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IntRoduction of tourism

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of
touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists,
and the business of operating tours.[1] Tourismmay be international, or within
the traveller's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more
generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as
being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in
places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year
for leisure, business and other purposes".[2]
Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both
incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today,
tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the
economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital
Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s
recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and the
outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus,[4][5] but slowly recovered. International
tourism receipts (the travel item in the balance of payments) grew
to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real
terms of 3.8% from 2010.[6] International tourist arrivals surpassed the
milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012,[7] emerging
markets such as China, Russiaand Brazil had significantly increased their
spending over the previous decade.[8] The ITB Berlin is the world's leading
tourism trade fair.
Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many regions and
countries. Its importance was recognized in the Manila Declaration on World
Tourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its
direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of
national societies and on their international relations."
Tourism brings in large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of
payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting for 30% of the

world's trade of services, and 6% of overall exports of goods and services.[6] It
also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the
economy associated with tourism.
The service industries which benefit from tourism include transportation
services, such as airlines, cruise ships, trains and taxicabs; hospitality services,
such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment
venues, such as amusement parks, restaurants, casinos, shopping malls, music
venues, and theaters. This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including

Domestic (residents of a given country travelling only within that country)

Inbound (non-residents travelling in a given country

Outbound (residents of one country travelling in another country)

Social impacts

In addition to the economic benefits of tourism development, positive social

impacts include an increase in amenities (e.g., parks, recreation facilities),
investment in arts and culture, celebration of First Nations people, and
community pride. When developed conscientiously, tourism can, and does,
contribute to a positive quality of life for residents.

However, as identified by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP,

2003a), negative social impacts of tourism can include:

Change or loss of indigenous identity and values

Culture clashes

Physical causes of social stress (increased demand for resources)

Ethical issues

Environmental Impacts

Tourism relies on, and greatly impacts, the natural environment in which it
operates. Even though many areas of the world are conserved in the form of
parks and protected areas, tourism development can have severe negative
impacts. According to UNEP (2003b), these can include:

Depletion of natural resources (water, forests, etc.)

Pollution (air pollution, noise, sewage, waste and littering)

Physical impacts (construction activities, marina development, trampling, loss

of biodiversity)

The environmental impacts of tourism can reach outside local areas and have
an effect on the global ecosystem. One example is increased air travel, which is
a major contributor to climate change. Chapter 10 looks at the environmental
impacts of tourism in more detail.

Whether positive or negative, tourism is a force for change around the world,
and the industry is transforming at a staggering rate. But before we delve
deeper into our understanding of tourism, let’s take a look at the development
of the sector in our own back

History of Tourism
The tourism business is at least 2,000 years old. It began when wealthy citizens
of ancient Rome, deciding they would rather spend their summers away from
the city, took trips to the countryside and the coast.

A tourist industry soon sprang up to cater for the Romans’ travel and
accommodation needs, and for a while it thrived. But Roman tourism ended
with its empire, and for hundreds of years the turbulent economic, social and
military situation in Europe made frequent, safe travel out of the question.
During the medieval era, however, tourism again appeared thanks to a growing
interest in pilgrimages. The organisers arranged the tourism basics of itineraries
and places to eat and sleep. And from records such as Chaucer’s Canterbury
Tales, it’s evident that many pilgrims were keen to relax and enjoy themselves
as well as visit a holy shrine. In fact it’s from the Old English word hāligdæg
(holy day) that “holiday” derives.

studying paintings, sculptures and architecture, and visiting historical sites.

hotels with an infrastructure of roads, carriages and ferries. Tourism began to

take shape as an international industry.

The industry was popular and steadily successful from the early nineteenth
century. But for the most part, it was expensive and limited to a small number
of locations. Then everything suddenly changed. In the 1960s, a growing
number of people had disposable incomes, and with this extra money came a
desire for a different lifestyle. At the same time, reasonably-priced commercial
aircraft were able to carry passengers to and from any airport in the world.

Mass tourism had arrived, and with it there came an extraordinary growth in
facilities. Fishing villages on the southern coast of Spain, for instance, became

resorts that were household names. Elsewhere, business people capitalised on
the demand for tourist attractions and constructed leisure and theme parks.

