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FOREWORD
Users of various civil engineering codes have been feeling the need for explanatory hand
books and other compilations based on Indian Standards. The need has been further emphasized
in view of the publication of the National Building Code of India 1970 and its implementation.
In 1972, the Department of Science and Technology set up an Expert Group on Housing and
Construction Technology under the Chairmanship of MajGen Harkirat Singh. This Group
carried out indepth studies in various areas of civil engineering and constr,uction practices.
During the preparation of the Fifth Five Year Plan in 1975, the Group was assigned the task
of producing a ,Science and Technology plan for research, development and extension work
in the sector of housing and construction technology. One of the items of this plan was the
production of design handbooks, explanatory handbooks and design aids based on the National
Building Code and various Indian Standards and other activities in the promotion of National
Building Code. The Expert Group gave high priority to this item and on the recommendation
of the Department of Science and Technology the. Planning Commission approved the follow
ing two projects which were assigned to the Indian Standards Institution:
For the preparation of the design aids a detailed examination of the following handbooks
was made :
4 CP : 110 : Part 2 : 1972 Code of practice for the structural use of concrete : Part 2
Design charts for singly reinforced beams, doubly reinforced beams and rectangular
columns. British Standards Institution.
‘4 AC1 Publication SP17(73) Design Handbook in accordance with the strength design
methods of AC1 31871, Volume 1 ( Second Edition). 1973. American Concrete
Institute.
cl Reynolds ( Charles E ) and Steadman ( James C ). Reinforced Concrete Designer’s
Handbook. 1974. Ed. 8. Cement and Concrete Association, UK.
4 Fintel ( Mark ), Ed. Handbook on Concrete Engineering. 1974. Published by Van
Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.
The charts and tables included in the design aids were selected after consultation with
some users of the Code in India.
Some important points to be noted in the use of the design aids are:
4 The design units are entirely in SI units as per the provisions of IS : 4561978.
b) It is assumed that the user is well acquainted with the provisions of IS : 4561978
before using these design aids.
4 Notations as per IS : 4561978 are maintained here as far as possible.
d) Wherever the word ‘Code’ is used in this book, it refers to IS : 4561978 Code of
practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third revision ).
4 Both charts and tables are given for flexural members. The charts can be used con
veniently for preliminary design and for final design where greater accuracy is needed,
tables may be used.
vi
f) Design of columns is based on uniform distribution of steel on two faces or on four
faces.
g) Charts and tables for flexural members do not take into consideration crack control
and are meant for strength calculations cnly. Detailing rules given in the Code should
be followed for crack control.
h) If the steel being used in the design has a strength which is slightly different from the
one used in the Charts and Tables, the Chart or Table for the nearest value may be
used and area of reinforcement thus obtained modified in proportion to the ratio of
the strength of steels.
j) In most of the charts and tables, colour identification is given on the right/lefthand
corner along with other salient values to indicate the type of steel; in other charts/
tables salient values have been given.
These design aids have been prepared on the basis of work done by Shri P. Padmanabhan,
Officer on Special Duty, ISI. Shri B. R. Narayanappa, Assistant Director, IS1 was also
associated with the work. The draft Handbook was circulated for review to Central Public
Works Department, New Delhi; Cement Research Institute of India, New Delhi; Metallurgical
and Engineering Consultants (India) Limited, Ranchi, Central Building Research Institute,
Roorkee; Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras; M/s C. R. Narayana Rao, Madras;
and Shri K. K. Nambiar, Madras and the views received have been taken into consideration
while finalizing the Design Aids.
vii
.SPECIAL COMMIlTEE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS (SCIP)
Chairman
MAJGEN HARKIRAT SINGH
W51 Greater Kailash I, New Delhi 110048
Members
SEIR~A. K. BANERJEE Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants (India) Limited,
Ran&i
PROF DINESH MOHAN Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee
DR S. MAUDOAL Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi
DR M. RAMAIAH Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras
SHRI T. K. SARAN Bureau of Public Enterprises, New Delhi
SHRI T. S. VEDAGIRI Central Public Works Department, New Delhi
DR ‘H. C. VISVESVARAYA Cement Research Institute of India, New Delhi
SHRI D. AJITHA SIMHA Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi
(Member Secrewv)
. ..
Vlll
CONTENTS
Page
2.1 Assumptions .. . . .. 9
2.2 Maximum Depth of Neutral Axis ... ... 9
2.3 Rectangular Sections . .. ... 9
2.3.1 UnderReinforced Sections .. . . .. 10
2.3.2 Doubly Reinforced Sections ... ... 12
2.4 TSections . .. .. . 14
2.5 Control of Deflection . .. . .. 14
ix
Page
Table
A Salient Points on the Design Stress Strain Curve for Cold Worked
Bars ... . .. 6
X
LIST OF CHARTS
chart
No. PW
FLEXURE  Singly Reinforced Section
CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
AXIAL COMPRESSION
xi
Chart
No. Page
COMPRESSION WITH BENDING  Rectangular Section 
Reinforcement Distributed Equally on Two Sides
27 f, = 250 N/mm% d’/D = 0.05 . .. . .. 112
28 fi = 250 N/mms d’/D = 0.10 . .. ... 113
29 h I 250 N/mm9 d’/D = 0.15 . .. . .. 114
30 fv LI 250 N/mm9 d’/D = 020 . .. ... 115
31 fr = 415 N/mm9 d’/D = 0.05 . .. .. . 116
32 fu = 415 N/mm9 d’/D  0.10 1.. . .. 117
33 fr PD415 N/mm9 d’/D P 0.15 . . . . .. 118
34 fy  415 N/mm9 d’/D  0.20 . . . ... 119
35 fr  508 N/mm9 d’/D = 0.05 . . . ... 120
36 fr  500 N/mm4 d’/D = 0.10 . . . ... 121
37 fr = 500 N/mm9 d’/D = 0.15 . . . ... 122
38 fy  500 N/mm3 d’/D  0.20 . . . . .. 123
xii
ClUWt
No. Page
TENSION WITH BENDING  Rectangular Section 
Reinfomment Distributed Equally on Two Sides
66 h  250 N/mm’ d’/D = @l5 and 020 .. . . .. 151
67 fr  250 N/mm’ d’/D 0.05 and 010 ... . .. 152
68 fr  415 N/mm’ d’/D  @OS .. . . .. 153
69 & = 415 N/mm* d’/D a 0.10 .. . . .. 154
70 h  415 N/mm’ d’/D P 0.15 . . ., .., 155
71 /r  415 N/mm’ d’/D  020 . .. . .. 156
72 II=5OON/llltII’ d’/D  0.05 ... . .. 157
73 h5OON/IIUU’ d’/D = 010 ... . .. 158
74 hSOON/mm’ d’/D  0.15 .. . . .. 159
75 &so0 N/lIlOI’ d’/D  O20 . .. ... 160
TENSION WITH BENDING  Rectangular Section  Reinforcement
Distributed Equally on Four Sides
76 f,  250 N/mm’ d’/D  0.05 and 010 . .. . .. 161
77 fr  250 N/mm* d’/D  0.15 and 020 ... .,. 162
78 /r  415 N/mm’ d’/D = 0.05 . .. .. . 163
79 /r I 415 N/mma d’/D P 0.10 .. . ... 164
80 fr  415 N/mm’ al/D  0.15 . .. . .. 165
81 fr = 415 N/mm’ d’/D  090 .. . ... 166
82 h5OON/mm’ d’/D = 0.05 . .. .. . l6i
83 Jt5OON/lIllII’ d’/D = 0.10 . .. ... l68
a4 fr  500N/mm* d’/D  0.15 . .. . .. 169
85 A5OON/IUlll’ d*/D= 020 . .. ... 170
. ..
xul
LIST OF TABLES
Table
No. Page
FLEXURE  Reinforcement Percentage, pI for Singly Reinforced Sections
xiv
Table
NO.
