf] ;]jfk|bfo / cfly{s Pjd\ ;fdflhs ck/fwsf 36gfx¿ a9\b} dgdf plAhPsf] 5 . olb ;/sf/
vf]l;Fbf d af]n], ljKnj dflysf] gLltut e|i6frf/ u/]sfn] pQm u/]sf] ;f] kf6L{n] hgfPsf] 5 . kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{stf{sf] lu/ˆtf/ / kf6L{dfly
uPsf] ePklg To;df ;+nUgx¿nfO{{ k5fl8 x6]g eg] casf] o'4 s:tf] nufO{Psf] k|ltaGwsf] la/f]wdf g]skfsf dxf;lrj ljKnjn] r}t !! ut]
k|ltaGwsf] la/f]w u/]s} xf], Pg;]nn] ;+:yfdfly sf/afxL ug{k' 5{ eGg] w]/} lgoGq0f ug{ g;Sg' cfZrfo{hg ePsf] xf]nf jf cfufdL åGåsf] k|sl[ t s:tf]
glt/]sf] &@ ca{ cfd g]kfnLsf] k};f g} u'gf;f] / ;'emfjsf cfwf/df g]kfn la1KtL lgsfn]/ g]kfn aGb ;lxt @$ ut] ;Ddsf] r/0fa4 ;+3if{sf sfo{qmd
atfP . pgn] d'n'sdf e}/x]sf 7"nf xf]nf eGg] cfdlh1f;f 5 . ;/sf/sf]
3f]if0ff u/]sf lyP .
xf] / c;'n ug{'k5{ eGg] xf] g} . sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] ljleGg ;dodf 7"nf e|i6frf/, t:s/L . bnfnL, of] lg0f{o slt ck :l/kSj 5 eGg]
klqsf / ;~rf/dfWod x]g{';\, d Pg;]ndfly sf/jfxL ub}{ cfPsf] g]skfn] r}t !^ ut] cfXjfg ul/Psf] g]kfn aGb eg] g]kfn af/ P;f]l;P;g
dfkmLofs/0f h:tf 36gfsf s'/f lgDg tYon] k'i6L ub{5 . klxnf]
/ P;O{O{ kl/Iff k/]kl5 af/sf] cfu|xsf sf/0f :ylut u/]sf] lyof] . 3f]lift
dfqf xf]Og Gofosf] kIfdf xhf/f} dfG5] atfPsf] 5 . Pg;]nnfO{{ dfq xf]Og, bf]ifLx¿nfO{{ /fHon] g} ;+/If0f u/]sf] s'/f ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6
5g\ . t/ d]/f] gfdaf6 ;dfrf/ p;sf] ;+ / If0f ug] { / ;fF 7 ufF 7 sfo{qmdcg';f/ z'qmaf/ / zlgaf/ sfnf] em08f k|bz{g / @$ ut] b]zJofkL
v'nf;f u/] . pgn] jt{dfg ;/sf/ kf6L{n] ;z:q ;+3if{ z'? u/]sf} 5}g .
hgk|bz{g / hg;efsf] cfof]hgf ug]{ /x]sf] 5 .
lasfpg] gfddf d]/f] /fhgLlts ug]x{ ¿nfO{{ ;d]t sf/jfxL ug]{ g]skfn] hg3ft, /fi6«3ft x'Fb} kmfl;jfbtkm{ p;n] sxL+ xltof/ af]s/] lx+8s] f] 5}g .
;ª\ n Ugtf, cf:yf, ;xof] u / atfpb} cfPsf] 5 . pGd'v /x]sf] lhls/ u/] . pgn] cf]nL ljKnjsf] xltof/af6 sxL+ sf]xL d/]sf] j6f kl/of]hgfdf 5nkmnsf nflu k]; h:tf];s
' } ck/fw ug{ klg kl5 gx6\g]
;dy{gsf] km};nf ug]{ tkfO{n + fO{{ 5'6 Pg;] n sf] a| D xn' 6 g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ d'n'sdf cem} rf/ jf dfl/Psf] ;dfrf/ cfPsf] 5}g . u/] klg !& j6fdf dfq k|ltj4tf ck/fwLx? x'g . To;sf/0f pgLx?sf]
5}g . d]/f] kf6L{, d]/f ;xsdL{, d]/f] g] k fn 6] l nsd / Pg;] n sf jif{;Dd /x]df b]z ljs/fn l:yltdf ;fdfGo s's/ ad, l;ln08/ ad, cfPsf] elgPsf] 5 / To;df klg ;QfnfO{ kmfNg'sf] ljsNk 5}g .
