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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

“IT IS HEALTH THAT IS REAL WEALTH


AND NOT PIECES OF GOLD AND SILVER”

India is quite famous for its diverse multi-cuisine available in a large number of
restaurant and hotels resorts, which is reminiscent of unity in diversity. India cuisine is
known for its large assortment of dishes .The cooking style varies from region to region
and largely divided into south Indian &north Indian.

According to research, it is found that puberty is the most sensitive age during which one
should practice healthy eating habits because during this age there are many changes that
occur in the body to prepare one to enter to the adult age group.

Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that
there are more than 300 million obese people worldwide.

India, with 1.2 billion people is the second most populous country in the world and is
currently experiencing rapid epidemiological transition. Under nutrition due to poverty
which dominated in the past, is being rapidly replaced by obesity associated with
affluence. Industrialization and urbanization also contribute to increased prevalence of
obesity. Studies from different parts of India have provided evidence of the rising
prevalence of obesity from 6% to 9%.

However, most reports have been region specific (mostly from urban areas). Further,
different studies have used different methodologies, definitions and cut-off points for
defining obesity, making comparisons difficult. Till date, there has been no nationally
representative study on the prevalence of obesity in India.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is one of the most common,
yet among the most neglected, public health problems in both developed and developing
countries.

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According to the WHO World Health statistics report 2012, globally one in six adults is
obese and nearly 2.8 million individuals die each year due to overweight or obesity.

Due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality, obesity is now being recognized as a
disease in its own right. Additionally, obesity is strongly associated with other metabolic
disorders including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease and
even some cancers. The risk for these disorders appears to start from a body mass index
(bid) of about 21 kg/m². Obesity is generally classified as generalized obesity (GO) and
abdominal obesity (AO).

Obesity is defined, “as a condition in which excessive accumulation of fat in the adipose
tissues has taken place. It arises when the intake of food is in excess of physiological
needs. Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the western countries and
among the higher income groups in the developing countries.

Obesity now is considered as a “killer lifestyle” disease which is an important cause of


preventable death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, 1.2 billion
people worldwide are officially classified as, overweight. This is probably the most
sedentary generation of people in the history of the world.

Adolescent obesity also known as “New World Syndrome” is a global health challenge of
the 21st century, with morbidity obesity affecting 5% of the country’s population.
Obesity in teenagers is a growing problem that has worsened in recent times. America is
a top leader in Obesity in teenagers. It is believed that more than 25% of school children
are overweight and In fact obese, and nearly a four of them are at risk of getting heart
disease, diabetes, stroke and possibility of early death.

For developing countries like India, morbid obesity has not yet become a public health
priority.

Well, the reasons are still far from clear. Probably, India is, in our own eyes, still a
country of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. India is one of the capitals of diabetes and
cardiovascular diseases. India’s economy is, by all accounts, better poised to withstand
the recessionary trends seen across the major nations of the globe. Making it less poor

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and more “wealthy”. Yet it is this very wealth which brings with it an unwanted epidemic
of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions
in India in the 21st century, with morbidity obesity affecting 5% of the country’s
population. India is following a trend of other developing countries that are steadily
becoming more obese. Unhealthy, processed food has become much more accessible
following India’s continued integration in global food markets. Indians are genetically
susceptible to weight accumulation especially around waist.

Need for the Study

Research on the measurement practices for childhood obesity provides insight into the
providers who care for children, the children themselves, and the communities in which
they live. By strengthening the understanding of current growth monitoring practices,
more efficacious practices can evolve. By monitoring children’s growth more effectively
we can identify children who are at risk for poor health related to childhood obesity.
Healthy children results in healthy communities, where the available resources match the
needs. The significance for advanced practice nurses is that the opportunity exists to play
a role in both the search for understanding of childhood obesity and the effective
management of children who are, or who may be at risk of, becoming obese.

There is convincing evidence that obesity and related diseases are acquired among
secondary school students. Various studies have revealed that one cannot have good
health without proper healthy lifestyle. Therefore assessment of obesity among secondary
school students should be done periodically. This study will provide information about
the obesity among secondary school students of rural and urban area regarding food
habits, outdoor activities, socio-economic status of family, family history of obesity and
previous knowledge regarding obesity. This study will be supporting evidence to health
care professionals so that they can modify the current behaviour and lifestyle of the
secondary school students. Therefore the need was felt to undertake a study to determine
the obesity status of urban and rural secondary school students in Jammu.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

“A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY


AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF SELECTED URBAN AND
RURAL AREAS IN JAMMU”.

OBJECTIVES:

1. To determine the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students in urban


area.

2. To determine the prevalence of obesity among secondary school students in rural


area.

3. To compare the prevalence of obesity between the secondary school students


from urban and rural area.

4. To find the association between obesity among the secondary school students
from urban area with their selected demographic variables.

5. To find the association between obesity among the secondary school students
from rural area with their selected demographic variables.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

PREVALENCE

In this study sample refers to the number of obese students that are present in a particular
population at a given time, whereas incidence refers to the number of new cases that
develop in a given period of time.

OBESITY

This study refers to an abnormal accumulation of body fat usually 20% or more over an
individual’s ideal body weight.

When weight at least 20% - 40% over ideal weight is considered as mildly obese.

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When weight is 40%-100% over ideal weight is considered as moderately obese.

When weight is 100% over ideal weight is considered as severely or morbidly obese.

ADOLSCENTS

In this study according to world health organisation, individuals between 10-19 years of
age come under the adolescent age group.