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
64 Plain Bars ... . .. 184
65 Deformed bars, fuP 415 N/mm* .. . . .. 184
66 Deformed bars, fr  500N/mm* ... . .. La5
67 Anchorage Value of Hooks and Bends . .. 2.. 186
xv
Table
No.
WORKING STRESS DESIGN  FLEXURE  Rchforccmcnt
Percentages for Doubly Reinforced S&ions
WORKING STRJZSSMETHODSHEAR
83 Plain Bars . ..
84 Deformed Bars  uat 230 N/mm*, e  190 N/mm’ .. .
85 Deformed Bars  u,,  275 N/mm*, uc  190 N/mm’ . ..
86 Moment of Inertia  Values of b@/l2 000 . ..
xvi
SYMBOLS
xvii
&I  Maximum uniaxial moment Xl = Shorter dimension of the stirrup
capacity of the section with &I = Depth of neutral axis at the
axial load, bending about limit state of collapse
yyaxis
Xu,mox = Maximum depth of neutral axis
Mel  Equivalent bending moment in limit state design
MU,  Additional moment, MU  Mn,tim Yc = Distance from centroidal axis
in doubly reinforced beams of gross section, neglecting
Mu,timrr= Limiting moment of resistance reinforcement, to extreme fibre
of a Tbeam in tension
m = Modular ratio Yl = Longer dimension of stirrup
P = Axial load z = Lever arm
pb  Axial load corresponding to the a P Angle
condition of maximum  Partial safety factor for load
compressive strain of 0903 5 in Yr
concrete and OQO2 in the Ym  Partial safety factor for material
outermost layer of tension strength
steel in a compression member t = Creep strain in concrete
P” = Design axial load for limit state ecbc  Permissible stress in concrete in
design (factored load) bending compression
P P Percentage of reinforcement 6X = Permjssible stress in concrete in
 Percentage of compression direct compression
PC
reinforcement, 100 A,,/bd 01 = Stress in steel bar
PC let Percentage of tension reinforce es 3: Permissible stress in steel in
ment, l,OOAst/bd compression
Ptr  Additional percentage of tensile 011 = Permissible stress in steel in
reinforcement ’ doubly tension
reinforced beams, ‘I”00A,t,/bd
es, I Permissible stress in shear
ST  Spacing of stirrups reinforcement
T”  Torsional moment due to P Nominal shear stress
factored loads 7Y
V  Shear force 7bd P Design bond stress
VS I Strength of shear reinforcement k  Shear stress in concrete
(working stress design) ‘5w  Equivalent shear stress
V&l = Sbear force due to factored loads Q,mu  Maximum shear stress in concrete
VW = Stren of shear reinforcement with shear reinforcement
8himit state design) i Creep coefficient
8
x = Dept;: neutral axis at service
9  Diameter of bar
...
XVlll
CONVERSION FACTORS
Conversely
To Convert into Mu&ply by Multiply
by
(2)
I (1)
(3) (4)
~
Loads and Forces
Newton kilogram o102 0 9.807
Kilonewton Tonne 0.102 0 9.807
Stresses
Newton per mm* kilogram per mm’ o102 0 9.807
Newton per mm’ kilogram per cm2 10.20 O0981
xix
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
1. MATERIAL STRENGTHS AND
STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIPS
M 15, M 20, M 25, M 30, M 35 and M 40. 1.1.2 The charts for compression members
are applicable to all grades of concrete.
The number in the grade designation refers
to the characteristic compressive strength,
fti, of 15 cm cubes at 28 days, expressed in 1.2 TYPES AND GRADES OF
N/mmZ ; the characteristic strength being REINFORCEMENT BARS
defined as the strength below which not
more than 5 percent of the test results are The types of steel permitted for use as re
expected to fall. inforcement bars in 4.6 of the Code and their
characteristic strengths (specified minimum
*Code d practice for plain and reinforced concrete yield stress or O2 percent proof stress)
( third revision ). are as follows:
High yield strength steel (hot IS : 11391966t 42.5 kgf/mm2 for all sizes
rolled deformed bars)
High yield strength steel IS : 17861979$ 7 4 15 N/mm2 for all bar sizes
(coldtwisted deformed 500 N/mm* for all bar sizes
bars)
I a.002 0’001
for harddrawn steel wire fabric) have been
included in the tables for singly reinforced STRAIN
sections.
FIG. 1 DESIGN STRKSSSTRAINCURVE FOR
CONCRETE
450
m2
soo/‘1.0
‘iv’ ‘mnl
400
UC/l1n
350
T
< 300
2.
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 0.001 o002 0.003 o004 0*005
STRAIN
FIG. 3 STRESSSTRAIN
CURVESFOR COLDWORKED STEELE
( Chse 1.4 )
6
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
2. FLEXURAL MEMBERS
0*0035
t
X u,m*a
FLEXURAL MRMM3R.S
at a distance or U416 xu (wnlcn nas oecn
TABLE E MAXIMUM PERCENTAGE OF
rounded off to 0.42 xu in the code) from the TENSILE REINFORCEMENT pt,lim FOR
extreme compression fibre; and the total force SINGLY REINFStRmTNSRE!aANGW
of compression is 0.36 fck bxu. The lever arm,
that is, the distance between the centroid
of compressive force and centroid of tensile (c%u.w 2.3)
force is equal to (d  0.416 x,). Hence the
upper limit for the moment of resistance of a fdr, /y, Nhm’
N/mm* r b
singly reinforced rectangular section is given 250 415 u)o
by the following equation: 1.32
15
M u,lim = O36& bxu,,, 1.76 ;g “0%
x(d  0.416 ~u,mu) 220
.
4 2% l.43 YE
Substituting for xu, from Table B and
transposing fdr bd2, we get the values of
tie limiting moment of resistance factors for 2.3.1 UnderReinforced Section
singly reinforced rectangular beams and
slabs. These values are given in Table C. Underreinforced section means a singly
The tensile reinforcement percentage, pt,lim reitiorced section with reinforcement per
corresponding to the limiting moment of centage not exceeding the appropriate value
resistance is obtained by equating the forces given in Table E. For such sections, the
of tension and compression. depth of neutral axis xu will be smaller than
x”,,,,~. The strain in steel at the limit state
of collapse will, therefore, be more than
0.87 fy
Substituting for xu,mPxfrom Table B, we get  + 0902 and, the design stress in
E.
the values of Pt,lim fYj& as given in Table C. steel will be 0937fy. The depth of neutral
axis is obtained by equating the forces of
tension and compression.