c8fg / dt af/] ;:tf] / cfwf/lxg 6\ofl/km /]6nfO{{ cWoog ug]{ xf] eg] k'Ug] 7f]sj' f ub}{ b]znfO{{ hf]ufpgsf ;s]6 ad dfq e]l6Psf ;dfrf/ k'/fg} kl/of]hgfdf gofF k|ltj4tfx? hgtfn] ljb|fx] ug's
{ f] ljsNk 5}g .
n]vg gug{x' f];\ . df]afOn ;]jf jf 8f6f ;]jf b'jd } f nflu cfd gful/sx¿ jt{ d fg cfPsf 5g\ . ctM cg' d fgsf cfPsf] elgPsf] 5 . ljb]zL nufgL
laKnj dflysf] k| l taGwsf] nueu # u'gf km/s k/]sf] b]lvG5 . Joj:yfsf] ljsNksf nflu ;8s cfwf/df xltof/ a'emfpg] clN6d]6d b]z / hgtfsf] lxtdf x'G5 of x'Fb}g hf]sf]xLnfO{=====
cfnf]rgf ubf{ dfwj g]kfn kljq clg g]kfn 6]lnsd 6' g]kfn 6]lnsd / ;+3if{df h'6\g'kg]{ atfP . lbg' ;/sf/sf] u}/lhDd]jf/Lkg afx]s Tof] ;/sf/sf] dgzfodf e/ kb{5 . clwsf/ u[xdGqLnfO{ s;n] lbof] <
d rfxLF kf6L{ kl/jt{g u/]sf] b]lvg] < cGodf k|ltsn s]jn ?= ! dfq k5{ . pgn] d'n'sdf ;/sf/n] u/]sf] s]xL 5}g . b]znfO{ sËfn agfP/ hgtfnfO{ eg]sf 5g\ . cfrfo{n] u[xsf] lgb]z { g
8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{n] ToxL s'/f eGbf b]zleq s'g} klg :yfgdf o;df /f]ldª /fi6«3ftL sbdsf] ;+;bLo k|ltkIfL uf] o jN; z} n Lsf] k| r f/ ljb]zL C0fdf 8'afP/ cfkm' df]6fpg] ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] cfb]zsf] ljkl/t
pgL gofF zlQmsf x'g] d rfxLF /fk|kf 5} g . t/ Pg;] n af6 Pg;] g sf] bn g]kfnL sf+u; ]| n] l7s ¿kdf lj/f]w ;/sf/n] k| f of] l ht em' 6 f g]tfx?af6 hgtfn] cfz ug]{ 7fpF /x]sf] ;d]t ts{ u/]sf 5g\ .
gx'g] < of] ;]lS;i6 xf] jf ljKnjdfly k|ltsn ?= !+(( 5 . cem Pg;]naf6 ug{ g;s]sf] eGb} To;sf] ljsNksf ;dfrf/x? ;Dk|]if0f u/]/ hgtfdf ;dfKt ePsf] 5 . otf, /fli6«o hgdf]rf{sf cWoIf
tkfO{x+ ¿sf] k'jf{ux| <Æ cGodf Psbd} km/s 5 . Pg;]n 6' nflu qmflGtsf/L, kl/jt{sfg/L / cfd e|d ;[hgf ug{ vf]Hb} 5 . klxnf] xfjfx' / L cft+ s df ;/sf/sf] Pjd\ k"j{pkk|wfgdGqL lrqaxfb'/
g]skfdflysf]===== Pg6L;Ldf ?= @=%# nfU5 . o"6LPndf b]zeQm gful/sx¿nfO{{ ;8sdf plqg em'6f] ;dfrf/–ljKnjn] s]lk cf]nL / e" l dsf s];Ln] ;+;bdf k|:t't gful/stf
ePsf] atfP . clxn] b]z laleGg ?=@=*# nfU5 . ;fy} Pg;]ndf k|To]s cfXjfg u/] . k|r08sf] xTof ug]{ of]hgf agfOPsf] oxL r}q !& ut] ;fFem rn]sf] ljw]os tTsfn vf/]h gu/] /fli6«otf
sf08}–sf08sf] sfnf] bfu af]s]/ lhNnf / c~rndf /f]ldª nufOPsf] pgn] hgtfsf] d'2f lnP/ cl3 8fo/L e]l6of] eGg] lyof] . :jod\ xfjf, x'/L / cfFwLsf sf/0f sl/a #) g} vt/fdf kg]{ 7f]s'jf u/]sf 5g .