The driving force behind these rapid developments was cash. In 2006, the
international tourism receipts for the three most popular destinations – France,
Spain and the United States – totalled $179.7 billion. The number of visitors
who contributed this sum was 188.7 million.

With figures such as these, many countries around the globe work hard to
encourage travellers to visit them. The result in recent years is the boom in long
haul flights to destinations that can supply tourists with sun almost every week
of the year.

Unfortunately, it’s this scramble to grab a share of the tourist industry that is
sometimes damaging environments unable to sustain large numbers of visitors.
There are also concerns about the pollution generated by the ever-rising
volume of tourist flights, cruise ships and road traffic. And on top of these
problems are increasing fuel costs; the demise of established resorts that have
over-expanded; fluctuating exchange rates for currencies; and the credit

The tourism industry will no doubt adapt to new demands and circumstances.
But despite some optimistic predictions from tourism agencies for its continued
growth, this business may well find that its most successful era, for the time
being anyway, is past.
The economic impact of tourism
According to (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009), while
tourism industry may cause many economic pros, there are also some
advantages for those nations. "Global tourism is an $8 trillion industry". This
means one of largest important industries in the world is tourism industry, it
therefore has great importance for several countries attempt to obtain a share
of this $8 trillion. 9.9 per cent of global GDP (gross domestic product) was
global tourism industry. Moreover, it was predicted that it would bring about
240 million jobs worldwide, representing almost 8.5% of total occupations. The
world organisation tourism reported that in January 2007, international tourist
arrivals reached to 842 million in 2006, compared to 553 million in 1994, and

they are expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2020, while receipts was $354 billion in
1994 and it almost doubled by 2006, that means there a considerable rise just
over a period of 10 years for both arrivals and receipts, (WOT.2007).

The environmental impact of

According to (Wall, G and Mathieson, A.2006), the history of tourism
undoubtedly point out that the tourism was birth and progressed by
contributing of environmental factors. The Places which are blessed with
natural beauty and pleasant landscape and skyscraper features have had a
major impact on particular locations or regions. However, tourism can have a
negative impact on environment such as excessive building like roads and
hotels, destroys natural habitats. It can also create pollution and waste, as a
result, the city or region no doubt will be polluted by smog around it.
Furthermore, it puts pressure on local resources such as food , water and
energy supplies.
(Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009) said that the use of
transportation particularly by airplanes are double fuel-efficient than they were
30 years ago. Air travel was account for 9% of global warming in 2004. In
Britain, for example, the figure of travellers inside and outside of the UK would
increase from 180 million in 2003 to half a billion by 2030, whereas the
responsibility of flying aircraft will be almost 67% of all the UK's greenhouse
emissions in 2050. A large proportion of the oil purchased in the world is just
for leisure uses. In addition, all transportation forms of road, sea and air can
annoy on the quiet resort by increasing noise levels, whether in rural districts or
in living areas. Both local people and tourists especially who are near of busy
airports greatly would be in worry by making anxious from airplanes taking off
and landing.
The cultural and social impact of tourism

Sociocultural impacts are consequences of specific types of relationships that
happen between tourists and hosts due to their coming into contact. Tourists
can experience different customs and cultural such as sight-seeing, sunbathing
and testing new cuisine. It would open our minds as well as it can broaden our
horizons. However, when foreign people come to the tourist city they surely will
affect on local people. Therefore, the local people will forget their own culture.
Another drawback for tourism industry is raising prices, even though citizen's
salaries are constant the prices rise when the city receives the tourists
especially in restaurants, transportation, and fundamental requirements.
Furthermore, the government would focus on tourism .Thus it will ignore
facilities and needs of local region. In addition to this, crimes rate usually
increase in tourist cities. Moreover, local traditions may be lost like traditional
jobs and skills would die out such as farming and fishing (Wall, G and
Mathieson, A.2006).
When using of culture as a tourist attraction can lead to risen support for
traditional cultures and would display identity of ethnic .What is more, direct
contact between residents and tourists probably would remove negative
stereotypes, as a result, it will increase social opportunities. Another benefit of
sociocultural impact of tourism is that encourage competition for tourist
business and improve standard of living for hosts and income undoubtedly will
rise for those as well (WTO. 1999)

Types of Tourism

Traveling is one effective way to see the world, experience new cultures and
meet new people at the same time. For many tourists, however, traveling
accomplishes many other purposes that don’t even have anything to do with
the joy of visiting a new place. This is why there are many different types of
tourism that explain why tourists choose a particular destination and the things
that they expect to do when they are there.