TABLE C LIMITING MOMENT OF
RESISTANCE AND REINFORCEMENT INDEX
FOR SINGLY REl;~&FOR~N~ RECTANGULAR ‘G (0.87 fr)  0.36 fdrb xu
(Clause 2.3)
FLExuRALmMBERs 11
Referring to Chart 4, reinforcement per The lever arm for the additional moment of
centage, pt 6 0.475 resistance is equal to the distance between
Referring to Chart 90, provide centroids of tension reinforcement and com
8 mm dia at 13 cm spacing pression reinforcement, that is (dd’) where
or 10 mm dia at 20 cm spacing. d’ is the distance from the extreme compres
sion fibre to the centroid of compression
Alternately, reinforcement. Therefore, considering the
A, = O475 x 100 x &J = 3.8 cm* per moment of resistance due to the additional
tensile reinforcement and the compression
metre width. reinforcement we get the following:
From Table %, we get the same reinforce
ment as before. Mu,  Asts (0*87f,) (d  a,)
also, Mu, =&UsfQC)(dJ’)
b) Forf, = 250 N/mm* where
From Table D, Mu&bd” = 2.24 N/mm2 A1t2 is the area of additional tensile rein
forcement,
M u&m = 2.24 x 10’ x 1 x(h) AK is the area of compression reinforce
= 14.336 kN.m ‘’ ment,
Actual bending moment of 9.6 kN.m is less I= is the stress in compression reinforce
ment, and
than the limiting bending moment.
Referring to Chart 2, reinforcement per fee is the compressive stress in concrete at
the level of the centroid of compres
centage, pt = 0.78 sion reinforcement.
Referring to Churf PO, provide 10 mm dia
at 13 cm spacing. Since the additional tensile force is balanced
by the additional compressive force,
2.3.2 Doubly Reinforced Sections  Doubly
reinforced sections are generally adopted A, (l;c  fee)= At, (0*87&j
when the dimensions of the beam have been Any two of the above three equations may
predetermined from other considerations be used for finding Alt, and A,. The total
and the design moment exceeds the moment tensile reinforcement Ast is given by,
of resistance of a singly reinforced section.
The additional moment of resistance needed Ast = Pblim bd$
m Asc,
is obtained by providing compression re
inforcement and additional tensile reinforce It will be noticed that we need the values of
ment. The moment of resistance of a doubly frc and J& before we can calculate Al.
reinforced section is thus the sum of the The approach, given here is meant for design
limiting moment of resistance Mu,lim of a of sections and not for analysing a given
singly reinforced .section and the additional section. The depth of neutral axis is, therefore,
moment of resistance Mu,. Given the values taken as equal to x,,,. As shown in Fig. 5,
of Mu which is greater than M”,lim, the value strain at the level of the compression reinforce
of Mu, can be calculated. d’
ment will be equal to O003 5 1 
Mu, = Mu  Muslim ( XU,UWZ
>
STRAIN OlAGRkM
FIG. 5 DOUBLY REINKIRCED SECIION
FLEXURAL MEMBERS 13
usia Jl¶odibrion factors given in Table G distribution in the flanp would not be uni
for BY= 415 N/nuns, form. The expression Bven in E22.1 of the
Code is an approximation which makes allo
I&  10.7 x 0.60 r! 642 cm* wance for the variation of stress in the flange.
,& I 10.7 x 0.63 = 674cm’ This expression is obtained by substitutin#
JYfor &in the equation of E2.2 of the CO&
Referring to ruble E, yf being equal to (0.15 X,,m&+ 065 or)
pt,nm  072 but not greater than Dr. With this m&&a
5625 x 30 tion,
.*. Ast,u,n 0.72 .x ,oo  1215cm’
Mudin~~T9 Mu,lirn,web f 0446 f&
A*: E 12.15+ 642 = 18.57cm’
These values of At and AE are comparable MrWY+  f )
to the values obtained from the table. Dividing both sides by&k bw P,
2.4 TSECTIONS
The moment of resistanceof a Tbeam can x(& l)$(l+$)
be considered as the sum of the moment of
resistance of the concrete in the web of width where
b, and the contribution due to ,flanges of xu;= + 0.65 !$
width br.
The maximum moment of resistance is ob but .f < $
tained when the depth of neutral axis is x,,,~.
When the thickness of flange is small,
that is, less than about 0.2 d, the stress in the Using the above expression, the ~2:
flange will be uniform or nearly uniform of the moment of resistance
(see Fig. 6) and the centroid of the compres Mu,lim,T~ck b,# for different values of h/b*
sive force in the flange can be taken at Df/2 and &/d have been worked out and given in
from the extreme compression fibre. There Tables 57 to 59 for three grades of steel.
fore, the following expression is obtained for
the limiting moment of resistance of Tbeams 2.5 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
with small values of Dfjd.
2.5.2 The deffection of beams and slabs
would generally be, within permissible limits
x(brbw)h( d$) if the ratio of span to effective depth of the
whereMll,llltniiveb member does not exceed the values obtained
in accordance with 22.2.1 of the Code. The
30.36 fd bwxu,,,,.x (dO.416 x0,,,,&. following basic values of span to effective
The equation given in E2.2 of the code is the depth are given:
same as above, with the numericals rounded
off to two decimals. When the flange thick, En\!;;;Eorted 20
ness is greater than about 0.2 d, the above
expression is not corre4ztbecause the stress Cantilever “4
0.0.
047 f” 0.87 f,
_b * 0.002
E,
STRAIN DIAGRAM STRESS DIAORAM
ho. 6 TSECTION
FLBXURAL MEMBERS 15
b) Beam of Example 3, as a cantilever beam .*. The section is satisfactory for control
over a span of 4.0 m of deflection.
Cl Slab .of Example 2, as a continuous Span
slab spanning in two directions the c) Actual ratio of
Effective depth
shorter and longer spans being, 2.5 m
and 3.5 m respectively. The moment ==2.5 31.25
given in Example 2 corresponds to 0.08
shorter spa’n. (for slabs spanning in two directions,
the shorter of the two is to be con
Span sidered)
a>Actual ratio of
Eflective depth (i) Forfv = 415 N/mm2
pt = 0,475
= (56.;5;,oo) = 13.33 Referring to Chart 22,
Percentage of tension reinforcement Max Span = 23.6
required, (> d
pt = 0.6 For continuous slabs the factor
Span obtained from the Chart should be
Referring to Char1 22, value of Max T multiplied by 1.3.
( >
corresponding to Pt = 0.6, is 22.2. :. Max “7 for continuous slab
Actual ratio of span to effective depth is less
than the allowable value. Hence the depth = 23.6 x 1.3 F 30.68
provided is adequate for controlling deflec Actual ratio of span to effective depth is
tion. slightly greater than the allowable. Therefore
Span the section may be slightly modified or actual
b) Actual ratio of deflection calculations may be made to as
Etfective depth
certain whether it is within permissible limits.
‘(d&J = 7.11 (ii) F0r.j; = 250 N/mm2
pt = 0.78
Percentage of tensile reinforcement, Referring to Chart 21,
pr = 1.117
Referring to Churl 22, Max Span = 31.3
(1 d
Max value of %!a? = 21.0 :. For continuous slab,
( Cl 1
Max %% = 31.3 x 1.3 = 40.69
For cantilevers, values read from the d
Chart are to be multiplied by 0.35. Actual ratio of span to effective depth is
:. Max value of 1 less than the allowable value. Hence the
I/d for ) =21.0x0*35=7.35 section provided is adequate for controlling
cantilever J deflection.