afFlr/x]sf] pgsf] egfO{ 5 . ;/sf/n] 5 . Pg6L;Laf6 Pg;]n jf Pg;]naf6 a9]sf /fhgLlts bnx¿dfly /fHon] k|r08n] Tof] em'6sf] v'a} k|rf/ u/] . hgfsf] d[To' / %)) hgf 3fOt] ePsf z'qmaf/ sf7df8f}Fdf cfof]lht Ps
Gofosf] gfddf hgtfnfO{ { Pg6L;Ldf qmdzM ! s/f]8 #$ nfv ck/flws ;d"x;Fu ug]{ Jojxf/ u/]sf] of] if8\oGqk"0f{, lgof]lht / e|dk"0f{ 5g\ . 7"nf] hgwgsf] Iflt ePsf] 5 . ;fIffTsf/df af]Nb} cWoIf s];Ln]
cfZjf;gafx]s c? s'g} Uof/]G6L ^@ xhf/ ()& / ! s/f]8 #$ nfv / bndfly k|ltaGw;Dd nufpg uf]ojN; z}nLsf] k|rf/ lyof] . kl5 xhf/f}+ hgtfx? 3/af/laxLg ePsf ;bgdf k|:t't pQm ljw]os tTsfn
gu/]sf] eGb} pgn] lgd{nf kGtsf] #$ xhf/ #! hgf u|fxsx¿n] sDtLdf tlNng ePsf] eGb} To;nfO{ { pgLx?n] k|rf/ u/]sf 5g\ –ljKnj / 5g\ / ;8sdf jf rf}/ jf v]tdf vf/]h gu/] g]kfnsf] cl:tTj g}
xTof/f ;dfTg ;/sf/ lsg c;kmn lbgdf % k6s dfq kmf]g u/] eg] nf]stGqdflysf] xdnfsf ¿kdf JoVof k|sf08aLr cGt/lj/f]w af]nrfn af; a:g afWo ePsf 5g\ . ;dfKt x'g] vt/f cf}+NofP . pgn]
eof] eGb} cfqmf] ; kf] v ] . ;Ls] klg Pg6L;Lsf] 6\ o fl/km /] 6 sf] u/] . pgn] b]hdf] hgtfsf] ;+3if{ aGb, k| s f08 / ;' b z{ g aLr ;/sf/nfO{ klg of] /ldtf h:tf] eg], …gful/stf ljw]os ;bgdf
/fptnfO{{ ;/sf/n] c+ufnf] xfn]/ t'ngfdf Pg;]nn] @ s/f]8 a9L p7fg ug]{ ;+oQ ' m df]rf{sf ¿kdf cl3 cGt/lj/f]w jf df/fdf/ clg kl5Nnf] ag]sf] 5 . /fxt tyf p2f/ ug'{eGbf 5nkmns} qmddf 5, t/
b]zdf lav08gsf/L tGqsf] pbo sdfpF5 . o;nfO{{ a|Xdn'6 geg]/ s] a9]sf] eGb} To;df ;a} b]zeQm, ;do olt;Dd em'6f] k|rf/ ub}{ 5g\ klg kmf]6f] lvrfpg / x]lnsK6/af6 dlGqkl/ifbsf] a}7sn] b]z}el/sf
u/]sf] klg pgn] cf/f]k nufP . eGg] < kl/jt{gsf/L gful/sx¿nfO{{ hf]l8g ls æk|sf08 ;Qf?9 g]skfdf k|jz ] zo/ ub}d{ f Jo:t 5g\ . ;fdfGo kfn, lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nonfO{ c+uLs[t
g]kfn ljBfyL{ o'lgogsf cWoIf To:t} Pg;]nn] Kofs]hsf gfddf cfu|x ub}{ sf7df8f}F olx r}t @$ ub}{Æ eGg];Dd . olt;Dd tNnf] vfBfGg, kfgL, cf}ifwL / sk8f klg gful/ssf ;GtfgnfO{ j+ z hsf]
k|lj0f ld>n] ;/sf/sf] k|j[lQ b]v]/ emg} a|Xdn'6 u/]sf] 5 . p;n] ut] hgcfGbf]ng lbj;sf] lbg eJo bhf{sf s'k|rf/ ug{sf nflu ;/sf/ pknAw u/fpg g;Sg] ;/sf/n] cfwf/df gful/stf lbg ;s{n ' / hf/L