Recreational Tourism
Tourism is an often activity for recreational purpose. Most tourism took for a
change and rest; this is the reason why package tours have become so
popular.Perhaps the most common type of tourism is what most people
associate with traveling. This is when people go to a place that is very different
from their regular day-to-day life to relax and have fun. Beaches, theme parks
and camp grounds are often the most common places frequented by
recreational tourists.

Nature Tourism

For tourists who want to see wildlife or bask in the joy of just being in the midst
of nature, nature tourism is the answer. Ecotourism and nature treks are all
part of this kind of tourism. Bird watching, for example, is one activity that
nature tourists are fond of doing. What marks this kind of tourism is that it is
environmentally responsible, has low impact and advantageous to the local

Religious tourism is another type of tourism where people go to a religious

location or locations to follow the footsteps of their founder or to attend a
religious ceremony. Catholics, for example, go on pilgrimages in the Holy Land
to experience the paths where Jesus walked.India represents multi-religious
composition of population. Various package tours are organized to enable
people to attend the religious duties and visit places of religious importance.
E.g. Char Dham yatra.Medical or health tourism is a relatively new type of
tourist activity where the main focus of the travel is improving one’s health,
physical appearance or fitness. For instance, certain countries promote the
expertise of their doctors and surgeons in the field of cosmetic surgery and
invite foreigners to have their liposuction, facelift, nose lift and other forms of

cosmetic procedures to be done there. Medical tourism also incorporates
aspects of recreation tourism where the patient goes to a relaxing getaway to
recover from the procedure.
Environmental Tourism
Rich and affluent tourist are preferred to spend more visits to remote places
where they get pollution free airs to breath.

Historical Tourism
Tourist is interested to know how our forefather lived and administered in a
particular area. They visit heritage locations, temples, churches, museums, forts

Ethnic Tourism

This refers to people traveling to distance places looking to their routes and
attending to family obligations. Marriage and death bring people together to
their native places. Persons who are settled overseas during later part of life
visit place of their birth for giving boost to ethnic tourism.

Cultural Tourism

Some people are interested to know how other people or communities stay,
survive and prosper. The kind of culture they practice their art and music is
different from ours. So in order to acquire knowledge, understands culture well,
to become familiar with the culture, they undertake journey.If the objective of
one’s visit to a particular place is to get to know its history and culture then this
type of tourism is known as cultural tourism. Tourists may visit different
landmarks of a particular country or they may simply opt to focus on just one
area. They may also attend festivals and ceremonies in order to gain a better
understanding of the people, their beliefs and their practices.If the objective of
one’s visit to a particular place is to get to know its history and culture then this
type of tourism is known as cultural tourism. Tourists may visit different
landmarks of a particular country or they may simply opt to focus on just one
area. They may also attend festivals and ceremonies in order to gain a better
understanding of the people, their beliefs and their practices.

Adventure Tourism

There is a trend among the youth to take adventure tour. They go for trekking,
rock climbing, river rafting etc. They organized camp fire and stay under the
blue sky. This tourism is meant for people with strong nerves who can tolerate

Health Tourism

In recent years, health tourism has become highly popular. People visit nature
cure centers and hospitals providing specialist treatment. Many foreigners visit
India for treatment because similar services in their country are costly. It is a
relatively new type of tourist activity where the main focus of the travel is
improving one’s health, physical appearance or fitness. For instance, certain
countries promote the expertise of their doctors and surgeons in the field of
cosmetic surgery and invite foreigners to have their liposuction, facelift, nose
lift and other forms of cosmetic procedures to be done there. Medical tourism
also incorporates aspects of recreation tourism where the patient goes to a
relaxing getaway to recover from the procedure.

Music Tourism

It can be part of pleasure tourism as it includes moment of people to sing and

listen music and enjoy it.