FLeXURAL MEMBERS
240
250
415

f f&  zO.N/m'
ck
20
O073 1.253 l203 O627
“0%
O188 Efl
izi! :‘26:
l216 O633 .
x’%
O615
O213
O237
0.111
0’123
FEJ
. 1%
LOZ
:z
1.256
I:: 0.621
0.628
1.55 O825
;:g 8$;:
.
l70 O916
l75 0947
l80 1.632
I85 *
%! X:E ;:gj l647
1’041 O521 0.500 l663
E 1.073 o537 O515 _g;;
200 lm6 0.553 o531 .
l185
.
f’:: 1*199
.
f’:; .
:‘E
220 l239
m3xuRAL MEMBERS 49
'Y
240
250
415
480 TABLE 4 FLEXURE  REINFORCEMENT PERCENTAGE, pi FOR SINGLY
REINFORCED SECTIONS
500
fck fd = 30 N/mm2
30 MUW,
A. N/mm2
*
N/mm2 r240 7
250 500 250 415 480 500
1.530 0.734
c8”: 1.562 ~~~ is; 0.750
1.594 1.530 0.797 0.765
tz 1.626 1.561 0813 0.781
3.00 1.659 1.592 0.829 0.796
0380 3.05 1.691 1.624 0.978 0.846 0.812
0405 3.10 1.725 1.656 0.862 0.828
0.429 3.15 1.758 1.687 zz3 0.879 0.844
0.454 1.791 1.720 1.036 0.896 0.860
0.479 33:g 1.825 1.752 1.055 0.913 0.876
0.525 0.252 3.30 1.859 1.785 1.075 0.930
0552 0.265 3.35 1.893 1.818 1.095 0.947
0.578 Ct.277 1.851 1.115 0.964
0.290 :z zi I.884 1.135 0.981
.
x’z 0.303 3.50 1998 1.918 1.156 0.999
@631 0316 3.55 1.952 l176 0976
~~i?i
0.712
0739
x:::
0.709
xz
0.355
3.60
3.65
3.70
2z
2105
2.142
1.986
2021
2056
1.197
1.218
1.239
KG;
1.053
1.071
zf:
1.028
0.766 0’735 0.368 3.75 2.178 2091 1.260 1.089 1.046
0.762 @381 3.80 2215 1.281 1.108
8’;1;: 0.788 0.394 3.85 2253 1.303 KS
oi49 2291 1.325 .
:‘:z 1.099
xz:: x:z it:z 2329 1.347 1.164 1.118
x:zi 0.868 0.434 4.00 2367 1.369 1.184
0.932 0.895 1.391
0961 0.922 oo:z f:iz i::z 1.414
0.989 0.950 0.475 2485 2386
1.018 0977 0488 2.525 2.424
1946 1.005 0502 2566 2463
1.075
:x.
1.163
1.192
1’173
::i!f
1.260
1289
NOTE Blanksindicateinadmissible
reinforcement
pyceniage(see TableE).
After determining the eccentricity, the section The crosssectional dimensions required will
should be designed for combined axial load depend on the percentage of reinforcement.
and bending (see 3.2). However, as a simplifi Assuming 1.0 percent reinforcement and
cation, when the value of the mininium referring to Chart 25,
eccentricity calculated as above is less than or
equal to 0*05D, 38.3 of the Code permits Required crosssectional area of column,
the design of short axially loaded compression A,  2 700 cm*
members by the following equation: Provide a section of 60 x 45 cm.
where 1: 27 cm8
PU is the axial load (ultimate), We have to check whether the minimum
A, is the area of concrete, and eccentricity to be considered is within 0.05
Asc is the afea of reinforcement. times the lateral dimensions of the column.
The above equation can be written as In the direction of longer dimension,
PA, I D
P” = 0.4 f& A,  +$) t 0.67fy loo &in 
500 +30
3*0x 102 60
where = + jg P 0.6 j2.0  2.6 cm
500
As is the gross area of cross section, and or, e&D = 26160 = O043
p is the percentage of reinforcement.
Dividing both sides by A,, In the direction of the shorter dimension,
3.0 x 102 45
PU = @4&( 1  j&) +“‘67fy $j emrn =
500
+
30
= 0.6 + 1.5
= 2.1 cm
or, e,i,/b = 2*1/45 = @047
Charts 24 to 26 can be used for designing The minimum eccentricity ratio is less than
short columns in accordance with the above @05 in both directions. Hence the design of
equations. In the lower section of these the section by the simplified method of 38.3
charts, P./A, has been plotted against of the Code is valid.
reinforcement percentage p for different
grades of concrete. If the cross section of
the column is known, PU/Al can be calculated 3.2 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND
and the reinforcement percentage read from UNIAXIAL BENDING
the chart. In the upper section of the charts,
PU/As is plotted against PUfor various values As already mentioned in 3.1, all com
of AS. The combined use of the upper and pression members should be designed for
COMPRESSION MEMBERS 99
minimum eccentricity of load. It should compressed edge to zero at the opposik
always be ensuredthat the scotionis designed ed~. For purely axial compression, the
for a moment which is not lessthan that due strain is assumed to be uniformly equal
to the prescribedtinimum eccentricity. 00002 acxossthe seotion[see 38.l(a) of the
Code]. The strairidistributionlines for these
3.2.1 Amanptio&Assumptiom (a), (c),
~’ oases intersecteaeh other at a depth of
(d) and (e) for flexural members (see 2.1)
are also applicable to members subjcoted ~ffom the highly compressed edge. This
to combined axial load and bending. ‘The
assumption (b) that the maximum strain point is assumedto act as a fulcrum for the
in concrete at the outermost eom ression strain distribution line when the neutral
fibre is 04N35 is also applicable wi en the axis lies outsidethe motion (see Fig. 7). This
neutralaxis k within the seotionand in the leads to the assumption that the strain at
limitingcase when the neutralaxis lies along the highly compresseded~ is 00035 minus
one edge of the section; in the latter oasc 0?5 times the strain at the least compressed
the strain varies from 0@035 at the highly edge [see 38.Z(b) of the Cole],
“i t
:

1
1”
I
I
● ‘* ● ● ●
*
● ●
i
c
● ●
b I :
0 !
0 * ●
t
● HIWilmY C6MPRE S SE II
I ● 00 I J: EOOE
CENTRO13AL AXIS
+’+ ikh ROW OF REINFORCEMENT
STRAIN DIAGRAMS
0035
Neutral axis
wlthln the scctlon
30/7
1
— 
Neutral axis
outside the sect ion
No DESIGNAIDSIK)RREINFORCED CONCR81E
3.2.2 Stress Block Parameters Wh&n the Area of stress block
Neutral Ax& Lies O&side the Section  When
the neutral axis lies outside the section,  0446f,D5 g 4,D
the shape of the stress block will be as. indi ( >
cated in Fig. 8. The stress is uniformly
= 04461&D +gD
0446fd for a distance of Ly from the highly
compressed edge because the strain is more  0446fdr D
[l&&J]
than 0402 and thereafter the stress diagram
is parabolic.