URBAN AREA

In this study Urban areas comprise larger places and densely settled areas around them,
with urban defined as consisting of cities of 50,000 residents or larger.

RURAL AREA

In this study rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500
residents, essentially all people and places living outside densely settled territory.

BODY MASS INDEX

Body mass index is defined as the individual's body weight divided by the square of his
or her height. The formulae universally used in medicine produce a unit of measure of
kg/m2.

Overweight / Obese: individuals with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 are considered
to be overweight, a BMI of over 30 is considered to be obese.

ABDOMINAL OBESITY

It is defined as a waist circumference > or equal to 90 cm for men and > or equal to 80
cm for women.

ASSUMPTIONS

 Obesity was common among secondary school children.

 Prevalence of obesity was common among urban secondary school students.

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DELIMITATIONS

Study differs from place to place according to the lifestyle of the students.

PROJECT OUTCOME

The study findings will help to improve the knowledge and change the lifestyle of the
secondary school students regarding obesity.

The findings of demographic variables will help to identify the factors which leads to
occurrence of obesity among secondary school students.

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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Review of literature was defined as a broad, comprehensive in depth, systematic and


crucial review of scholarly publication, unpublished scholarly print materials, audio-
visual material and personal communication related to the topic.

Review of literature was important to gain better understanding and provide an insight
necessary to develop a broad conceptual framework in which the problem can be
examined.

Aim of this systematic review was to summarize the best available information regarding
obesity. One of the major function of review was to ascertain what is already known in
relation to a problem of interest. Review of literature was a written summary of state of
existing knowledge on a research problem. Review of literature was arranged under the
following headings:

 Studies on obesity.

 Studies on prevalence of obesity among school students.

 Studies on prevalence of obesity among school students in urban and rural area.

STUDIES ON OBESITY

Manjusha Samudre, Sunil M. Kulkarni (2014) conducted a study to assess the existing
knowledge regarding prevention of obesity among school children in selected schools of
Miraj, Sangli and Kupwad corporation area, Maharashtra. The researcher has adopted the
Quantitative research approach. Exploratory Descriptive design was used. The study was
conducted at the selected area of Sangli, Miraj and Kupwad corporation area which
includes Alphonsa School, Miraj and New English School Miraj for the study. The
sample size selected for this study was 160. The simple random sampling method was
used. . The study revealed that (63.46%) of the subjects had knowledge about measures
needed to treat obesity.

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Atif abbasi (2014) conducted a study on statistical analysis regarding awareness and
different risk factors of obesity in the young population of district Muzaffarabad. A
sample of 260 respondents was collected from the students of AJK University
Muzaffarabad based on convenience sampling technique. A close ended structure
questionnaire was used to collect the information from the students. Descriptive statistics
was used to assess the different demographic characteristics of the respondent, Chisquare
test was performed to check the association between BMI and different factors. Ordinal
logistic regression is used for empirical analysis. The finding revealed that most of the
youth perceives that major diseases like hypertension and diabetes attack due to obesity.
The majority of youth reported obesity as a factor causing depression. More than 75%
reported lack of physical activities and overeating as reason of obesity. The results
showed that females are more obese than males. The findings of study are useful for
policy makers who are interested in creating awareness on obesity among youth.

Anjana vasudevan (2010) conducted a study to examine association of health related


behaviours and body mass index among adults attending district hospital in Tumkur with
a view to develop information guide on healthy lifestyles. 60 adults were chosen for the
study by Non probability sampling - purposive sampling technique. Data was collected
by using structured self administered questionnaire. Information guide on healthy
lifestyles will be distributed at the end of the study. The study results showed that there
will be significant association between health related behaviours with selected socio
demographic variables of the adults.

Jagjeet Kaur, Indarjit Walia (2008) conducted a Descriptive Study on prevalence of


obesity among nursing students done at NINE, PGIMER, Chandigarh by measuring Body
Mass Index. The study was carried out on 251 subjects aged 17 years to 43 years. Out off
251 participants 24(9.56%) participants were estimated under weight, 204 (81.27%) were
normal weight and 23 (9.16%) over weight. Out off 23 (9.16%) subjects 15 (5.97%) were
pre obese and 8(3.18%) participants were obese class I. According to socio-demographic
profile of subject's parent residence depicts that out of 251students 45 (17.92 %) were
rural and 206 (82.07%) were urban. According to age it was observed that in 17-21years
there were 159 students. Out of these 16(10.06%) subjects estimated as underweight and

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135 (84.90%) were having normal weight whereas 5(3.18) were over weight. In 22-26
years there were 68 students. Out of these 8(11.76%) subjects were estimated as
underweight category and 55(80.88%) having normal weight whereas 5(7.35%) were
overweight. In>27 years there were 24 students. Out of these 14(58.33%) subjects were
having normal weight and 10(41.66%) were estimated as over weight.

Nancy Denise Schwarzkopf (2008) conducted a descriptive study of childhood obesity


monitoring practices used by montana pediatric providers. A descriptive, cross-sectional
study was conducted using a mailed pencil and paper survey, sent to 300 primary
pediatric providers in Montana selected from 900 Child Health Insurance Plan (CHIP)
providers. Eighty-five surveys were returned for a response rate of 28%. Data analysis
utilized SAS software; results were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. A total
of 85.7% of respondents offered care in family practice settings.