cfkm'x¿n] sfnf] Aofg/df sfo{qmdsf] Pslbg] , ;ftlbg] / Psdlxg] - ¿kdf df]rf{sf] pb\3f6g x'g] / @^ / To;sf g]tfx?n] k};f nufgL u/]sf] ;d[l4sf efif0f ug'{ nHhf:kb x'G5 . u/]sf] 5 . of] cToGt} ulDe/ / unt
cfof] h gf u/] s f] hgfP . clxn] tL;lbg]_ Kofs]h NofPsf] 5 . Pslbg] ut] ;lsg] hfgsf/L lbP . ;"rgfx? klg aflx/ cfpFb} 5g\ . /fxtsf] ljt/0fdf klg 7"nf] cGofo, s'/f xf] . tTsfn vf/]h ug{'k5{ .Ú
lzIffdf Jofkf/Ls/0f / lghLs/0f Kofs]hnfO{{ @$ 3G6fleq ;Sg'k5{ . df]rf{sf] klxnf] /fli6«o ;Dd]ngsf] cfkm\ g } cbfntsf] ckx] n gf / lje]b / c;dfgtf ePsf] Jofks ;+;baf6 ljw]os kfl/t x'g afFsL
JofKt /x]sf] atfpb} pgn] d]l8sn cGoyf sf] N ofK; x' G 5 . oL pb\3f6g sf7df8f}sf] k|bz{gL dfu{df lt:sf/ u'gf;f] cfPsf] 5 . xhf/f}+ hgtfx? /x]sf] cj:yfdf ;/sf/n] o;/L
lzIffsf] gfddf ;/sf/n] k} ; f Kofs]hx¿nfO{{ j}slNks k|of]unfO{{ k"0f{ ug]{ tof/L /x]sf] 5 . ;Dd]ngsf] ;/sf/n] ljKnj g] t [ T jsf] v'Nnf cfsfzd'lg a:g' / ;'Tg' kg],{ …;s{'n/Ú hf/L ug{' cToGt} uDeL/
sdfO{/x]sf] cf/f]k nufP . gful/ssf] ¿kdf aGb]h ul/Psf] 5 . km];a's pb\ 3 f6g g] s kf qmflGtsf/L g]skfsf :yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o ;'bz{g, nfdv'§s ] f] laulauLsf] lzsf/ x'g' kg],{ /x]sf] atfpFb} pgn] o;df cfˆgf]
jfs :jtGqtfdf /f]s nufPsf] eGb} eP EjfO; sn x'bF g} . P;PdP; eP dfcf]jfbLsf dxf;lrj df]xg j}B kf]ln6Ao"/f] ;b:o hLjGt, s]lGb|o ef]s ltvf{af6 Jou| x'gk' g]{ ;d:ofaf6 kf6L{sf] cfklQ /x]sf] atfP . pgn]
pgn] ;Qfsf] b'¿kof]udf gnfUg csf]{ x'bF g} . o;sf/0f u|fxssf] Kofs]h …ls/0fÚn] ug]{ atfOPsf] 5 . ;b:o k|Hjng, aGw'nufot ;of}+ g]tf hgtfx? u'lh|Psf 5g\ . s] ;/sf/n] pQm ljw]osn] g]kfndf hlGdPsf
;sf/nfO{{ r]tfjgL lbP . vl/bsf] k"0f{ /sd vr{ x'bF g} . To;n] r}q===== sfo{stf{x?nfO{ lu/km\tf/ u/L ljleGg /fxtsf Go'gtd ;fdu|L ljt/0f ug]{ af:tljs gful/sx?nfO{ gful/stf
/fi6«jfbL ljBfyL{ ;+3sf cWoIf ubf{ u|fxssf] 7"nf] /sd Pg;]nn] k| x f/ u/] s f] 5 . bf] > f] s' / f, em'6f d'2fx? nufPsf] 5 . t/, tkm{ uDeL/tf b]vfPsf] 5 t < lbgaf6 al~rt u/fOg] / ljb]zaf6