The centroid of the stress block will be
found by taking moments about the highly
compressed edge.
Moment about the highly compressed edge
D
pO1446fckD
(1 i $ gD
O446 1,
BTRESS OIAORAW
FIG. 8 STRBSS
BLOCK WHEN THE NEUTRAL
Am h¶ oUT?3IDE THE SECTION
Let x0 kD and let g be the ditference NomValues of stress block parametershave
between the strxs at the highly compressed been tabulatedfor valuesof k upto4’00for infom
edgo and the stress at the least compressed tion only. For constructionof interactiond@cams
edge. Considering the geometric properties it b merally adaquatato considervalues of k up to
about 1.2.
of a parabola,
COMPRESSlONMEMBERS 101
3.2.3.2 For the case of purely axial com The above expression can be written as
pression, the points plotted on the yaxis
n
of the charts are obtained as follows:
where
fr is the compressive stress in steel corres
ponding to a strain of 0.002. + xg (.Ai  fci).Yi
The second term within parenthesis repre i 1
sents the deduction for the concrete replaced
by the reinforcement bars. This term is where
usually neglected for convenience. However,
a9 a better approximation, a constant value C,D is the distance of the centroid of the
corresponding to concrete grade M20 has concrete stress block, measured from
been used in the present work so that the the highly compressed edge; and
error is negligibly small over ;he range of
concrete mixes normally used. An accurate Yi is the distance from the centroid of the
consideration of this term will necessitate section to the ith row of reinforce
the preparation of separate Charts for each ment; positive towards the highly
grade of concrete, which is not considered
compressed edge and negative to
wards the least compressed edge.
worthwhile.
Dividing both sides of the equation by
3.2.3.2 When bending moments are also
fck bD”,
acting in addition to axial load, the points
for plotting the Charts are obtained by
assuming different positions of neutral axis. c, (O5Cd
For each position of neutral axis, the strain
distribution across the section and the n
stress block parameters are determined as +X*(&i &i)(s)
explained earlier. The stresses in the rein
forcement are also calculated from the i 1
known strains. Thereafter the resultant axial
force and the moment about the centroid b) When the neutral axis lies within the
of the section are calculated as follows: section
a) When the neutral axis lies outside the
section In this case, the stress block parameters
are simpler and they can be directly incorpora
li ted into the expressions which are otherwise
same as for the earlier case. Thus we get the
following r;xpressions:
i1
where
=@36k+ c &j&&d
i1
Cl  coefficient for the area of stress
block to be taken from Table H
(see 3.2.2);
Ad
Pi  where A,i is the area of rein n
bx
forcement in the ith row;
fii  stress in the ith row of reinform
ment, compression being positive
and tension being negative; where
fci  stress in concrete at the level of
the ith row of reinforcement; and Depth of neutral axis
k
n  number of rows of reinforcement. D
Charts for d’/D = 0.10 will be used. where, Ash is the area of the bar forming
the helix and sh is the pitch of the helix.
(a) Column with hoop reinforcement In order to satisfy the coda1 requirement,
1600 x 103 0.09 Art&k > O*OO91
20 x 50 x 50 x ioa  o’32 For 8 mm dia bar, Ati = O503 cm2
125 x 10 sh ( 0.09 x 0.503
20 x 50 x 50 x 50 x 103  0.05 ’ 0.0091
‘__ < 4.97 cm
Referring to Chart 52, for fy I 250 N/mm1
p/fck = o87
= 0.87 x 20 = 1.74 3.3 COMPRESSION MEMBERS SUB
A: = pnD2/400 JECT TO BIAXIAL BENDING
= 1.74 x nx50x50/400=34*16cm2
Exact design of members subject to axial
Forf, I 240 N/mm2, load and biaxial bending is extremely
AS = 34.16 x 2501240 = 35.58 cm2 laborious. Therefore, the Code permits the
design of such members by the following
(b) Column with Helical Reinforcement equation :
ay 2000 (1
b
for evaluating Pb for various cases are given
in Table 60. The values given in Table 60
The expressions for the additional moments are based on the same assumptions as for
can be written in the form of eccentricities members with axial load and uniaxial bending.
of load, as follows: The expression for k can be written as
follows :
Mu  P, eu
where
The above moments will have to be reduced The above actual moments should be com
in accordance with 38.7.1.1 of the Code; pared with those calculated from minimum
but multiplication factors can be evaluated eccentricity consideration (see 24.4 of the
only if the reinforcement is known. Code) and greater value is to be taken as the
initial moment for adding the additional
For first trial, assumep p: 3.0 (with reinforce moments.
ment equally on all the four sides).
40
&=40x 30= 1200cm2
ex =  &+$7g + 3o= 2*73cm
= 0.10
MUY 73.3
Plfck  .g M
 Ic 103.7 = 0.71
UYl
108
'Y
250
415
 500 Chart 63 VALUES OF Puz for COMPRESSION MEMBERS
f
ck
15
20
25
30
ti i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i IWi
0 0.1 O2 O3 0.4 0.5 O6 O7 0.8 0.9 1.0
%/L
COMPRFSSIONMEMBERS
Chart 65 SLENDER COMPRESSION MEMBERS 
Multiplying Factor k for Additional Moments
k+
urpu
P
PUZ Pe
a 04
04
O3
0*2
o1
Valora of k,
&ID
r 9
005 WlO 015 OQQ
V@mof4
#ID
fr
N,‘mrn~
r
O05 0.10 &lS 020
\
COMPRESSION
MEMBERS 171
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
Y”
d = 60  2.5  ‘G  56.25 cm
Area of two legs of the stirrup should satisfy
the following:
Equivalent shear,
Vc = VI 1*6(f ,
45
595t 1*6x m = 95l240 = 335 kN
V, 335 x 101
%e = Fd = 3. x 56.25 >rlo2 = 1.99 N/mm*
From Table J, for M 15, ‘F~,,,,.~= 2.5 N/mm”
b, = 23 cm
k ,FLEXURAL
TENSION
FACE
1 I
~~~is less than sc.,,,; hence the section does
not require revision.
From Table 61, for an assumed value of
pt = 0.5,
T. = 0.46 N/mm* c T”=.
Hence longitudinal and transverse reinforcc 7
ments are to be designed Longitudinal 6C1 cm
reinforcement (see 40.4.2 of the Code): Y&6cm d, 9534
Equivalent bending moment, cm
Me,.= M,C Mt *
m
1
= 115J79.4 
*
= 194.4 kN.m
194.4x 10”
M,Jbd2 = 30 x (56.292 x 103 = 2.05 N/mma
E
3.00
x:::
0.71
@82
0.82
0.82
091
0.92
0.92
0.94
0.95
0.96
097
0.98
0.99
0.99
l*oO
1.01
:; 1739
1208 21.30
1479 28.87
20.05 2456
35.36
:B” 30.92
3914 47.93
37.87 51.33
64.97 %E
20 48.32 5918 SO.21 98.23
5846 7160 _. __
97.05 118.86
75.49 9246 125.32
94.70 115.98 15720 :;;*z.
123.69 151.49 205.32 251.47
15654 191.73 25986 31827
NOTE a is the angle between the bentup bar and the axis of the member.