STUDIES ON PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL STUDENTS

D.B. Kumah, K.O. Akuffo, J.E. Abaka-Cann, D.E. Affram, and E.A. Osae (2015)
conducted a study on Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students in the
Kumasi Metropolis. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 500 students aged 10 to 20
years were examined from two junior high schools selected by multistage sampling
technique and three randomly selected senior high schools. Body mass index classes were
calculated according to the international obesity task force standards. The prevalence of
underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity was 7.40%, 79.60%, 12.20% and
0.80% respectively. Overweight was more prevalent among students than obesity.

Sonya Jagadesan, Ranjani Harish, Priya Miranda, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit


Mohan Anjana and Viswanathan Mohan (2014) conducted a study on Prevalence of
Overweight and Obesity Among School Children and Adolescents in Chennai. A cross-
sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-
17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. : The prevalence
of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government
schools both by the IOTF criteria (private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%)
and by Khadilkar criteria (private school: 26.4%, government schools: 4.6%.

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Overweight/obesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to
boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%,
Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence
of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/ overweight and 5.2% among non-obese.

Betty Lebona .G, Radhika .M (2013) conducted a descriptive-cross sectional study to


assess the prevalence of obesity in school children at selected schools, Nellore District
Andhra Pradesh. The sample size was 200 school going children and the non-probability
convenience sampling technique was used for selection of subjects. Semi structured
questionnaire was used to assess the dietary and physical activity. Findings show that
among 200 children 20%(40) are normal 35.5%(71) were overweight and 44.5%(89)
were obese.

Garvita Jain, Dr. (Smt) S.K Bharadwaj, Dr. (Smt) Abaya R. Joglekar (2012)
conducted a study to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school
children (13-17yrs) in relation to their socioeconomic status and eating habits. The study
was carried out in 500 students of 13-17 years of age having different Socioeconomic
status. SES and eating habits were determined using pre tested questionnaire. In this
study it is found that the magnitude of overweight (23.8%) and obesity (8.4%) is very
high and alarming for both the sex, eating habits like junk food, chocolate, eating in front
of T.V etc remarkable effect on prevalence on overweight and obesity among low to high
SES group.

Dr. Nazeem I. Siddiqui (2012) conducted a study on Prevalence and trends of obesity in
Indian school children of different socioeconomic class. A cross-sectional study was
conducted in randomly selected 2158 school children of age 7 to 14 years of different
socioeconomic classes from government and private schools. To study the effect of social
class subjects were classified into upper middle and lower socioeconomic class on the
basis of modified kuppuswami scale. Prevalence of obesity was found significantly
higher in children belonging to higher class (35%) as compared to lower (13%) and
middle class (15.7%) (Chi-square value 9.748; & p< .001).

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STUDIES ON PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL STUDENTS IN
URBAN AND RURAL AREA

Sushma Katkuri, Yashwant A.M, Prashant R. Kokiwar, Sridevi Kotina, Avasarla A.


Kameswar Rao, Pooja Chauhan (2015) conducted a study of prevalence of obesity and
its correlates among government and private school children in Hyderabad : a
comparative study. An institution based cross sectional study was carried out among 718
school children of randomly selected government and private schools of Hyderabad city.
Students were enquired about their physical activity and dietary habits as per the
questionnaire. Data was analysed using appropriate statistical tests. Prevalence of obesity
was found to be 21.09% among private school children and 19% in government school
children.

T Kowsalya, R Parimalayalli (2014) conducted a study to assess the prevalence of


overweight/obesity among adolescents in urban and rural areas of Salem, India. The
study was carried out at the Salem block in Salem District. Cross-sectional data were
collected. Anthropometric measurements were recorded among 1898 school going
adolescents, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Multistage stratified random
sampling design was employed. School going adolescents in the age group of 11-15 years
who were studying 6th -10th standard were included. Results shows that the prevalence
rate of overweight/obese was higher in rural (13.16%) than urban (11.33%) area.

Rajendra Pradeepa, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Shashank R. Joshi, Anil Bhansali (2013)
conducted a study to assess the prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in urban
and rural India. A stratified multi-stage sampling design was adopted and individuals > or
equal to 20 years of age were included. Of the 14,277 participants, 13,800 subjects were
included for the analysis. The prevalence of general obesity was 24.6, 16.6, 11.8 and
31.3% among residents of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Chandigarh, while
the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 26.6, 18.7, 16.9 and 36.1% respectively and
combined obesity was present 19.3, 13.0, 9.8 and 26.6% in population.

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Arnab Ghosh (2011) conducted a study the prevalence of overweight and obesity in
children and adolescents is restricted by habitat (urban vs rural). . A total of 753 healthy
children and adolescents, out of which 293 (159 boys and 134 girls) were collected
Santiniketan (rural area) and 460 (241 boys and 219 girls) were from Calcutta and the
Suburbs (urban area), aged 8 to 18 years took part in the study. Participants were
subsequently divided into 3 age groups: group I, 8 to 12 years; group II, 13 to 15 years,
and group III, 16 to 18 years. Results shows that the overall prevalence of overweight and
obesity in the study was 9.6% and 5.7%, respectively. Urban residence and high level of
parental education are associated with overweight and obesity in children and adolescents
(R2 = 40.3%).

Christie A. Befort, Niaman Nazir, Michael G. Perri (2008) conducted a study on


Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults From Rural and Urban Areas of the United States.
This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body
mass index classification with measured height and weight. Analysis of body mass index
(BMI), diet, and physical activity from 7,325 urban and 1,490 rural adults in the 2005–
2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The obesity prevalence was
39.6% (SE = 1.5) among rural adults compared to 33.4% (SE = 1.1) among urban adults
(P = .006). Prevalence of obesity remained significantly higher among rural compared to
urban adults controlling for demographic, diet, and physical activity variables (odds ratio
= 1.18, P = .03).