Village Tourism

It involves traveling and arranging tours in order to popularize various village


Wild life Tourism

It can be an Eco and animal friendly tourism. Wild life tourism means watching
wild animals in their natural habitat.

Adventure tourism

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is another type of tourism that is catered for those who want to do more than
just visit regular tourist sites. These kinds of trips involve challenging activities
like rock climbing, mountain climbing and wild water rafting.

Sports and Pleasure Tourism

Many people today are stressed out in the corporate rat race and in need of
rejuvenation. Thus, they go on trips that refresh their souls and spirits. This is
called pleasure tourism and usually includes yoga workshops and detox
vacations, among others. Others, however, de-stress by engaging in a particular
sport. Called sports tourism, travelers here target places which are known for a
particular sporting facility. Skiing, for example, is a type of sports tourism. Also
included in this category are those who go to a destination to experience a
sports spectacle such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup and others.
There are no strict delineations when tourists go on their trips. These kinds of
tourism often overlap so it’s not unusual for travelers to experience more than
one type of tourism in one vacation.

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Tourism, Studies, career,
Scope, Eligibility and Job

A career in the Travel and Tourism Industrywill require from its aspirants a
certain flare and a lot of confidence along with strong interpersonal skills.
Someone who is looking to be a part of the tourism industry must have the
hunger to learn new things every day, along with the knack of staying update
with the latest news, socio, economic trends and a strong geography.
India might be marked as flabbergasting number 41 in the top countries visited
worldwide but it is sought to get better in years to come. The Tourism Sector in
India might have seen a slump the previous year as compared to the previous
year but it has managed to pull its weight and show an Annual Growth Rate of
4.3 per cent till June 2013.
Although it would seem all glamorous but the industry has much more to offer
and requires hardworking and diligent individuals. Keeping in mind that there is
no dearth of job prospects in the tourism and travel industry, on completion of
your tourism studies, one can venture into the many lucrative aspects of the
industry. Well groomed individuals are the need of any industry and especially
ones where direct client interface is as much as this industry. The country
requires more and more skilled, confident, well groomed and diligent aspirants
to be a part of the travel and tourism industry.

Scope of the Travel and Tourism Industry

The Travel and Tourism industry is a one such industry that even though it is
relatively new than the others but is growing and is also expected to do well in
the coming years as well. There are many concerns and industries that are
direct contributors of the industry and hence in the long run create greater job
opportunities to those who would want to be a part of the industry. Hotels,
restaurants, retailing, transportation, travel agencies, tour companies, tourist
attractions, leisure, recreation and sport, and cultural industries are some of the
contributors to the industry.
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Also, as per popular researches and studies, the tourism sector has created
about 11 million jobs and has the potential to create another 37 million jobs in
the future. Although the future of the industry is quite bright but still there is a
lot of development in terms of infrastructure and skilled personnel.

 Tourism Department: There are jobs as Reservation and counter staff, Sales
and marketing staff, Tour Planners and Tour guides. There is also the
requirement of Information assistants at the office of the Tourism departments
who are selected through competitive examinations held by the Staff Selection
Commission. The option of working as a Guide is also listed under the tourism
department as the Ministry of Tourism recognizes three types of guides;
regional, state and local.

 Airlines: One can opt between being the ground staff or in flight staff. Apart
from working as Airhostess/ Stewards, you can look into the option of Traffic
Assistance, Reservation and Counter Staff, etc.

 Hotels: The Hotel Industry being a service industry, serves the basic
requirement of food and accommodation. One can choose from Operations,
Front office, House keeping, Food and Beverages, Accounting, Engineering/
Maintenance, Sales, Public relations and Security, etc as one of the many
departments to work with.

 Tour operators: They are the ones who help organize conducted tours to
the various tourist spots and manage the travel and stay of the tourists.

 Travel Agents: Travel agents evaluate the requirements of tourists and

businessmen and help them make the best possible travel arrangements from
the many available. Many resorts, travel groups use travel agents to promote
their tour packages to travelers.

 Transport: Apart from airlines, travelers require rail services, coach

operators, car hire companies to go from one place to another - by air, road,
railway, sea etc. All this is take care by the ones handling transport.