20
25 Tabulated values are in ccatimatns.
30 TENSIONBARS COMPRESSION
BARS
BAR GRADE OF CONCRETE GRADE OF CONCRETE
DIAMETER, fA, ,
mm Ml5 M20 M25 M30 Ml5 M20 M25 M301
x 43.5
326 % 23.3
31.1 21.8
290 261
348 21.8 18.6 174
23.2
10 544 453 38.8 363 43.5 z:: 290
12 65.3 544 46.6 435 522 435 348
:: 97.9
87.0 725
81.6 621
699 653
58.0 696
78.3 65.3
5&O 497
559 zt
z 108.8
114.8 z.76 820
777 725
766 91.9
870 766
725 65.6
621 58.0
61.2
;; 146.2 1392
121.8 1193
lW4 111.4
974 133.6
1169 974 95.5
835 %
36 :z:x 1566 1342 125.3 150.3 f:::: 107.4 10&2
NOTE The development lengths given above ara for a stress of @87/y in the bar.
_
TABLE 65 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR FULLY STRESSED DEFORMED BARS
fy PI 415 N/mm*
NoraThe development lengths given above are for a stress of 087fy in the bars.
BAR DIAMETER,
mm 6 8 10 12 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 36
Anchorage Value of
hook 9.6 128 160 192 25.6 28.8 320 35.2 40.0 448 51.2 576
Anchorage Value of
90” bend 4.8 6.4 8O 9.6 12.8 14.4 16.0 17.6 20O 22.4 25.6 28.8
I
4 cb mir
_L_
No,rli 2  Hooks and binds shall conform to the details given above.
b;bc
TABLE L PERCENTAGEOF TENSILE
7
. REINFORCEMENTP..,,., FOR SINGLY
REINFORCEDBALANCEDSECTION
.,“_.
(Clause 6.1.1)
esl N/mm*
$&ma L
,
Gil 230 275
lk
5.0 0.71 0.31 O23
T1
7.0 l00 0.44 0.32
FIG. 9 BALANCEDSECTION(WORKING 8.5 1.21 053 0.39
STRESSDESIGN)
10.0 1.43 0.63 O46
1 pt bd
= bkdz = loo m (d  kd)
k 2
93.33
k= bd2 7 = bd2 ‘$ (1  k)
as( f 93.33
The value of k for balanced section depends
only on qt. It is independent of a,bc. Moment k2 = p$(l  k)
of resistance of a balanced section is given
of Mbal/bd2 for different values of U&c and The positive root of this equation is given by
asI are given in Table K. k =  Ptm + p2,m2 + ptm
100 J F (100)”  50
WORKINGSTRm DESIGN
189
x (1 ;)a&
and A,Q =
Tables 68 to 71. The Tables cover four
grades of concrete and five values of uu.
The compression reinforcement can be ex
6.1.3 Doubly Reinforced Section  Doubly pressed as a ratio of the additional tensile
reinforced sections are adopted when the reinforcement area Altp.
bending moment exceeds the moment of
resistance of a balanced section.
M=b&iM’
USI 1
The additional moment M’ is resisted by = Qcbc (1.5 m  1) (ld’/kd)
providing compression reinforcement and
0 additional tensile reinforcement. The stress
in the compression reinforcement is taken Values of this ratio have been tabulated for
as I.5 m times the stress in the surrounding different values of d’/d and ucbcin Table M.
concrete. The table includes two values of ust. The
Taking moment about the centroid of values of pt and pc for fear values of d’/d
tensile reinforcement, have been tabulated against’ M/bd’ in
Tables 72 to 79. Tables are given for four
grades of concrete and two grades of steel.
M’ = PC bd(1.5 m  1) ucbc
ldc
%t “cbc d’ld
I +& (1.5m  1) uck N/mm’ N/mm’ m
0.15 0.20
130
140
IWORKING STRESS METHOD
190
230
TABLE 68 FLEXURE  MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FACTOR,
SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS
iU/bda, N/mm* FOR
275
130
0,146
O158 x:2:
190
O258
230 275
pt
0.47
0.48
f
130
0.542
O553
140
est. N/mma
0.583
0.595
190 230 L50.
275
O376 O758
O387 0.768 X:iE
O398 O779 0’839
O850
:z X:E O862
0431 0.631 O811
o443 0.647 O821
O663
ez O679 .
:ii;
O476 0.695 O853
O487 O711 O77 O864
O498 0.728
z; .
8’0;:
O+O 0.895
%t
130
140 1 WORKING STRESS METHOD 1
190
230
275
TABLE 69 FLEXURE  MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FACTOR, M/hP, N/mm* FOR
SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS
%bc
.
70 us:, N/mm*
pt
130 140 190 230 275 130 140 190 230 27i
O242 0.428 O76 O869 O936
O266 0.470 O77 @880 0948
O289 0.511 0.78 0.891 O960
@552 O79 0.971
.
:::: O593 0.80 8ZZ O983
O358 O523 O633 O757 O81 o994
O381 O557 O674 O806 O82
:zi .
x’z!i z::
0.83 F%
1.029
O449 O657 O795 8:: l041
O690 O835 O86 l052
.
8Z O723 O87 l064
__.
0.739 x::;: O88 l075
iFg O89 l087
. .
X’Ei O90 l099
O539 O581 l031 l110
O551 O593 :z l*!Ml l122
O562 @605 O821 l052 l133
O573 O617 0837 l145
O584 0.629 O854 :iE l156
0706 O760
O717
O728 :z
0.739 O795
O750 0807
O761
K&
.
O804
0.815 O878
.
X’E .
t’E
Om8 O913
O859 O925
130
140
190
230 I TABLE 71 FLEXURE  MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FACTOR, M/bd2, N/mm2 FOR
WC = 10.0N/mm’
%bc USI,N/mm*
Pl
.
100 230 ’ 130 140 190 230 27;
O433 I.10 1.257
0.475 1.12 l279 %i
O517 1.14 1.301 1.401
I.16 1.322 1.424
X:E 1.18 l344 1’447
OTi42 1.365 1.470
O683 1.387 1.494
O724 1.408
l430 E.
ALE l451 l563
0.847 1’30 l473 1.586
1’31 l483 l597
.
x’% l32 l494
O969 l33 l505 :z
1*009 1’34 l515 1,632
1.049 l35 1.526 1.643
l537 l655
;:g :::4 1.547
1.38 l558 t%i
.
l210 l39 1.569 l689
1.250 1’701
l289 ;:g
. t ::i:
1.43
l44
1.45 l632
1.46 1.643
1.47 1.653
l48 l664
1.49 1.675
1.50 1.685
1.51
1.52 EE
.
1.53 l717
1.54 l727
135 1.738
1.56 l749
1.759
:z. 1.770
1.59 l780
l60 l791
E LE iz
033 O34
O36 :3$
O38 XG O39
0.39 040 O41
o41 O42 O42
0.43 O43 O44
O45 O45
E 0.47
E O48
gz O49 O49
0.49 o50 851
O51 O52
8:: 0.52 0.53
O52 0.53 O54
O53 O54 0.55
O54 O55 O56
0.54 O56 @57
0.55 O57 O58
@56 0.59
o57 iE: O60
O59
x::: 8::
O59
O59 :::i
Gv 3: MN/mm* UN  230N/mma
STIRRUP Dmmnm, mm I)l. mm
sPAuNo,
col
:
7
x
16
::
13
l979
1.863
I 759
1.667
l583
1.267 2081
l056 1a734
0905
f’ii!
