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HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER OF PM10 SAMPLING

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and Correct Indication of PM10 Dosage to the

Thoracic Region of the Respiratory Tract

James P. Lodge Jr.

To cite this article: James B. Wedding , Michael A. Weigand , Young J. Kim , David L. Swift

& James P. Lodge Jr. (1987) A Critical Flow Device for Accurate PM10 Sampling and Correct

Indication of PM10 Dosage to the Thoracic Region of the Respiratory Tract, JAPCA, 37:3, 254-258,

DOI: 10.1080/08940630.1987.10466221

https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=uawm20

JAPCA 37: 254-258 (1987)

Correct Indication of PM10 Dosage to the Thoracic

Region of the Respiratory Tract

Wedding & Associates, Inc.

Fort Collins, Colorado

David L. Swift

The Johns Hopkins University

Baltimore, Maryland

Consultant

Boulder, Colorado

A state-of-the-art flow controller is presented that maintains con- The collection of accurate and meaningful PMio concen-

stant volume flow at ambient conditions. It utilizes the concept of trations is intimately related to proper flow control, the

critical flow and is extremely simple in design. It is insensitive to latter having two separate purposes. The first of these is to

pressure changes; the flow varies only with the square root of

provide an accurate denominator for the calculation of mass

concentration. There is an inherent additional question as to

ambient absolute temperature, a very small correction that, except whether that volume should be based upon actual ambient

under extreme circumstances, can probably be ignored. Both the- conditions as sampled or upon some set of reference (stan-

ory and field data are presented. dard) conditions. The second, at least as important, is to

Included is a discussion of the present practice in use by the U.S. maintain the flow rate near the design flow rate of the PMio

EPA to convert the sampled ambient volume to EPA reference

fractionating element so that it operates at the specific air

velocities for which it was intended. The PMio unit will

conditions (298 K, 101.3 kPa). The intent of size selective ambient certainly become increasingly inaccurate as the volumetric

monitoring is to mimic tracheobronchial deposition to provide an flow rate departs progressively from the design condition.

indicator of particulate matter dosage to the thoracic region of the An important additional consideration is the behavior of

respiratory tract. Below 2400 m humans breathe at essentially the human respiratory tract, since the intent of size selective

constant volume, where this volume is expressed at ambient pres-

ambient monitoring is to mimic tracheobronchial deposition

to provide an indicator of particulate matter dosage to the

sure and body temperature (37°C). Thus, to simulate dosage to the thoracic region of the respiratory tract. Thus, PMio mass

respiratory tract with an air sampler, we must sample at constant collected by a sampler and the most meaningful manner of

volumetric flow rates at ambient pressure and temperature condi- presentation of mass concentration data need consideration,

tions and, if necessary, correct for the difference between ambient with particular reference to the present practice of convert-

and body temperature. It is inappropriate from both the standpoint of

ing actual sampled volume to "standard conditions." This

issue has increasingly serious implications for ambient mon-

accurate PM10 sampling and normal behavior of the respiratory itoring with increasing altitude above sea level.

tract to operate a PM10 sampler using mass flow control and then to A common flow controller used in the TSP high volume

calculate mass concentration values using a reference mass of air, sampler and in many other devices, including some PMio

rather than the actual volume of air that existed and passed through samplers, senses flow by the heat loss from a heated resis-

the sampler during normal operation.

tance element, compensates for ambient temperature, and

maintains constant mass flow by feedback to the speed of

the pump motor. Variations in volumetric flow rate are di-

rectly proportional to changes in ambient air density. The

The recently proposed revisions to the National Ambient procedure used for calibration leads to the establishment of

Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter in 49 a constant mass flow rate, but a variable volumetric flow rate

Fed. Reg. 10408-10462 require measurement of inhalable depending on temperature and pressure changes from set

particles less than approximately 20 /im, commonly referred point conditions. Wedding5 has demonstrated that varia-

to as PMio mass. The name results from the fact that the tions in volumetric flow rate could become sufficiently great,

typical sampler for this purpose collects 10-jum particles using the Electronic Mass Flow Controller, to affect the

with an effectiveness of about 0.5. The principal impetus for accuracy of PMio monitoring. This type of flow controller

these revisions is data that indicate that protection of public meets neither of the two purposes for flow control as previ-

health may be better served by considering particles that ously stated.

deposit in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract. Inlets A state-of-the-art volumetric flow controller utilizing the

to permit collection of the PMio fraction of ambient particu- concept of critical flow has been developed and reduced to

late matter have been developed by several investigators, practice. This device will increase the accuracy and precision

including Wedding1-2'3 and McFarland.4 of the measurement of PMio mass concentration at ambient

Copyright 1987—APCA conditions as compared to the electronic mass flow control-

254 JAPCA

ler. Using nearly constant volume flow at ambient condi- normalizes for ambient temperature changes but is refer-

tions, the two stated purposes of flow control are met; the enced to ambient pressure.