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CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Methodology was significant part of the study which enables the researcher to project the
undertaken study. This chapter includes research approach, research design, variables,
settings, sample and sampling technique, description of instrument, content validity of
tool, pilot study, data collection and plan for data analysis.

RESEARCH APPROACH

The research approach using for this study was Quantitative approach.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Descriptive study, comparative design.

SETTING OF THE STUDY

The Study was conducted at Neel Kamal Secondary School Bantalab (Rural) and Model
Raja Higher Secondary School Jammu (Urban).

TARGET POPULATION

The target population was secondary school students.

ACCESSIBLE POPULATION

The students of Neel Kamal Secondary School Bantalab (Rural) and Model Raja Higher
Secondary School Jammu (Urban).

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

In this study, purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples.

SAMPLE

The students from Neel Kamal Secondary School Bantalab (Rural) and Model Raja
Higher Secondary School Jammu (Urban) of class 8th to 10th were selected as samples.
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SAMPLE SIZE

The sample size was arbitrarily determined to be Urban 100 and Rural 100.

CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTION

The samples will be selected based on the following inclusion and exclusion criteria:

INCLUSION CRITERIA

The school students who were:

 Studying in 8th – 10th class.

 Willing to participate in the study.

 Present at the time of data collection.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA

The school students who were:

 Not able to read or listen.

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT

The structured instrument has three parts A, B and C.

PART A

Socio demographic variables

PART B

Height and weight.

PART C

Body mass index.

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VALIDITY OF THE TOOL

The content validity of the tool was obtained from subject experts. The experts were
requested to check the relevance, sequence and adequacy of the questionnaire. Based on
valid suggestions, few questions were modified and the final tool was prepared as per the
suggestion given by the experts. The tool was drafted in English

RELIABILITY OF THE TOOL

Reliability was established through test-retest method.

PILOT STUDY

The pilot study was conducted during the month of October at Government higher
secondary school Gharota (Rural) and St. Xavier higher secondary school Jammu(Urban)
among 10 students to evaluate the prevalence of obesity among secondary school
students and to find out the feasibility of conducting the main study. The time taken to
complete tool was found to be satisfactory in terms of simplicity and clarity. The
administration of the tool and structured teaching programme were implemented. The
feasibility with regards to availability of the sample and cooperation of respondents,
accessibility of setting and requirement was established. Pilot study helped the
investigator to confirm the feasibility of carrying out the main study.

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

Prior permission was taken from the principals of concerned schools. Data collection was
done on October 2017. The samples were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion
criteria.

PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS

The data was analysed in terms of the objectives of the study using inferential statistics.
The plan for data analysis is as follows:

 Organise the data in master data sheet.

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 Frequency and percentage distribution was used to analyse the demographic
variables.

 Mean, standard deviation and chi square was used to assess the prevalence of
obesity among secondary school students.

PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

Research proposal as approved by the dissertation committee prior to the pilot study and
the main study permission was sought from the Principal of BEE ENN College of
Nursing. A formal consent was obtained from the respondents of the study before
administering the questionnaire.

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CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of the data. The data was collected
through multiple choice questions among 100 students of Neel Kamal Secondary School
Bantalab (Rural) and 100 students of Model Raja Higher Secondary School Jammu
(Urban) of class 8th to 10th to assess the prevalence of obesity. This result was computed
using inferential statistics based on objectives of the study. The findings of the study are
presented in this chapter as follows:

 Distribution of secondary school students of urban and rural area based on the
demographic variables in the tabulated and Graphical form.

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TABLE: 1(a)
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH
PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED URBAN AREA SUCH AS AGE, SEX AND RESIDENCE.

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square

1. Age:
14 7 7 1 1 11 #11.89
15 20 6 1 0 4
16 19 6 0 0 12
>16 3 1 0 0 1
2. Sex:
Male 26 8 0 1 17 16.92
Female 23 12 2 0 11
3. Residence:
Urban 49 20 2 1 28 #0
Rural 0 0 0 0 0

# (not significant)

Table: 1(a) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected urban area. Regarding
age, the chi square was 11.89 (p<0.05) which was not significant, regarding sex, the chi
square was 16.92 (p>0.05) which was significant and regarding residence, the chi square
was 0 (p<0.05) which was not significant.

TABLE: 1(b)

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ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH
PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED URBAN AREA SUCH AS RELIGION AND FOOD HABIT

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
4. Religion:
Hindu 31 14 1 0 22
Muslim 18 6 0 0 4 89.58
Sikh 0 0 1 0 0
Christian 0 0 0 1 2

5. Food habit:
Vegetarian 23 9 1 0 17 #2.66
Non-vegetarian 26 11 1 1 11

# (not significant)

Table: 1(b) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected urban area. Regarding
religion, the chi square 89.58 was (p>0.05) which was significant and regarding food
habit, the chi square 2.66 was (p<0.05) which was not significant.