:z 1:156
E . 6P32
PO54
10014
13080
93.57 11460 16554
NOTE a is the an6 between the bent up bar and the axis of the member.
:; 105.0
933 78a
70.0 622
70.0 63.0
56O 78o
6P3, ;:3 46.2
520 41.6
46.8
z 1167
llP2 875
w4 77.8
7P4 71.5
70O 993
867 E 63.6
57a .
:27p
25
28 151.7
1354 101.6
113a 1Z 91o
81.3 108.3
121.3  81.3
91o za z::
:: 195.0
173.3 146.3
130O 1300
115.6 117o
104o 1560
138.7 1170
104o 1E 93.6
83.2
%t = 230 N/mm*
SC = 190 N/mm’
TENSIONBARS
_.___.___ COMPRESSION
BARS
BAR GRADE OF CONCRETE GRADE OF CONCRETE
DLAMEIER, ,___h_ > \
mm Ml5 M20 M25 M30 M20 M25 M30
7.1 EFFECTIVE MOMENT OF The. chart takes into account the condition
INERTIA
4 > 1. After finding the value of Zd it has
I
A method of calculating the deflections is
given in Appendix E of the Code. This to be compared with Z* and the lower of
method requires the use of an effective the two values should be used for calcula
moment of inertia I& given by the following ting the deflection.
equation For continuous beams, a weighted average
Z* value of Z~lr should be used, as given in
I&r  B2.1 of the Code.
1.2s; 12 +_
( )
but, Ir < Za < b 7.2 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP
Whrn DEFLECTIONS
Ir is the moment of inertia of the cracked
section ; Deflections due to shrinkage and creep can
is the cracking moment, equal to fcllll and B4 of the Code. This is illustrated in
be calculated in accordance with clauses B3
Mr
Yt
where Example 12.
fa is the modulus of rupture of con
crete, Zmis the moment of inertia of
the gross section neglecting the re Example 12 Check for deflection
inforcement and yt is the distance Calculate the deflection of a cantilever
from the centroidal axis of the beam of the section designed in Example 3,
gross section to the extreme fibre in with further data as given below:
tension ; Span of cantilever 4.0 m
M is the maximum moment under service Re\didimoment at service 210 kN.m
loads;
z is the lever arm; Sixty percent of the above moment is due to
d is the effective depth; rmanent loads, the loading being distri
x is the depth of neutral axis; %uted uniformly on the span.
b, is the breadth of the web; and
b is the breadth of the compression face. BP 300 x @O)* _ 5.4 x 10’ mm’
ZE =iT= 12
The values of x and z are those obtained
by elastic theory. Hence z = d  x/3 for From clause 5.2.2 of the Code,
rectangular sections; also b = b, for rec
Flexural tensile strength,
tangular sections. For flanged sections where
the flange is in compression, b will be equal fcr= 0.74 z N/mm9
to the flange width br. The value of z for
flanged beams will depend on the tlange fcrP O7 t/E = 2.71 N/mm’
dimensions, but in order to simplify the
calculations it is conservatively assumed the Yt D/2=~=3OOmm
value of z for ganged beam is also d  x/3. 2.71 x 5.4 x 10’
With this assumption, the expression e&c
tive moment of inertia may be written as
follows :  488 x 10’ N.mm
 O067
a’/d II 005 will be used in referring to Tables.
From 5.2.3.Z of the Code,
but, F
> 1 EC = 5700 q/fck N/mm*
r
and Zen< Zm I 5 700 d/13= 22l x 10’ N/mm*
Chorr 89 can be used for finding the value of A?& P 200 kN/mm* = 2 x 10s N/mm%
F in accordance with the above equation.
I
1.0
10
RATIO bf/bw
f
i
b0
3i
1.0
1.1 L_;______;__
_;c_$ IY
I I I I I I hi
 1
I I I i I I I I I I
I I Al I I I I I%++II“8
l4
l5
1.6
1.7
1.8
l9
2~0"""""""'~""""""~
216 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE
Chart 90 PERCENTAGE, AREA AND SPACING ‘OF BARS
IN SLABS
29
24
23
22
21
20
19
10
0 1 2 J b s 9 1 D 9 10 11 12 13 14 19
FUED 0
0.6 0*7 0.8 0.9 l*O
P
E Pa 8
ii z
r
BXand Paare the valuesof 19at the top and bottom of the column when, p
sKc the summation being
done for the members framin8 into r joint; KC and Kb arc the fkxural r;K, + tKb ’
stiffacosesof column and &m mpiwfy.
218
DESk3N AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRHI
chrrt 92 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF COLUMNS 
Frame Wiiut Restraint to Sway
0*9
04
0.6
P 1
FIXED 0
o\ 0.1 0.2 0.3 04 03 0*6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1O
wp
x
P2
ii
hand @,are the values of b at the top and bottom of the column. where b’~Kc~sKb,
tbe swnmation
being
done for tbo mombem framing into a joint; KC and Kb are the llex~rd dfhessu of &Umn and beamrespeCtivclY.
b, cm
d. cm
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
10 1.2 42
l7 ;; ::: ::g 5.5
58 65
$; ;:; ;‘2
46 ;:; 1:: 11.4
11.3 14l
g:‘: g 1rt :::: 17l
102 143 z 18.4
12l 146 17O 194 21.9 z
143 17l 20O m9 25.7 28.6
10O 23.3 33.3
27o 386
:::4 31.1
15.2 35.5 iii::
17.3 40.3 576
19.5 326 45.6 52l 58.6 65l
220 366 51.3 65.9 732
246 41o :!:f 82O
274 457 z:t 732 i::!! 91.5
305 508 71l 81.3 91.5 101.6
33.8 45.0 675 78.8 90.0 101.3 1125
41.0 546 z:: 81.9 95.6 109.2 122.9
49.1 65.5 81.9 98.3 114.6 131.0 1474 %5 .
58.3 77’8 97.2 136l 175.0 1944
68.6 915 1143 fK4 160.0 :z . 205.8 228.6
533 1067 186.7 213.3 2400 266.7
61.7 it: 123.5 ::::: 216l 277.8
1420 1775 248.5 E8 3194 :::I:
E :z3 1622 2028 283.9 3245 365.0 4056
922 1382 :843 23@4 322.6 368.6 4147 4608
lW2 2083 2604 3125 364.6 4167 5208
1172 :f:; 234.3 2929 351.5 410l E:
131.2 196.8 393.7 4593 iii:; 5905 i%;
1463 2195 i;::‘: ~%I: 439o 5122 5854 658.6 731.7
1626 2439 325.2 406.5 487.8 569l 6504 731.7 813O
VALUES OF &/(R”)
.