Types of tour Packages

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A package tour, package vacation, or package
holiday comprises transport and accommodation advertised and sold together
by a vendor known as a tour operator. Other services may be provided such
a rental car, activities or outings during the holiday. Transport can be via charter
airline to a foreign country, and may also include travel between areas as part
of the holiday. Package holidays are a form of product bundling.
 Package holidays are organised by a tour operator and sold to a consumer
by a travel agent. Some travel agents are employees of tour operators, oth ers
are independent.
Organised tours

The first organised tours dated back to Thomas Cook who, on 5 July 1841,
chartered a train to take a group of temperance campaigners from Leicester to
a rally in Loughborough, eleven miles away. By 1872 he was undertaking
worldwide tours, albeit with small groups.[1] His company, Thomas Cook &
Son (commonly called Thomas Cook or simply "Cook's"), grew to become one
of the largest and most well known travel agents before being nationalised in
With the gradual decline of visits to British seaside resorts after the Second
World War, Thomas Cook & Son began promoting foreign holidays
(particularly Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) in the early 1950s. Information films
were shown at town halls throughout Britain. However they made a costly
decision by not going into the new form of cheap holidays which combined the
transport and accommodation arrangements into a single 'package'. The
company went further into decline and were only rescued by a consortium buy-
out on 26 May 1972
Group tours

Vladimir Raitz, the co-founder of the Horizon Holiday Group, pioneered the first
mass package holidays abroad with charter flights between Gatwick
airport and Corsica in 1950, and organised the first package holiday to Palma in
1952, Lourdes in 1953, and the Costa Brava and Sardinia in 1954. In addition,
the amendments made in Montreal to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation on June 14, 1954 was very liberal to Spain, allowing impetus for mass
tourism using charter planes.

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By the late 1950s and 1960s, these cheap package holidays — which combined
flight, transfers, and accommodation — provided the first chance for most
people in the United Kingdom to have affordable travel abroad. One of the first
charter airlines was Euravia, which commenced flights from Manchester
Airport in 1961 and Luton Airport in 1962. Despite opening up mass tourism
to Crete and the Algarve in 1970, the package tour industry declined during the
1970s. On 15 August 1974, the industry was shaken by the collapse of the
second-largest tour operator, Court Line, which operated under the brand
names of Horizon and Clarksons. Nearly 50,000 tourists were stranded overseas
and a further 100,000 people faced the loss of booking deposits.
In 2005 a growing number of consumers were avoiding package holidays and
were instead travelling with budget airlines and booking their own
accommodation. In the UK, the downturn in the package holiday market led to
the consolidation of the tour operator market, which is now dominated by a
few large tour operators. The major operators are Thomson Holidays and First
Choice part of TUI AG and Thomas Cook AG. Under these umbrella brands there
exists a whole range of different holiday operators catering to different markets,
such as Club 18-30 or traveleze. Budget airlines have also created their own
package holiday divisions such as Jet2 Holidays.
The trend for package holiday bookings saw a comeback in 2009, as customers
sought greater financial security in the wake of a number of holiday and flight
companies going bust, and as the hidden costs of 'no-frills' flights increased.
Coupled with the search for late holidays as holidaymakers left booking to the
last moment, this led to a rise in consumers booking package holiday

THL is centrally committed to documenting Tibetan places in their cultural and

national dimensions, and in their historical and contemporary character. This
research includes essays, databases, maps, images, audio-video recording, and