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TABLE: 1(c)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED URBAN AREA SUCH AS DURATION OF WATCHING
TELEVISION AND OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
6. Duration of
watching
television:
1 hour 11 4 0 1 15 21.08
2 hours 27 12 0 0 10
3 hours 10 4 2 0 3
˃3 hours 1 0 0 0 0

7. Outdoor
activities:
Yes 23 7 1 1 19 #6.42
No 26 13 1 0 9

# (not significant)

Table: 1(c) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected urban area. Regarding
duration of watching television, the chi square 21.08 was (p>0.05) which was significant
and regarding outdoor activities, the chi square 6.42 was (p<0.05) which was not
significant.

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TABLE: 1(d)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED URBAN AREA SUCH AS EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF PARENTS

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
8. Educational
status of parents:
Illiterate 4 2 0 0 1 #23.46
Primary 13 0 0 0 10
education
Secondary 15 12 0 1 9
education
Higher 15 5 2 0 6
secondary
education
Graduate 2 1 0 0 2

# (not significant)

Table: 1(d) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected urban area. Regarding
educational status of parents, the chi square 23.46 was (p<0.05) which was not
significant.

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TABLE: 1(e)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED URBAN AREA SUCH AS SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE
FAMILY.

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
9. Socio-economic
status of the
family:
Lower 3 4 1 1 3 41.53
(˃Rs5,000)

Upper lower 15 4 0 0 10
(Rs5,001-
Rs10,000)

Lower middle 14 7 1 0 8
(Rs10,001-
Rs15,000)

Upper middle 13 3 0 0 4
(Rs15,001-
Rs20,000)

Upper 4 2 0 0 3
(˃Rs20,000)

# (not significant)

Table: 1(e) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected urban area. Regarding
socio-economic status of the family, the chi square 41.53 was (p>0.05) which was
significant.

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TABLE: 1(f)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED URBAN AREA SUCH AS FAMILY HISTORY OF OBESITY AND
PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE REGARDING OBESITY.

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
10. Family history
of obesity:
Yes 18 8 0 1 14 #4.14
No 31 12 2 0 14

11. Previous
knowledge
regarding
obesity:
Yes 16 6 0 0 8 15.69
No 33 14 2 1 20

# (not significant)

Table: 1(f) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected urban area. Regarding
family history of obesity, the chi square 4.14 was (p<0.05) which was not significant and
regarding previous knowledge regarding obesity, the chi square 15.69 was (p>0.05)
which was significant.

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TABLE: 2(a)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED RURAL AREA SUCH AS AGE, SEX AND RESIDENCE.

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
1. Age:
14 14 2 1 0 30 #3.14
15 10 1 1 0 16
16 7 2 0 0 14
˃16 0 0 0 0 2

2. Sex:
Male 11 3 0 0 38 63.30
Female 20 2 2 0 24

3. Residence:
Urban 0 0 0 0 0 #0
Rural 31 5 2 0 62

# (not significant)

Table: 2(a) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected rural area. Regarding
age, the chi square was 3.14 (p<0.05) which was not significant, regarding sex, the chi
square was 63.30 (p>0.05) which was significant and regarding residence, the chi square
was 0 (p<0.05) which was not significant.

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TABLE: 2(b)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED RURAL AREA SUCH AS RELIGION AND FOOD HABIT

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
4. Religion:
Hindu 24 3 2 0 38 #3.81
Muslim 7 2 0 0 24
Sikh 0 0 0 0 0
Christian 0 0 0 0 0

5. Food habit:
Vegetarian 21 3 1 0 27 #4.96
Non-vegetarian 10 2 1 0 35

# (not significant)

Table: 2(b) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected rural area. Regarding
religion, the chi square 3.81 was (p<0.05) which was not significant and regarding food
habit, the chi square 4.96 was (p<0.05) which was not significant.

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TABLE: 2(c)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED RURAL AREA SUCH AS DURATION OF WATCHING
TELEVISION AND OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
6. Duration of
watching
television:
1 hour 15 3 1 0 32 #8.79
2 hours 12 2 1 0 22
3 hours 1 0 0 0 8
˃3 hours 3 0 0 0 0

7. Outdoor
activities:
Yes 19 3 1 0 47 #3.79
No 12 2 1 0 15

# (not significant)

Table: 2(c) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected rural area. Regarding
duration of watching television, the chi square 8.79 was (p<0.05) which was not
significant and regarding outdoor activities, the chi square 3.79 was (p<0.05) which was
not significant.

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TABLE: 2(d)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED RURAL AREA SUCH AS EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF PARENTS

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
8. Educational
status of parents:
Illiterate 2 0 0 0 2 #11.86
Primary 4 2 1 0 10
education
Secondary 13 1 1 0 33
education
Higher 9 1 0 0 12
secondary
education
Graduate 3 1 0 0 5

# (not significant)

Table: 2(d) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected rural area. Regarding
educational status of parents, the chi square 11.86 was (p<0.05) which was not
significant.

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TABLE: 2(e)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED RURAL AREA SUCH SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILY.

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
9. Socio-economic
status of the
family:
Lower 11 1 1 0 18 #7.25
(˃Rs5,000)

Upper lower 9 1 1 0 17
(Rs5,001-
Rs10,000)

Lower middle 3 0 0 0 9
(Rs10,001-
Rs15,000)

Upper middle 4 1 0 0 5
(Rs15,001-
Rs20,000)

Upper 4 2 0 0 13
(˃Rs20,000)
# (not significant)

Table: 2(e) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected rural area. Regarding
socio-economic status of the family, the chi square 7.25 was (p<0.05) which was not
significant.