PMio fractionator will operate accurately at its design veloc- It is, therefore, appropriate to consider how V changes

ity, and the total air volume sampled will be a known value. when ambient pressure changes. Although it has been shown

To express concentration in terms of reference conditions that V increases significantly above an altitude of 3000 m

(usually 298 K, 101.3 kPA), a reference volume is easily (approximately 10,000 feet) (because of low oxygen partial

calculated. The simplicity of the system also makes it less pressure, which drives respiration to maintain blood oxygen-

susceptible to failure than the electronic controller; it is ation), experimental studies at altitudes below 2400 m (ap-

difficult to imagine what could cause it to malfunction. proximately 8000 feet) show no significant changes in V

compared to sea level.6 This holds true both for those born

and living at these altitudes and for sea level dwellers

"Standard" vs. Actual Flow brought to such altitudes. This conclusion applies to all

significant urban areas at altitude in North America, since

The use of constant "standard" vs. actual volumetric flow they are all below 2400 m.

rates raises some interesting questions concerning the accu- It may be concluded from the above that below 2400 m

racy and meaningfulness of data collected by PMio sam- humans breathe at essentially constant volume, where this

plers. volume is expressed at ambient pressure and body tempera-

The practice of correcting pollutant concentrations to ture. The human respiratory tract does not operate as a

standard or reference conditions probably stems from two constant mass flow sampler over this range of conditions.

sources. The first of these is custom; most scientists and Thus, to mimic appropriately the behavior of the respiratory

engineers are taught that, because of the variability of air tract with an air sampler, we must sample at constant volu-

density, it is appropriate to correct measured gas volumes to metric flow rates at ambient conditions and correct for the

reference conditions, simply as a part of the practice of difference between ambient and body temperature. Howev-

measuring volumes or flows. er, it must be noted that temperatures in excess of 37°C, and

Historically, concentrations of trace gases in air were re- high ambient relative humidities at temperatures in that

ported as mixing ratios, such as parts per million by volume. vicinity, are extremely uncommon, and daily mean tempera-

These measures are less meaningful for concentrations of tures as high as that figure are virtually unknown. Thus,

particulate matter, which have always been reported in units bringing ambient air to a temperature of 37°C and satura-

of weight per unit volume of suspending air. However, the tion at that temperature will invariably cause the air to

mixing ratio was not changed by changes in temperature expand, thus decreasing mass concentration. As a result,

and/or pressure, while the weight concentration was so af- standards set on the basis of mass concentration determined

fected. Accordingly, if one were to investigate the stoichi- using ambient temperature and pressure will, at all but ex-

ometry of mixtures containing both gases and particles, it treme altitudes, accurately correct for altitude effects, and

was necessary to specify the temperature and pressure at will be conservative with regard to temperature effects (e.g.,

which the mass concentration of particles had been mea- the mass concentration value based upon a 24-hour average

sured. Rather than consider the implications, it was simpler ambient temperature will nearly always be greater than if it

to reduce the measurements to a set of reference conditions were based on body temperatures of 37 °C). Hence, we con-

in all cases. clude that "correct" PMio dosage means that if the PMio

These two mutually reinforcing practices virtually became sampler is operating at its design condition, the reference

tradition. They were further strengthened by the move to method criteria should provide that the mass transmitted to

define standards for gaseous air pollutants in terms of the filter is representative of PMio dosage to the respiratory

weight concentrations, apparently under the impression tract. The present arbitrary practice in use by the U.S. EPA

that standards expressed in micrograms per cubic meter to convert the sampled ambient volume to EPA reference

were "more metric" than dimensionless mixing ratios. At conditions (298°K, 101.3 kPa) creates a fictitious value

this point there was no particular inquiry into the respira- which is unrelated to the volume actually sampled by the