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more. The results of this documentation are primarily disseminated through two
portals The Tibetan Geotourism Portal in particular is intended serve tourists,
tourism professionals, and Tibetan local community residents with the goal of
promoting and facilitating tourism in Tibet that is centered around a deep
understanding of Tibetan culture and environment, and supports the
empowerment of local residents and the protection of the integrity of local
culture and ecology. It should be stressed that this Portal is first and foremost an
initiative grounded in ethical concerns about the integrity of the tourism process
in relationship to the importance of benefit to local residents, and the importance
of knowledge and understanding as a basis for encounters and exchanges
between tourists and local residents. In this, it can be differentiated from primarily
commercial initiatives that are geared towards generating a profit either out of
the lucrative publishing industry, or specific institutions such as hotels,
restaurants, theme parks, and the like.
In terms of tourists, the portal hopes to provide basic information about the
logistics of tourism, Tibetan places, Tibetan culture and Tibetan environment
along the lines that standard tour books such as Lonely Planet provide.
However, in addition, we are trying to make the information about places,
culture and environment far more rich, accurate, and nuanced, as well as
include much more extensive self-representation by local Tibetans throughout.
This is accomplished first by mobilizing academic researchers, teachers and
students either directly, or indirectly through repurposing their academic work.
Thus all of the academic research, images, audio-video, and other resources
generated for THL's Cultural Geography will be automatically also exposed to
uses through the Geotourism portal. Second, we aim to incorporate the
submission of resources from individuals across all social and professional
sectors, not just professionals and not just academics. Third, the work is
integrated with initiatives aimed at the participatory self-documentation of
Tibetan perspectives, cultural traditions, communities, histories, and local
ecologies using modern technologies. The Portal thus aims to create a
distributed network for the production of knowledge on a broad scale that
includes a distributed system for the flexible, modular and dynamic
dissemination of such knowledge and resources in ways that are socially
beneficial to local Tibetan communities.

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Documentation of Specific Places in relationship to Tourism
The Geotourism project documents Tibetan places, their natural features,
communities, and cultural traditions with the aim of promoting forms of
tourism that more fully involve local communities, as well as maximizing benefit
to those communities. Geotourism is a widely used term used to signify such
forms of tourism, which could also be called community tourism, engaged
tourism, fair-trade tourism, or other labels. Geotourism contributions involve
the same basic elements of the other place projects – Place Dictionary entries,
Encyclopedia descriptions, maps, images, audio-video recordings and the like –
but also adds structured descriptions of places with an eye towards tourists.
However, the documentation of places in relation to tourism is different in
character from the academic documentation of places. Firstly, the general tone
of writing needs to be more accessible and less intellectual in character;
secondly, tourism facilities and access to a given place are a central part of the
documentation; and thirdly, documentation needs to take into account ways in
which the tourism process can be more beneficial and less harmful to the local
communities being visited.
Our presentation presents each place in terms of seven tabbed sections: Facts,
Sites, Resources, Activities, Accommodations, Info,Nearby. None of them
expand out with suboptions - they are just buttons. The rest have table of
contents on their pages for whatever other multiple items are. Down the road,
these might be changed into an accordion right hand nav. If possible, provide
pictures in each section. An iconic picture on the top of section works well,
though pictures it is fine to put pictures wherever it is fitting and informative:

1. Place facts: the basic descriptive information. on the site. This should be
generated by the Wiki. Perhaps Eventually should be dealt with by Place
Dictionary relying upon as yet to be build Place Dictionary Tourism Module. It
includes the Place Dictionary entry. It should also link to an Introductory
Synthetic Essay generated by the Wiki. Perhaps eventually could be dealt with
by Place Dictionary relying upon as yet to be built Place Dictionary Tourism

2. Local Sites: details sites within the overall site. For now must be handled by
Wiki, but should be handled by the Place Dictionary application.

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3. Featured Resources: slide shows, audioo-video recordings, thematic essays,
maps, etc. For now must be handled by Wiki, but should be handled by the
Place Dictionary application. Could make these a list with standard icons (for
images, etc.) and title, and then if you choose, you get a lightbox popup

4. Activities: various activities for a tourist.

5. Accommodations: hotels, home lodges, etc. Textually expressed logistical

information. This should be generated by the Wiki. Perhaps eventually could be
dealt with by Place Dictionary relying upon as yet to be build Tourism Module.

6. Tourism Information: textually expressed logistical information. This should

be generated by the Wiki. Hopefully very soon we enter these Hotels into the
Place Dictionary even without the yet to be built Tourism Module or possible
Hotel Module. Detail can go in the Place Dictionary Description field. Later we
might have a right hand nav column to navigate to the various categories. That
would require us to make a process that converts Wiki subheaders into menu
items and specify the set way to mark headers (like all h3, etc.)

7. Nearby Sites: details sites nearby the site in question. For now must be
handled by Wiki, but should be handled by the Place Dictionary application by
using the "feature relationship" and specifying that the specified sites are
"nearby" to the site in question you are relating them to.