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TABLE: 2(f)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH


PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF
SELECTED RURAL AREA FAMILY HISTORY OF OBESITY AND PREVIOUS
KNOWLEDGE REGARDING OBESITY.

N=100
S.NO Demographic Normal Over Class 1 Class 2 Under Chi
variables weight weight obesity obesity weight square
10. Family history
of obesity:
Yes 15 5 2 0 24 9.58
No 16 0 0 0 38

11. Previous
knowledge
regarding
obesity:
Yes 11 1 1 0 16 #1.09
No 20 4 1 0 46

# (not significant)

Table: 2(f) presents the association between selected demographic variables with
prevalence of obesity among secondary school students of selected rural area. Regarding
family history of obesity, the chi square 9.58 was (p>0.05) which was significant and
regarding previous knowledge regarding obesity, the chi square 1.09 was (p<0.05) which
was not significant.

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NUMERICAL AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF
DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AMONG URBAN AREA

TABLE: 3(a)

AGE DISTRIBUTION

Age 14 15 16 >16

N 27 31 37 5

% 27% 31% 37% 5%

TABLE: 3(b)

SEX DISTRIBUTION

Sex Male Female

N 52 48

% 52% 48%

TABLE: 3(c)

FOOD HABIT DISTRIBUTION

Food habit Vegetarian Non-vegetarian

N 50 50

% 50% 50%

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TABLE: 3(d)

OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES DISTRIBUTION

Outdoor Yes No

activities

N 51 49

% 51% 49%

TABLE: 3(e)

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE FAMILY DISTRIBUTION

Socio- Lower Upper lower Lower Upper Upper

economic (>Rs5,000) (Rs5,001- middle middle (>Rs20,000)

status of the Rs10,000) (Rs10,001- (Rs15,001-

family Rs15,000) Rs20,000)

N 12 29 30 20 9

% 12% 29% 30% 20% 9%

TABLE: 3(f)

FAMILY HISTORY OF OBESITY DISTRIBUTION

Family history Yes No

of obesity

N 41 59

% 41% 59%

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NUMERICAL AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF
DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AMONG RURAL AREA

TABLE: 4(a)

AGE DISTRIBUTION

Age 14 15 16 >16

N 47 28 23 2

% 47% 28% 23% 2%

TABLE: 4(b)

SEX DISTRIBUTION

Sex Male Female

N 52 48

% 52% 48%

TABLE: 4(c)

FOOD HABIT DISTRIBUTION

Food habit Vegetarian Non-vegetarian

N 52 48

% 52% 48%

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TABLE: 4(d)

OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES DISTRIBUTION

Outdoor Yes No

activities

N 70 30

% 70% 30%

TABLE: 4(e)

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE FAMILY DISTRIBUTION

Socio- Lower Upper lower Lower Upper Upper

economic (>Rs5,000) (Rs5,001- middle middle (>Rs20,000)

status of the Rs10,000) (Rs10,001- (Rs15,001-

family Rs15,000) Rs20,000)

N 31 28 12 10 19

% 31% 28% 12% 10% 19%

TABLE: 4(f)

FAMILY HISTORY OF OBESITY DISTRIBUTION

Family history Yes No

of obesity

N 46 54

% 46% 54%

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CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The study was conducted to assess the prevalence of obesity among secondary school
students of selected urban and rural areas in Jammu.

This study was conducted using a comparative design. Subjects were selected by the
purposive sampling method. The sample size was arbitrarily determined to be 100 each in
urban and rural area.

A questionnaire and checklist was used to find out the prevalence of obesity among
secondary school students. The responses were analyzed through inferential statistics
(chi-square). Discussions on the findings are arranged in the order of the objectives of the
study.

The first objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among
secondary school students in urban area.

The prevalence of obesity among the secondary school students in urban area 100 (100%)
was moderate. The prevalence of obesity for all 23 (23%) was positive and for all 78
(78%) was negative in Urban area.

These findings were consistent with the study done by Y.S. Saraswathi, Mohsen Najafi,
M.R. Gangadhar and Suttur S. Malini (2011) found that prevalence of obesity is high
among secondary school students in urban area.

The second objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among
secondary school students in rural area.

The prevalence of obesity among the secondary school students in rural area 100 (100%)
was normal weight. The prevalence of obesity for all 7 (7%) was positive and for all 93
(93%) was negative in rural area.

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The findings were consistent with the study done by Dr. Manju Lata Sharma, Dr. Ajay
Kumar Sharma (2017) found that prevalence of obesity is low among secondary school
students in rural area.

The third objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of obesity between
the secondary school students from urban and rural area.

On comparing the prevalence of obesity between the secondary school students was over
weight in urban area and normal weight in rural area. The prevalence of obesity for all
100 urban area cases was 23% whereas for all 100 rural area cases was 7%.

The findings were consistent with the study done by Mr. Roshith. K.P (2009) found that
the prevalence of obesity is more in the secondary school students of urban area as
compare to the secondary school students of rural area.

The fourth objective of this study was to find the association between obesity among
the secondary school students from urban area with selected demographic variables.

Regarding the association between obesity among the secondary school students from
urban area with selected demographic variables, the results revealed that there was
significant association between obesity among urban area and selected demographic
variables like age, sex, residence, religion, food habit, duration of watching television,
outdoor activities, educational status of parents, socio-economic status of family, family
history of obesity and previous knowledge regarding obesity.

The findings were consistent with the study done by Sadhu Charan Panda (2017) found
that there is significant association between the obesity among the secondary school
students of urban area with the selected demographic variables.