tf/fk|;fb cof{nn] ;/sf/sf sf/0f n'6\g] u/]sf] 5 . 8f6f rnfpFbf / k|ltaGwsf] lg0f{on] /fhgLlts ?kdf pgLx?s} ;jf]R{ r cbfntaf6 ;/sf/L g]tfx?n] cfkm\gf] / kl/jf/sf] cf}ifwL cfPsfx?nfO{ gful/stf lbg] af6f]
gful/ssf] lbgrof{ tx;gx; ePsf] eGb} Kofs]h sf]NofK;af6 Ps lbgdf !) ;/sf/nfO{ ljb]zL x:tIf]k, if8\oGq cf/f]kx? k'i6L x'g g;sL lbOPsf pkrf/sf] gfddf s/f]8f}, c/af}+ vr{ vf]lnlbPsf] cf/f]k nufP . g]skfsf
cfqmf]; kf]v] . clxn] nfvf}+ o'jfx¿ ljb]z s/f]8a/fa/df n'6 u/]sf] 5 . o;/L / pS;fx6sf] 3]/faGbLdf kf¥of] / l/xfO{sf cfb]znfO{ ;/sf/n] lt:sf/ ug{ ;S5g\ t/ hgtfsf] of] ljklQdf cWoIfåo s] k L zdf{ cf] n L /
knfO{g ePsf] atfpFb} pgn] :jb]zd} Ps lbgdf @) s/f]8a/fa/sf] n'6nfO{{ pk|ltsf] ;dy{g / lj/f]wdf klg u/L k' g M cbfntsf] u] 6 af6} ;xof]u ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . af/f / k;f{n] k'iksdn bfxfn …k|r08Ú n] xfn}
s]xL ug{ ldNg] vfnsf] lzIff ljsf;df oxfFsf /fHo ;~rfnsn] n'sfOlbPsf abnfj cfof] . lu/km\tf/ ug]{ k'/fg} tl/sfnfO{ a9fjf ;/sf/sf] cg'e"lt ug{ kfPg . lxhf] t/fO{df k'u]/ gful/stf ljw]osaf/]
;/sf/ nfUg'kg]{ Wofgsfif{0f u/fP . 5g\ . log} sf/0fn] ubf{ Pg;]nn] dxFuf] k| l taGw hgtfaf6 c:jLs[ t lbPsf] 5 . h;n] cfkm\gf} Gofofnosf] e"sDksf] /fxt ljt/0f u/]/ cem} unt l6Kk0fL u/]sf] eGb} pgn] cfklQ
To:t} sfo{qmddf af]Nb} /fli6«o dfq geP/ a|Xdn'6 klg dRrfPsf] ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 cfb]znfO{ t u|x0f ug{ ;Sb}g, p;n] ;lsPsf] 5}g eg] of] t ev{/sf] tfhf hgfP . pgn] eg], …o:tf] vfnsf]
ljBfyL{ ;+3sf dxf;lrj /l~ht 5 . o;/L a|Xdn'6 u/]sf] cs't k'h F L kf6L{ d fly nufO{ P sf] ;/sf/L sfg"gL /fHo / nf]stGqsf ukm lbg' 36gf g eof] Û zfob k|wfgdGqL eGbf ljw]os kfl/t eof] eg] xfdL d"n
lgikIfn] af/f, k;f{nufotsf lhNnfdf ljb]zL sDkgLn] g]kfnaf6 lnP/ ljb]z k|ltaGwnfO{ cfd hgtfn] c:jLs[t xf:of:kb 5 . cbfnt / x'g –æTof] xfjfx'/L ;/sf/n] NofPsf] g]kfnLx? cNkdtdf k5f}+{ / ljb]zaf6
xfn} ePsf] xfjfx'/Lh:tf k|fs[lt k' U 5 . g] k fn ;/sf/, ul/lbP jf vf/]h ul/lbP . k|ltaGw ;/sf/aLrsf] of] cGt/lj/f] w n] xf] / <Æ ljklQdf Hofg u'dfpg]x?k|lt cfPsf cfuGt'sx? ax'dtdf kg]{