tory physiology involved; it was simply a matter of course human respiratory tract or a PMio instrument. At an alti-

that the concentrations be calculated at reference condi- tude of, say, 1500 m, where it is estimated that 2.2 million

tions. Americans lived in 1970,7 the pressure correction is appre-

This may have been strengthened by the fact that there is ciable and fails to consider that individuals at these altitudes

a physiological basis for altitude correction in the case of breathe fewer molecules of air per unit time than their sea

carbon monoxide. Since this toxic operates by preferentially level counterparts. With these facts as a basis, we conclude

associating itself with blood hemoglobin in competition with that the use of reference conditions leads to a calculated

oxygen, its relative effect at constant mixing ratio-actually PMio value at altitude that overestimates particulate expo-

increases slightly with altitude, and a standard based upon sure compared to that at sea level. It is inappropriate from

ambient mass concentration could easily give inadequate the standpoint of normal behavior of the respiratory tract to

protection if the margin of safety of the standard were small. operate a PMio sampler using mass flow control and then to

However, for particulate matter the issue is purely the calculate mass concentration values using a reference mass

mass of the pollutant brought into the body per unit time, of air, rather than the actual volume of air that existed and

and thus the governing question is the manner in which the passed through the sampler during normal operation. If V^

volumetric intake of air into the body varies with altitude was significantly higher at altitude, then the use of standard

and temperature. conditions are more justifiable by requiring lower pollutant

Accordingly, if the value of PMio concentration is meant mass concentration values at altitude and thus preventing

to be related to the relative risk of exposure to fine particles, increased dosage of PMio which presumably would occur at

then consideration must also be given to the volume or mass the increased V. Since V does not change at altitude, then

of air people breathe at different conditions of temperature correction to standard volume has no justification.

and pressure. The appropriate physiological parameter is

the minute volume, V, the volume of air inhaled per minute, The Critical Flow Device*

which is expressed as a volume at BTPS (body temperature,

ambient pressure, saturation). Because ambient air is rapid- An inviscid, adiabatic, one-dimensional compressible flow

ly brought to temperature and water vapor equilibrium in is considered to be choked when the flow velocity equals the

the upper airways, the lung always sees air saturated with

water vapor at 37°C. Thus, V, (when expressed at BTPS) * U.S. Patent No. 4,649,760.

speed of sound at the point of minimum flow area. It then The venturi-type Critical Flow Device is shown in Figure

follows that the definition of the critical state requires that 1. Volumetric flow rates through the device have been mea-

the reference velocity is such that the Mach number is unity. sured under a variety of test conditions. Experimental re-

When this condition occurs, a stable shock wave is created sults are compared with the theoretically predicted values.

and maintained within the diverging portion of the critical

device. When a sufficient vacuum is maintained downstream Theory

of the throat, the choking condition due to sonic flow at the

throat limits the flow of air through the device to an absolute Figure 1 shows a cross-sectional drawing of the Critical

maximum. The flow field in the converging section up to the Flow Device where Pi is the stagnation pressure downstream

throat is relatively insensitive to changes in entrance condi- of the filter and Po is atmospheric pressure; Qo and Qi are the

tions and unchanged with variation in exit conditions. The corresponding volumetric flow rates upstream and-down-

result is that the volumetric flow rate remains fixed at a stream of the filter, respectively; At is the cross-sectional

constant, stable value. area of the throat section of the venturi and P<i is a reference

The utilization of critical flow has been applied infre- diffuser pressure. An analysis of the flow path using both the

quently to ambient samplers due to the normal practice of continuity and energy equations from the upstream to the

achieving the choked condition with inefficient fluid flow downstream sides of the filter (e.g., the "0" to the " 1 " posi-

geometries that fail to recover the energy normally expended tion) under the assumption of an adiabatic process, no heat

in back pressure (usually half an atmosphere) to attain the transfer and no work, yields the result of constant enthalpy

critical state. The unique diffuser arrangement in the Criti- across the filter or TQ S 7\. To is ambient absolute tempera-

cal Flow Device described here allows recovery of over 90 ture.

percent of this energy, permitting attainment of the choked For the choked condition the ideal choking mass flow rate,

condition with a vacuum of just 5 kPa. Thus, an inexpensive Wt, at the throat, is given as12:

motor/blower arrangement can be utilized.