The fifth objective of this study was to find the association between obesity among
the secondary school students from rural area with selected demographic variables.

Regarding the association between obesity among the secondary school students from
rural area with selected demographic variables, the results revealed that there was
significant association between obesity among rural area and selected demographic

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variables like age, sex, residence, religion, food habit, duration of watching television,
outdoor activities, educational status of parents, socio-economic status of family, family
history of obesity and previous knowledge regarding obesity.

The findings were consistent with the study done by Urmila K.V, Divyakrishnam K,
Sudakaran, Muralikrishnan Nambiar (2017) found that there is significant association
between the obesity among the secondary school students of rural area with the selected
demographic variables.

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CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter deals with the summary of the study, its findings and conclusion. It focuses
on the implications and gives recommendations for nursing practices, nursing research,
nursing administration and nursing education.

SUMMARY OF THE STUDY

The present study compared the obesity of secondary school students from urban and
rural areas in Jammu by using body mass index (BMI).

Nurse should provide necessary health education to the urban and rural secondary school
students related to obesity and maintenance of health.

A review of literature help the investigator to develop a conceptual framework tool and
methodology of the study and the review of literature was organized under the following
headings.

- Studies on prevalence of obesity.

- Studies on structured teaching program among the secondary school students


regarding obesity.

Research design adopted for the study was comparative design.

A questionnaire was developed and used for data collection to assess the prevalence of
obesity among secondary school students of selected urban and rural areas in Jammu. The
planned teaching program was developed. The content validity of the questionnaire
checklist and planned teaching program were found to be reliable and flexible. The
reliability of the tool was established by test retest method.

In the pilot study tool was administered among 10 secondary school students of urban
and rural area. After a gap of 4 days retest was done. Test retest method of correlation

42 | P a g e
was computed and the tool was found to be reliable. Data gathered were analyzed and
interpreted in terms of the study objectives.

The main study was conducted in the students of Neel Kamal Secondary School Bantalab
(Rural) and the students of Model Raja Higher Secondary School Jammu (Urban) for a
period of 3 weeks. 100 secondary school students were selected through purposive
sampling technique. The existing prevalence was assessed before the teaching through
questionnaire. Planned teaching program on obesity was administered. After 4 days data
was collected for assessing the prevalence among rural and urban secondary school
students. Data was organized and interpreted using both descriptive and inferential
statistics.

SUMMARY OF THE STUDY FINDINGS

Regarding existing prevalence of obesity among secondary school students was


overweight in urban area and normal weight in rural area. The prevalence of obesity
among urban secondary school students was 23% and prevalence of obesity among
secondary school students from rural area was 7%.

Regarding the association between demographic variables of prevalence of obesity


between rural and urban secondary school students was significant with selected
demographic variables like age, sex, residence, religion, food habits, duration of watching
television, outdoor activities, educational status of parents, socio-economic status of
family, family history of obesity and previous knowledge regarding obesity.

CONCLUSION

The main study conclude that the existing prevalence regarding obesity among secondary
school students of urban and rural areas was normal. So the investigator prepared the
planned teaching program like pictures and slides. Education plays fundamental role in
bringing changes in prevalence of obesity. The investigator observe that, the planned
teaching program increase the knowledge regarding obesity. Many of the secondary
school students were awared about the dangers of obesity. After the teaching program the
students were instructed to do regular exercise and maintenance of diet. Finally the

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investigator assures that, every secondary school students who have taken part in the
study will spread the information regarding obesity to other school students also.

IMPLICATIONS

The findings of the study have several implications in following field. It can be discussed
on four areas namely nursing practice, nursing administration, nursing education and
nursing research.

IMPLICATIONS IN NURSING PRACTICE

a) This study finding will encourage the community health nurse to create awareness
among public about obesity by intensifying mass health education and individual
health education programs with appropriately designed audio visual aids.

b) The nurse must implement obesity awareness, to promote knowledge and attitude of
adolescent students on obesity.

c) As a service provider, the nurse should design information booklet, pamphlet on


obesity and distribute to the school students and create awareness among them.

d) The community health nurse must aim to translate the obesity preventive measures at
all levels in various setting.

IMPLICATIONS IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION

a) The present study will help the nursing administration authority to recognize the need
for developing the appropriate formal education program for the students on
prevention of obesity.

b) Nursing administration should provide necessary facilities to conduct obesity


awareness program for adolescent students.

c) The administration should allocate budgets for developing educational materials like
pamphlets, posters, slides, cassettes etc. which contain information about obesity.

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IMPLICATIONS IN NURSING EDUCATION

The study emphasizes the need for educating the nursing personnel through in service or
continuing education program to update their knowledge regarding obesity assessment
and preventive measures.

a) The various effective methods of teaching like simulation, demonstration, exercise


and lecture cum discussion should be used for improving the knowledge and lifestyle
habits regarding obesity.

IMPLICATIONS IN NUSRING RESEARCH

a) The findings of the study help to expand the scientific body of professional
knowledge upon which further research can be conducted.

RECOMMENDATIONS

a) A similar study can be undertaken by utilizing other domain like lifestyle changes.

b) A similar study can be conducted in another setting like colleges.

c) The study is limited to adolescents only but it should be extended to adults also.

d) It should be conducted for other states also.

e) A similar study can be conducted by comparing males and females.