laktsf] 36gfnfO{{ ;/sf/n] /fli6«o ;/sf/cGtu{ t sf] b" / ;~rf/ cf]nL–afbn / s]xL pgsf bnfnx?n] ;/sf/nfO{ emg} gUg agfpg] 5 . /fHosf] e" l dsf s:tf] x' g ' k g] { , lglZrt\ 5 .Ú g]kfndf sfFu; ]| , Pdfn],
zf]ssf] ¿kdf 3f]if0ff gu/]sf]df 3f]/ k|flws/0fn] Pg;]nnfO{{ gLltut rfx] h:tf] g t ;'/Iff ;+oGq g} xfd ptf ljKnj kIfn] klg cbfnts} kl/jf/nfO{ s;/L Joj:yfkg ug{] dfcf]jfbL / /fk|kf h;sf] g]t[Tjdf
cfklQ /x] s f] atfP . ;/sf/n] e|i6frf/df k|f]T;fxg u/]sfn] p;n] kmfNg ;Sof] g t p;n] hg;dy{g g} dfWodaf6 ;/sf/nfO{ /fli6« o 3fOt]x?, ckfËx?nfO{ s] /fxt lbg], ;/sf/ ag] klg ;a}n] ljb]zLx?nfO{
x]lnsK6/af6 x]b]{df kLl8tx¿sf] ug{ kfPsf] a|Xdn'6, ljutsf cy{dGqL k|fKt ug{ ;Sof] . pN6f] cfkm\g} cGt/f{li6«o ?kd} gËfpg] /0fgLlt hgwgsf] IfltnfO{ ;/sf/n] s'g 9+un] gful/stf lbg] af6f] vf]lnlbPsf] klg
;d:of ;Daf]wg gx'g] atfpb} pgn] /fdz/0f dxt / ;" r gf tyf dGqLkl/ifb, cfkm\g} bn / cfkm\g} ;Qf agfPsf 5g\ . ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf Ifltk"lt{ lbg] s]xL of]hgf / lehg s];Ln] cf/f]k nufP . ;+;bdf k|:t't
t'?Gt kLl8t nlIft sfo{qmd / ;~rf/dGqL dLg]Gb| l/hfnsf sf/0f ;+ / rgf leq ;/sf/sf] lg0f{ o k6s–k6ssf cfb]z pNn+3g ug],{ ;/sf/;Fu 5}g . ePcg' ; f/ ljw] o s kfl/t eP
Ifltk" l t{ s f] 3f] i f0ff ug{ klg ljb]z knfO{g x'g k'us ] f] g]kfnL vaf}F{ cNkdtdf kg]{ l:ylt pTkGg eof] . cbfntnfO{ k6s–k6s ckx]ngf ug]{ lgisif{ ljb]zLx? jf cfuGt'sx? g]kfnsf]
;/sf/;Fu hf]8bf/ dfu /fv] . ¿k}ofFnfO{{ hf]ufpg] lhDdf g]kfnL ljgfzsfn] ljkl/t a[l4 eGg] ;fljt b[ Z ox?n] cf] n L–afbnnfO{ ljleGg tYox?n] s] k|i6 kfb{5g\ /fi6«klt, k|wfgdGqL, ;efd'v, ;]gf
qmflGtsf/Lsf cWoIf xl/s[i0f hgtfdf cfPsf] 5 . o;nfO{{ s;}n] eof] ;/sf/sf] of] lg0f{o . xfdLnfO{ luHofO/x]sf 5g\ . To;af6 ljKnjsf] eg] bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yfdf hf] ;'s} k| d ' v , k| w fgGofofwLznufot
uh'/]nn] ;/sf/ ;j{;Qfsf] 9+uaf6 lgoGq0f jf /f]Sg] k|oTg ul//fv]sf yfxf 5, of] sbdn] cf]nL–afbnsf] kf6L{nfO{ k|z:t /fhgLlts nfe ;Qfdf cfP klg pgLx?sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ kbdf k'Ug] af6f] v'Ng] klg