For example, energy expensive devices such as hypoder-

mic needles have been used as critical orifice meters for air (1)

sampling. Corn and Bell,8 Lodge, et al.,9 and Urone and

Ross10 reported data on critical flow rates through either

hypodermic tubing or needles. Overcamp11 applied the clas- where R is the universal gas constant, Mw is molecular

sical theory of isothermal, compressible flow through a long weight, y is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pres-

tube and successfully predicted the critical flow through sure to the heat capacity at constant volume. The actual

hypodermic needles. Urone and Ross10 showed that the dis- choked mass flow rate, Wa, is related to Wt by Cf, the flow

charge coefficient of such tubes changes with ambient pres- coefficient as

sure, which raises the question of Reynolds number-depen-

dent flow coefficients for commonly used PMio and high w= (2)

volume sampler orifice calibration units.

Cf has to be determined experimentally and its values are

usually in the range of 0.96 to 0.98.

Equations 1 and 2 indicate that the mass flow rate of a

FLOW critical venturi is proportional to Pi/(Ti) 1/2 . To determine

stagnation volumetric flow rate, Qi, we divide Wa by the

reference density, p\, and obtain

FILTER CASSETTE

(3)

and independent of the stagnation pressure P x .

The actual volumetric flow rate at ambient conditions, Qa,

through the filter or the PMio inlet is then obtained by

dividing Wa by atmospheric density po, as

(4)

-CRITICAL DEVICE

THROAT

As noted the flow through the filter is adiabatic (7\ = To),

STANDING

SHOCK WAVE thus Qa becomes

-BLOWER INLET

. /_ii_\ 1/2 /^LV Tn )i/2 (5)

l

tl w ID \U0'

Experiments

be proportional to the ratio Pi/Po (Equation 5), calibration

scenarios were developed for various P\/PQ values. The Criti-

cal Flow Device was calibrated using a Rootsmeter, and for

data taken at different geographical locations a portable

orifice was used that had been previously calibrated with a

Roots meter. The pressure drop of the orifice was monitored

with a water manometer while simultaneous measurements

of P o and Pi values were made with the aid of an electronic

pressure transducer previously calibrated with a 12-m col-

Figure 1 . Cross section of the Critical Flow Device. umn of water. Ambient temperature, To, was measured with

256 JAPCA

a precision mercury thermometer. The flow rate through the Table II. Comparison of measured and calculated flow rate for

orifice was varied by altering the pressure drop across the the critical flow device.a

filter by use of orifice plates upstream of the filter. A final Measured Calculatedb

measurement point was achieved with the orifice fixture in Site T(K) Qa(m3/min) Qa(m3/min)

place but no plates. The P\/Po value at the design (operat-

ing) condition of the sampler was measured after removing Fort Collins 290 0.9561 1.148 1.162

the orifice and recording the design condition PJPQ value. Albany 298.5 0.9613 1.181 1.185

All measurements were taken with one microquartz filter in a

Cf in these calculations equals 0.9883 from prior Roots meter

place. The same measurements were performed at two loca- calibration.

tions of different altitude (Fort Collins, CO and Albany, NY) b

Qa is calculated using Equation 5.

to determine the effect of the ambient pressure, PQ, on the

flow rate. Measured Qa values were compared to those pre-

dicted by theory.

Additionally, the ratio of the back pressure downstream of

the throat section (P2) to the stagnation pressure (Pi) is a

convenient means to present data as the flow rate is invari- Error Analysis in Measurement of Qa using P-\/Po, To

ant with changes in Pi when the choked condition exists.

The values for volumetric flow rate, Qa, were measured with Once the sampler is calibrated and the flow coefficient (Cf)

the use of a Roots meter for three temperatures and differ- is evaluated, the volumetric flow rate through the critical

ent P2/P1 ratios obtained by adjusting Pi with a precision high volume sampler can be audited by monitoring the stag-

valve. nation pressure, Pi, and by knowing ambient pressure, Po,

and temperature, To.