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CHAPTER 7
REFERENCES

BOOKS

1) Y. Wolin Katheen, Sc.D, M. Petrelli Jennifer, A textbook of obesity. Page no 236-


244, Edited by Julie K. Silver, M.D. Series, Greenwood publisher

2) Guthman Julie, A book of weighing in obesity, food justice and the limits of
capitalism. Page N0. 221-229, Edition – 1st, University of California Press
publisher.

3) Baro Natalie, A book of killer fat: Media; Medicine and Morals in the America
“obesity Epidemics” Edition- 2nd, Rutgers University press publisher.

4) A Brewis Alexandra, A book of obesity: Cultural and biocultural perspectives,


Edition-1st, Rutgers University press publisher.

5) Gard Michael and Wright Jan, A book of the obesity epidemic : sciene, Mortality
and Ideology , Edition – 5th , Routtedge Publisher.-

6) Oliver J Eric, A book of Fat Politics; The real story behind America’s obesity
epidemics, Edition-6th, Oxford university press publisher.

7) Brownell Kelly D,G. Pairbrum Christopher, A comprehensive hand book of


eating disorder and obesity , Edition-2nd , Guilford press publisher.

8) Lacobellis Ganluca, A book of obesity and cardiovascular disease, Edition-1st


Oxford University press publisher.

9) J.Simpson Stephen, A book of the nature of Nutrition: unifying framework from


animal adaptation to human obesity, Edition -2nd, Prinction university press
publisher.

10) Pool Robert, A book of fighting the obesity epidemic, Edition year 2001, Oxford
university publisher.

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JOURNALS

1) Janssen I , Katzmarzyk PT, Bocye WF, Vereecken C, Mulvihill C, Roberts


C, Currie C, Pickett W; Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Obesity
Working Group. Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-
aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and
dietary patterns. Obes Rev 2005; 6:123-32

2) Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WPT. Handbook of Obesity. Marcel Dekker, New
York 1998.

3) Dietz WH. Critical periods in childhood for the development of obesity. Am J


Clin Nutr 1994; 59: 955-9.

4) Wang Y, Wang JQ. A comparison of different international references for the


assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in different
populations. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 973-82.

5) Dietz WH, Robinson TN. Use of body mass index (BMI) as a measure of
overweight in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 191-3.

6) Poskitt EME. Defining childhood obesity: the relative body mass index (BMI).
Acta Paediatr 1995; 84 961 – 3.

7) Maretorell R, Kettel Khan L, Hughes ML, Grummer Strawn LM. Overweight and
obesity in school children from developing countries. Int J Obes Relat Metab
Disord 2000; 24: 959-67.

8) Morbid obesity unpairs adequacy of thoracic compression in a stimulation based


model.

9) Zimmeermann MB, Hess SY, Hurrell RF. A national study of the prevalence of
overweight and obesity in 14-18years old childrens: body mass index, body
weight perceptions and goals. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000; 54 : 568-72

10) Reilly JJ. Assessment of childhood obesity: national reference data or


international approach. Obes Res. 2002; 10: 838-40

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NET

1) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nlh.gov

2) https://www.indiapediatrics.net

3) https://www.hindwai.com

4) https://www.researchgate.net

5) https://www.sciencedirect.com

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CHAPTER 8
APPENDIX
LIST OF EXPERTS

MRS. SHAKUNTLA SHARMA PROFESSOR CUM PRINCIPAL


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING,
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

MR. J.C FRANK ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING,
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

MRS. DEVA PON PUSHPAMI ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

MR. ISRAEL JEBA PRABHU ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

MR. SHANTHA SEELAN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

MRS. KUSUM LATA FOTE ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

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MS. KULBIR KAUR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

MS. KAVITA CHOUDHARY NURSING TUTOR


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

MRS. ARTI SHARMA NURSING TUTOR


BEE ENN COLLEGE OF NURSING
CHAK BHALWAL, JAMMU.

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TOOL FOR DATA COLLECTION

INSTRUCTIONS: Read the questions carefully and mention the correct option.

PART A - DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

Sample No: ___ Name of the Student: ___________________

1. Age:

a) 14 b) 15 c) 16 d) >16

2. Sex:

a) Male b) Female

3. Residence:

a) Urban b) Rural

4. Religion:

a) Hindu b) Muslim c) Sikh d) Christian

5. Food habit:

a) Vegetarian b) Non-vegetarian

6. Duration of watching television:

a) 1 hour b) 2 hours c) 3 hours d) >3 hours

7. Outdoor activities:

a) Yes b) No

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8. Educational status of parents:

i. Illiterate

ii. Primary education

iii. Secondary education

iv. Higher secondary education

v. Graduate

9. Socio-economic status of the family:

(a) Lower (>Rs5,000)

(b) Upper lower (Rs5,001 - Rs10,000)

(c) Lower middle (Rs10,001 - Rs15,000)

(d) Upper middle (Rs15,001-20,000)

(e) Upper (>Rs20,000)

10. Family history of obesity:

a) Yes b) No

11. Previous knowledge regarding obesity:

a) Yes b) No

If yes means,
Source of information
i. Mass media (TV, Newspaper etc)

ii. Medical personnel

iii. Others (friends / relatives / family )

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PART B - ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS:

Height: ________ cm

Weight: _______ kg

PART – C

Body Mass Index = Weight in kg_


(Height in meter) ²

CLASSIFICATION B.M.I

Underweight <18.5

Normal weight 18.5-24.9

Over weight 25.0-29.9

Class 1 obesity 30.0-34.9

Scoring: ________

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Related Interests