cufl8 a9]sf] egfO{ /fv]sf lyP . 5}gg\ . To;}n] Pg;]nh:tf a|Xdn'6 ;Qf 8udufPsf] 5 . cd]l/sfdf ldn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/sf ck/fwx?nfO{ k|ex' ?nfO{ l/emfpg' dfq xf] . cfkm\gf] pgn] l6Kk0fL u/] . pgn] eg] , …To;}n]
/fHo Joj:yf 7Ls gePsf] eGb} pgn] ug]{ / g]kfnL k'h F L ljb]z knfO{g ug]{ uP/ k|r08nfO{ k|wfgdGqL agfpg] cfkm}+ k|rf/df NofO/x]sf 5g\ . /fli6«o :jfwLgtfsf nflu t c8fg of] ljw]os s'g} klg xfntdf kfl/t
;/sf/n] lzIffdf plrt jftfj/0fsf] ;+:yfsf af/]df ;j{q lj/f]w x'g' l;d ;Demf}tf ul/Psf] 5 eGg] ;dfrf/x? ;/sf/sf] slyt nufgL ;Dd]ng lng g;Sg] g]tfaf6 c? ck]Iff ug'{ ug{'x'Fb}g\ . vf/]h ug{'k5{ .Ú cfˆgf]
l;h{gf ug{'kg]{ wf/0ff /fv] . alxisf/ ug{' c:jefljs xf]Og . cfPs} 5g\ . of] klg hgcfqmf]znfO{ g]kfndf ljb]zL nufgL leq\ofO{ uNtL x'g] 5 . r'gfjtfsf hgtfnfO{ kf6L{n] pQm ljw]oslj?4 b]zJofkL
;dfhjfbL kmf]/dsf cWoIf ljj]s jt{ d fg===== lbUe|ldt ug]{ csf]{ if8\oGq dfq xf] . c/af}} /sd lxgfldgf ug]{ dgzfosf e|ldt ug],{ dtsf] lsga]r ug]{ clg ?kdf k|bz{g ug]{ klg cWoIf s];Ln]
/fO{ n ] b] z df ePsf] kl/jt{ g df sf7df8f}Fdf olx @$ ut]b]lv z'? ;f/df eGbf ;/sf/sf] k|lt/f]wsf] ;fy s]lk zdf{ cf]nLsf] ;/sf/n] ut ;Qfdf uPkl5 hgtfk|lt geP/ hfgsf/L lbP . pgn] eg], …ljw]ossf]
ljBfyL{x¿sf] 7"nf] of]ubfg /x]sf] x'g] k|yd /fli6«o ;Dd]ngsf] tof/Lsf lg0f{onfO{ g t p;sf] ;'/Iff ;+oGqn] dfr{ @( / #) -r}q !% / !^_ df ljb]zL zlQmx?k|lt akmfbf/ x'g] x'gfn] lj/f]wdf xfdLn] x:tfIf/ cleofgsf]
:d/0f u/fP . ;/sf/n] ;Qfdf k'Ug ljifodf hfgsf/L lbg a' w af/ sfof{Gjog ug{ ;S5 g t p;sf] sf7df8f}Fsf] ;f]N6L xf]6ndf nufgL pgLx?nfO{ bnfn elgPsf] xf] . cfkm\gf] ;'? ul/;s]sf 5f}F .Ú clxn] klg
hgtfnfO{{ em'7f cfZjf;gdfq} afF8s ] f] /fhwfgLsf] sdn kf]v/L l:yt xf]6n ] bnn] g} . ljKnjn] eg] h:t} k|ltaGw ;Dd]ng u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] nufgL df6f], dft[e"ld / cfk"mnfO{ hGdfpg] g] k fnsf] ;+ 3 Lo ;+ ; bdf bh{ g f} +
pgsf] cf/f] k 5 . pgn] eg] , sdndf cfof]lht kqsf/ ;Dd]ngdf cflv/ kfgLsf] kmf]sf ;fljt x'g]5 . ;Dd]ngsf] gfddf ljb]zL ljlQo cfdfk|lt t if8\oGq ug]{n] c? s] g} c+uLs[t gful/ssf] k|ltlglwTj /x]sf]