Absolute accuracy in determining Qa from Equation 5 is

Results expressed as

Results from calibration measurements at Fort Collins, APX APQ AT 0

AQa

CO and Albany, NY are summarized in Table I. The volu- = + (6)

metric flow rates at the operating condition (one micro- Qa Pi Po To

quartz filter in place and no other upstream obstructions) Either a mercury manometer or a calibrator utilizing an

were determined as 1.148 and 1.181 m3/min for the Fort electronic pressure transducer may be used to determine

Collins and Albany data, respectively. Table II gives mea- stagnation pressure (Pi).

sured vs. calculated volumetric flow rate. The values calcu- Typical measurement errors or resolution in reading a

lated (using Equation 5) were 1.162 and 1.185 m3/min for mercury manometer or the W & A electronic calibrator are

Fort Collins and Albany, respectively. This indicates that ±0.17 kPa (0.05 in. Hg) and ±0.5 mV, respectively. A change

the Critical Flow Device performed as predicted by theory in output voltage of 0.5 mV from the W & A electronic

within 1.17 percent and 0.31 percent at Fort Collins and calibrator corresponds to a pressure change of 17.3 Pa

Albany, respectively. The Cf value for these calculations was (0.0051 in Hg). A typical measurement error in reading a

0.9883 determined from prior Roots meter calibration. It is mercury thermometer is ±0.5 K.

important to note that while the value for Po changed from Using a mercury manometer results in a measurement

84.24 kPa (25.17 in. Hg) to 101.33 kPa (29.92 in. Hg) or error in Qa of ±0.49 percent. The measurement errors in Qa

nearly 16 percent, the ratio P\/Po changed by only an appar- are reduced to 0.12 percent using an electronic calibrator

ent value of 0.54 percent which is within the error bar of our which has the additional convenience of permitting on-site

measurements (discussed presently). Thus, the Critical determination of Po. At the design flow rate of 1.133 m3/min,

Flow Device represents a flow controller whose performance Qa can thus be accurately determined to within ±1.36 L/min

is independent of Po (e.g. elevation). (±0.048 cfm) using the electronic calibrator and to within

Figure 2 shows a plot of percent of design condition flow ±5.66 L/min (±0.20 cfm) using the mercury manometer.

rate (i.e., 1.133 m3/min or 40.0 cfm) as a function of varying

P2/P1 ratios at three different ambient temperatures. The

Error Analysis in Measurement of Qa Using Standard Orifice

flat portion of the curve indicates attainment of the choked Audit Procedure

condition. Note that the diffuser recovers nearly 90 percent

of the energy required to choke the flow. Thus, the system Historically, the procedures for flow calibration of ambi-

can be operated using an inexpensive motor/blower assem- ent samplers suggest the use of a top loading orifice and a

bly. At the three different temperatures (To) of 301,291, and water manometer to audit flow rate during sampler opera-

280 K, the theory (Equation 5) predicts that the experimen- tion. Typically, the calibration plots are in terms of the value

tal points should collapse onto one curve with the different of standard flow rate, Qstd

values proportional to (To)1/2. Thus, the Critical Flow Device

operates predictably from theory.

Qstd = 3 (7)

Table I. Calibration data for the Critical Flow Device. where A(AfiT) is the water manometer reading and m and b

Fort Collins, CO Albany, NY are constants determined from previous flow calibration.

(Po = 84.24 kPa, (Po = 101.33 kPa, The error in determining Qstd is expressed as

To = 17.0°C) To = 25.5°C)

Orifice AQstd 1 A(Aff) AP 0 AT 0

plate no.a Pi/Po Qab P1/P0 Qab Qstd 2 AH A) •i (8)

13 0.9242 1.059 0.9338 1.103 For typical values of A{AH) = 12.4 Pa (0.05 in. water), AP0 =

18 0.9319 1.085 0.9403 1.121 17.3 Pa (0.005 in. Hg), and AT0 = 0.5 K, the error in deter-

None 0.9436 1.113 0.9501 1.149 mining Qstd is 1.34 percent which corresponds to ±15.29 L/

O.CC 0.9561 (1.148) 0.9613 (1.181) min (±0.54 cfm).

a

Calibration orifice plates. The conclusion is that the error in determining the opera-

b

Volumetric flow rate in m3/min. tional flow rate using the EPA audit procedure is an order of

c

Operating condition: one microquartz filter in place, no other flow magnitude larger than when using stagnation pressure as a

obstruction. reference (i.e., P1/P0 values) measured with an electronic

1.0 r

0.9 -

0.8 -

0.7 -

0.6 -

0.5 -

A T 0 = 2 8 0 °K

• T 0 = 301 °K

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

Figure 2. Percent of design condition flow rate (1.133 m3/min) defined as the ratio of measured (M) to

reference (R) conditions vs. the ratio of downstream to stagnation pressure (P2/P1). Data taken at different

temperatures collapse onto one curve with volumetric flow rate proportional to (7o)1/2, ambient absolute

temperature, as predicted by Equation 5.

tained using a mercury manometer. 1. J. B. Wedding, M. A. Weigand, T. C. Carney, "A 10 micron

cutpoint inlet for the dichotomous sampler," Environ. Sci. Tech-

Conclusions nol. 16: 602 (1982).