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Types of tours
Tours can be classified into a number of categories:

 package tours

 escorted tours

 hosted tours

 all-inclusive tours

Segmentation of the inclusive tour market

 By mode of transport (air/rail/sea)

 By distance tothe destination (long haul/ short haul)

 By length of holiday (short break/ long holiday)

 By travel season (summer/ winter)

sold or offered for sale at an inclusive price and when the service covers a
period of more than 24 hours or includes overnight accommodation:

 transportation – air, sea, road, rail etc to/from destination

 accommodation – hotels, guest houses, cottages etc.

 other tourism services such as transfers between air/sea port and

accommodation at destination, accounting for a significant portion of the tour

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Often package holiday can include the following additional elements:

 meals – breakfast, half board or full board (bb; hb; fb)

 Supplementary services – events, city sight seeing, theme evenings

 Entertainment – animation etc.

 Insurance – and other ancillary services

Advantages of a package tour:

 locating information about a destination reduced, consumer selects a tour

from a brochure created by tour wholesaler

 transaction costs of making reservations with different suppliers are


 passed on benefits and discounts through bulk buying from tour wholesaler
to final customer

 “no hassle” element, everything is arranged for the traveller

 legally the tour operator adheres with his name (EU consumer protection

Disadvantages of a package tour:

 overwhelming choices and varieties of tour may cause difficulties to find the
“right” tour for customers

 having to cope with a fixed itinerary

Some tour wholesaler now allow tourists to customise their packages, either by
designing shorter tours and allowing travellers to combine them together in
various ways.
Escorted tours
This kind of tour is a group tour which uses the services of a professional tour
manager. The escorted tour is a structured programme of sightseeing, meals,
transportation and accommodation. The professional tour manager is in charge
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of all arrangements. Special-interest tours are generally escorted tours. (Lubbe

All-inclusive tours
An all-inclusive tour includes the coverage of all costs in the unit price except
for personal items. This usually means the coverage of all air and land
arrangements such as transportation, accommodation, meals and sight seeing.
(Lubbe 2000)
Incentive trip
Journey for the staff of an enterprise or for the members of a professional
group to reward or encourage them. The costs of incentive trips are largely or
partially borne by the hosts.

1. The transportation of a passenger between two points, such as from the
airport to a hotel or vice versa, often included as an element of a tour. 2. A chit
or similar device allowing a passenger to transfer from one vehicle or form of
transport to another without paying an additional fare.
2. In travel, a transfer is local travel arranged as part of an itinerary, typically
airport to hotel and hotel to hotel.[1] Transfer has some features that distinguish
it from ground transportation alternative. This features are meeting directly in a
transport hub, opportunity to choose a car class and additional options like a
baby seat.

A travel itinerary is a schedule of events relating to planned travel, generally

including destinations to be visited at specified times and means of
transportation to move between those destinations. For example, both the plan
of a business trip and the route of a road trip, or the proposed outline of one,
would be travel itineraries.

21 | P a g e
The construction of a travel itinerary may be assisted by the use of travel
literature, including travel journals and diaries, a guide book containing
information for visitors or tourists about the destination, or a trip
planner website dedicated to helping the users plan their trips.
In international travel, persons visiting certain countries may be required to
provide their travel itinerary to authorities to insure that their plans are lawful.

Tour Itinerary

Tourist route that includes visits to various historical sites, places of cultural int
erest, or natural attractionsan itineraryundertaken for cultural, educational, hea
lth, or sport
andrposes. Tour itineraries may be worked out by tourist agencies andorganizati
ons o
In terms of their directional orientation, the various types of itineraries include l
inear, circular, and radial ones. Itineraries arealso distinguished in terms of mod
e of travel—for example, walking, cycling, automotive means, or water transpor
t; in termsof time of tour operation—year-round, seasonal, or one-time itinerari
es; and in terms of the different arrangements that maybe involved for group a
nd individual itineraries.
Tourists may follow organized, or preplanned, tour routes (on the basis of touris
t organization travel vouchers), or they maywork out their own independent itin
eraries. Organized tour routes are specially designed and equipped to offer tour
ists suchservices as excursions, tourist centers, and camp sites. In 1975, organiz
ed tour routes in the USSR numbered more than350 on the all-Union level and
more than 6,000 local ones. The all-Union tour routes are designed and maintai
ned by theCentral Council on Tourism and Excursions of the All-Union Central C
ouncil of Trade Unions; the local routes, by republic,krai, and oblast councils on
tourism. A special category of itineraries consists of fixed railroad, bus, ship, and
airplane routesor some combination of these. More than 4,000 such itineraries
were in operation in 1975. Approximately 30 million personswere provided with
all-Union and local tour services in 1976.
The most popular tour itineraries are “The Golden Ring” (beginning and ending
in Moscow and passing through Zagorsk,Pereslavl’-Zalesskii, Rostov-Iaroslavskii,