…hgtf;fd" cfZjf;g afF8\g'eGbf af]Nb} df]rf{sf cWoIf uh'/n] n] To:tf] k|ltaGwsf] lg0f{onfO{ cfdhgtfn] ;+3;+:yf jf afXo zlQmx?nfO{ b]zsf] afFsL /fVnf / < cfkm}+n] agfPsf] pgsf] egfO 5 . pgn] pQm ljw]ossf]
;/sf/n] sfd u/]/ b]vfpg'k5{ .Ú atfPsf x'g . b[ 9 tfk" j { s vf/] h ul/lbP . k| f s[ l ts ;Dkbfx?nfO{ ;' l Dkg] sfg"gsf] t v'Nnf wHhL p8fpg], lj?4df cfˆgf] kf6L{nufotn] r}q @$
clvn qmflGtsf/Lsf cWoIf df]rf{ cWoIf uh'/]nn] hgtfsf] k|ltaGwsf] lg0f{on] ;/sf/ cfkm}+ /0fgLltcGtu{t of] ;Dd]ng ul/Psf] cfkm\g} cbfntsf] af/Daf/ ckx]ngf ut] sf7df8f}d F f a[xQ h'nz
' lgsfNg]
cfnf]s /fodfemLn] r}q @( ut] /fli6«o kl/jt{ g sf] rfxgfnfO{ { ljutdf cnf]slk|o, c;kmn / sn+lst aGof] . xf] . o:tf nufgL ;Dd]ngx? ljutdf ug]x{ ?af6 hgtfsf] kIfdf s]xL xf]nf tof/L ul/;s]sf] klg hfgsf/L lbP .
;efu[xdf km/s wf/sf JolQmx¿sf] cfGbf]ngdf s]xL g]tfx¿sf] u2f/Lsf s] dWod ju{, s] /fli6«o k'h F Lklt klg w]/} eP t/ pknlAw z"Go eP . eGg] sNkgf ug'{ klg cfTd3ftL x'G5 . pgn] yk] , …b]z 8'Ag] l:ylt 5, To;}n]
Pp6} d~rdf e]63f6 x'g] hgfP . sf/0f k' / f ug{ g;lsPsf] / ju{, s] >lds–>dhLlj ju{ ;a} nufgL ;Dd]ng …xfQL cfof] xfQL cfof] g t pgLx? nf] s tGqjfbL jf xfdL ;a} ;r]t gful/s, a'l4hLljx?
clxn b]zdf caf}s F f 3f]6fnfx¿ ePsf] ;+ ; bjfbLx¿n] nf] s tflGqs ljKnjsf] kIfdf pmleP . km':;fÚ ag]sf] 5 . g]kfndf b'O{ u0ftGqjfbL, g t /fi6«jfbL g t Ps eP/ ljw]ossf] lj/f]w ug{'k5{ .
eGb} pgn] cfh;Dd ePsf 3f]6fnf u0ftGqsf] e|d hgtfdf km}nfpg] r} t d;fGtsf] ;do;Ldf ltxfO{sf] l:y/ / alnof] ;/sf/ 5 ;dfhjfbL . pgLx? t x'g e|i6rf/L, ;/sf/nfO{ bafa lbg'k5{ .Ú s];Ln]
tyf e|i6frf/ u/]sf] k};f lkmtf{ gePsf] sfd u/]sf] ePklg ;f/df Tof] bnfn, ;/sf/n] r}q d;fGtleq xltof/ eGg] cfwf/nfO{ klg nufgLstf{n] vf;} sfnf]ahf/L, t:s/ / dflkmof clg u}/cfjf;Lo g]kfnLx?nfO{ klg bf]xf]/f]
:d/0f u/fP . ;fdGtL / k'h F Lklt ju{s} /fHoJoj:yf a'emfP/ cfTd;dk{0f gu/], ljKnj, ljZjf; ug{ ;s]gg . ;/sf/n] &) ljb]zLx?sf u'nfd . k};f / ;Qf nflu gful/stf lbg gx'g] :ki6 kf/] .
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|åf/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
| M lwDn] ckm;]6 k|;
] , b]jLgu/, kmf]gM %!&@^%%