2. J. B. Wedding, M. A. Weigand, M. A. Ligotke, R. E. Baum-

The Critical Flow Device, a venturi-type critical flow sys- gardner, "The Wedding ambient aerosol sampling inlet for an

intermediate flow rate (4 CFM) sampler," Environ. Sci. Technol.

tem, provides essentially constant volumetric flow indepen- 17: 379 (1983).

dent of pressure changes and proportional to the square root 3. J. B. Wedding, M. A. Weigand, "The Wedding ambient aerosol

of ambient absolute temperature ideal for the normal opera- sampling inlet (D-50 = 10 microns) for the high volume sampler,"

tion of PM10 and other related particle samplers. This pro- Atmos. Environ. 19: 535 (1985).

4. A. R. McFarland, C. A. Ortiz, R. W., Berth, Jr., "A 10-Mm

vides an accurately-known total sample volume for the cal- cutpoint size selective inlet for hi-vol samplers," JAPCA 34: 544

culation of concentration. It also maintains the design veloc- (1984).

ities (volumetric flow rate) through the inlet fractionating 5. J. B. Wedding, "Errors in sampling ambient concentrations

elements to provide reproducible rejection of particles larger with instruments employing setpoint temperature compensated

mass flow transducers," Atmos. Environ. 19:1219 (1985).

than the element's cutpoint. This design also allows the use 6. H. Rahn, A. B. Otis, "Man's respiratory response during and

of P\IPQ ratios which enable accurate, in-situ measurements after acclimatization to high altitude," Am. J. Physiol 157: 445

(audits of flow rate by monitoring stagnation pressures). (1949).

Once the device is calibrated, no independent orifice system 7. Carbon Monoxide, Committee on Medical and Biological Ef-

fects of Environmental Pollutants, National Academy of Sci-

is required for field audits. ences, Washington, DC, 1977.

Expression of the resulting concentration in terms of am- 8. M. Corn, W. Bell, "A technique for construction of predictable

bient, rather than reference or standard conditions, is appro- low-capacity orifices," Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 24: 502 (1963).

priate in view of the fact that, up to at least an altitude of 9. J. P. Lodge, Jr., J. B. Pate, B. E. Ammons, G. A. Swanson, "The

use of hypodermic needles as critical orifices in air sampling,"

2400 m, respiratory flow rate does not increase to compen- JAPCA 16:197 (1966).

sate for decreasing atmospheric pressure. Correction for 10. P. Urone, R. C. Ross, "Pressure change effects on hypodermic

temperature and humidity change of inhalation may be de- needle critical orifice air flow rates," Environ. Sci. Technol. 13:

sirable in precise clinical studies, but will almost invariably 351 (1979).

11. T. J. Overcamp, "A theory for critical flow through hypodermic

result in a decrease in indicated concentration. Accordingly, needles," Environ. Sci. Technol. 19:1134 (1985).

mass concentrations expressed in terms of ambient tem- 12. A. H. Shapiro, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Com-

perature and pressure will be conservative and indicative of pressible Fluid Flow, Ronald Press, New York, 1953.

PM10 dosage to the thoracic region of the respiratory tract.

The use of reference conditions, (101.3 kPa, 25°C) which

"correct" the sampled air volume, leads to a calculated PM10 James B. Wedding, Ph.D., Michael A. Weigand, and Young

mass concentration which overestimates particulate expo- J. Kim, Ph.D. are with Wedding & Associates, Inc., 209

sure at altitude compared to that at sea level. Thus, ambient Christman Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524. David L. Swift,

air quality standards established to protect public health Ph.D. is with The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

21205. James P. Lodge, Ph.D., is a consultant at 385 Broad-

should be expressed in terms of ambient temperature and way, Boulder, CO 80303. This paper was submitted for peer

pressure, and concentrations determined from samplers us- review June 13, 1986; the revised manuscript was received

ing the Critical Flow Device can be used without further January 2, 1987.

correction.

258 JAPCA

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