0O O3 0.8 1.6
O100 O100
11::;1;: Ki
O226 0229
O264 0269
O298 0.310
O348
:::z O386
0398 O424
O430 0460
O472 O490 0.4%
iz O525 0332
FiTi 0.559 O567
.
x’:;; O596 zi o”:zz
DEFLECTIONCALCULATION 221
TABLE 88 MOMENT OF INERTIA OF CRACKED SECTION 
VALUES OF h,(z)
f:E
::E!
l296 ::z:
:::z
I.419
::z
l489
::g
I.551
f:Zf
I.606
r
o0 0.1 O2 0.3 O4 o6 O8 J0
VALUES OF Jr/ $
( )
d'/dO20
Aml)/(m)
0l O2 0.3 O4 O6 O8 19’
@358 0.351
O363 :::t ::E
0.369 EZ 0.341 0328
0374 O367 0.345 0332
O380 O372 O350 0.336
MO2 O393 O385
Oar7 O398 O390 EZ
O413 O403 O394 O378
O418 O399 O382
0,423 z! O404 @386
O418 O399
O427 :iti
0.425 :zi
E O432 O421
O451 O439 0428
O383
x @388
O459 0392
0465 O396
0.471 0400
O507 O491
O513 0497 Ez ::g
0519 0503 0488 O411
O525 O493 0.414
O531 8E 0.498 O417
0.349 0.338
8% 0.354 0.343 8% x::::
0.371 0.359 0.348
0.377 0.364 0.352 ::::: “0::::
0.382 0.369 0.357 0.345 0.335
0449 0.411
fii$ 0456 0.416
0.421
0481 E; 0.426
0487 0.475 0.431
0.493
Ei
8%
BAR DIANKIER. mm
NUMBER ,
OPBAW 6 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 36
::i; 2.26
1.13 3.07
I 54 4.02
2o1 z 3.14 3.80
. 491 6.16 8 01 IO.18
1231 1608 2035
235 339 461 6.03 763 i% 1% l:% 18.47 24.12 30.53
:z: 452
5.65 769
6.15 10.05
8.04 10.17
12.72 1256
15.70 15.20
1900 2454
1963 2463 32.17 40.71
30.78 40.21 50.89
6.78 923 12% 15.26 l&85 22.80 29.45 36.94 48.25 61.07
7.91 10.77 14.07 17.81 2199 43.10 56.29 71.25
9.04 1231 l&O8 20.35 25.13 zz ii::; 49.26 6434 81.43
10.17 13.85 18.09 2290 34.21 44.17 55.41 7238 91 a
11.31 15.39 20.10 2544 iK 38.01 49.08 61.57 80.42 101.78
8.63 1244 1693 211 2799 34.55 41.81 5399 67.73 88.46 111.96
9.42 13.57 18.47 24.12 30.53 37.69 45.61 5890 73.89 96.5 I 122.14
10.21 1470 20.01 26.13 33.08 4941 63.81 80.04 101.55 132.32
1099 15.83 21.55 28.14 35.62 z% :;g . g*;; 86.20 142.50
11.78 16.96 23.09 30.15 38.17 47.12 92.36 : g:;;
152.68
18.09 24.63
. __ 3217 40.71 50% 98.52 128.68 162.86
1::::
1413
i9*i2
20.35
2617
27.70
3i*iS
36.19
43.26
45.80
53.40
56.54
z%
68.42
ix
88.35
104.67
1 IO.83
136.72
144.76 f ;;:;;
1492 21.48 2924 38.20 48.34 5969 ;;g ;;g 116.99 152.80 193.39
5.65 10.05 15.70 22.62 30.78 40.21 50.89 6283 123.15 160.85 203.57
BAR DIAMEIER.mm
1
cm
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 .
5.65 10.05 15.71 22.62 3079 4021 50.89 6283 76.03 98.17 123’15 16085
471 8.38 13.09 18.85 25.66 33.51 4241 52.36 63.36 81.81 102%8
718 1122 16.16 2199 36.35 44.88 54.30 70.12 87.96 :4qs
%
3.14
6.28
5.58
9.82
8.73
1414
1257
1924
17.10
f E
22.34
31.81
28.27
39.27
3491
47.52
4224
61.36
5454
769
68’42
10053
8936
10 2.83 5.03 7.85 11.31 2011 25.45 31.42 38.01 4909 61.57 8042
257 4.57 7.14 10’28 ::sz
* 18.28 23.13 28.56 34.56 44.62 55.98 73.11
t:. 4.19 6.54 9.42 1283 1675 21.21 26.18 31.68 4091 5131 6702
z7” a.70 11.84 15.47 1957 24.17 29.24 37.76 4737 61.86
:: 2.02 ZJ 4:: S08 1100 1436 18.18 22.44 27.15 35.06 43.98 57.45
15 1.88 3.35 5.24 10.26 1340 1696 20.94 25.34 41.05 53.62
16 l77 3.14 4.91 % 962 1257 15?w 19.63 23.76 :z 38.48 5027
17 l66 2.96 462 9.05 1183 1497 18.48 22.36 28.87 36.22 47.3 1
18 1.57 2.79 4.36 f:E 855 11.17 1444 17.45 21.12 27.27 2421 44.68
19 1.49 2.65 4.13 5.95 8.10 IO58 13.39 16.53 2001 25.84 3241 42.33
1.41 2.51 3.93 5.65 7.70 10.05 12.72 15.71 19.01 24.54 3079 40.21
1.35 239 374 5.39 7.33 957 12.12 14.96 18.10 23.37 29.32 3830
l28 228 3.57 514 9.14 11.57 4.28 17.28 22.31 2799 3656
1.23 218 3’41 492 ::z! 8.74 11.06 13’66 1653 21.34 26.77 34.97
1.18 209 3.27 4’71 6.41 8.38 1060 13.09 15.84 20.54 25.66 33.51
l13 2.01 3.14 4.52 6.16 8.04 12.57 15.20 19.63 24.63
1.09 1.93 4.35 5.92 773 1208 14.62 18.88 g:;;
l05
1 *Ol
1.86
1.79
;:Ff
2.80
419
4.04
570
5.50
7.45
7.18
11.64
1 l22
1408
13.58
18.18
17.53
f E
21.99
29.79
28.76
0.97 1.73 271 390 531 693 10.83 13.11 1693 21.23 27.73
30 O94 1.68 2.62 3.77 5.13 670 8.48 1047 12.67 16.36 20.52 26.81
32 0.88 1.57 245 353 4.81 628 7.95 982 11.88 15.34 19.24 25.13
34 0.83 1.48 2.31 3.33 4.53 5.91 7.48 5.24 1118 14.44 18.11 23.65
36 0.78 2.18 3.14 4,28 5.58 7.07 8.73 1056 13.63 17.10 22.34
0.74 :z 2.07 2.98 4.05 5.29 6.70 8.27 12.92 16.20 21.16
:: 071 1.26 1.96 2.83 3.85 5.03 6.36 7.85 ‘!?z. 12.27 15.39 20.11
LOAD TYPE M rr Mm
Pab’ Pdb
(’ 1’
I
PI
%
w, [’ 12 ad+ s2 (I3b)l
12 1’
7 2 I (31~e4+3s’) ‘,f+3S)
121’
w I’ w I2
+12 12
5Wl’
A 96
WI’ w I2
+20 30
t‘l
231
IXSf’LECT’ION CALCULATION
Table 98 DEFLECTION FORMULAE FOR PRISMATIC BEAMS
&it I
I+‘/2 48EI
Pl’ P 1’
192
L&! 23PI’
6=
5 PI’
646 EI
L ( w
, rrrrcrrl H!t
,,
,’
6E1
,P 1 I
P 1’ 2
L,MI
3 16 EI