22 | P a g e
Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Pies, Ivanovo, Suzdal’, and Vladimir); the Baltic tour (withst
ops at Vilnius, Kaliningrad, Riga, and Tallinn); the tour of the capitals of the Mid
dle Asian republics (Frunze, Tashkent,Samarkand, Dushanbe, and Ashkhabad); t
he Carpathian tour (L’vov, Iaremcha, Rakhov, Mukachevo, and Uzhgorod); theto
ur along the Caucasian coast of the Black Sea (Sukhumi, Novyi Afon, Miussera, a
nd Sochi); the various tours in themountain areas of the Crimea and the Caucas
us, on the Volga (between Moscow and Astrakhan), and on the Enisei(between
Krasnoiarsk and Dudinka); and the tours on horseback in the Adygei Autonomo
us Oblast and the Bashkir ASSR.
Tourists may work out their own itineraries—for example, for a day’s holiday, fo
r a trip of several days’ duration, or to engagein sports activities. Such itinerarie
s are usually organized and arranged with the assistance of tourist clubs or touri
st stationsor through the offices of physical education groups. As many as 50 mil
lion persons go on independent hikes or trips eachyear. On sports tour routes, d
ifficult hikes of several days’ duration are governed by the rules of sports touris
International tour itineraries for Soviet citizens and tour itineraries for foreign t
ourists in the USSR are arranged by Inturist (anall-Union joint-stock company), b
y the Central Council on Tourism and Excursions of the All-Union Central Council
of TradeUnions, and by the Sputnik Bureau of International Youth Tourism unde
r the general guidance of the Central Board ofForeign Tourism of the Council of
Ministers of the USSR.
In other countries, both domestic and international tour itineraries are worked
out and arranged by special state or publictourist organizations, by the many pri
vate tourist firms, and by such agencies as transportation company affiliates an
d hotelchain subsidiaries.

Itinerary Planning
A tourist is very upset because on reaching Agra he found that the TajMahal
was closed on that particular day. He had his flight booked for visiting
Khajurahoon the next day and he would be missing the world famous attraction
for which he had actually come to Agra. It seems that his agent had not planned
his itinerary properly.

23 | P a g e

Let us first know the meaning of the term itinerary planning. Roday, Biwal, Joshi
,(2009) have defined itinerary planning as the linking of all the journey points of
the traveler’s journey, i.e. from the origin point, and in between stopping points
for sightseeing at the destination and back to the point of origin. This is not
always the case as sometimes the tourist may not come back to the point of

• Itinerary planning is one of the major functions of any travel agency.

• The travel agencies sell readymade package tours to their clients or may
design customized itineraries as per the requirement of the client.

• Itinerary planning has to be done carefully as many details need to be

considered like sightseeing, time taken, meals, weather, monument
information, the timings of the monuments and its closure.

24 | P a g e
The next important thing after planning the itinerary is to calculate the tour
cost for the itinerary planned. The following costs need to included while
calculating the tour cost:

 Hotel

 Meals

 Transportation

 Entrance fees

 Miscellaneous fees
As a travel agent you should be aware of the various types of hotels available at
the destination and keep yourself updated of the different category of hotels,
types of rooms, tariff plans, extra bed rate, taxes, meals, etc. The tariff plans
differ as per the season at most of the tourist destinations i.e. regular, season,
off-season, and week-end tariff. Many hotels give a special discount to

25 | P a g e
corporate as well as large groups depending on the size of the group. Example:
For the group of 12 students of SYDTT, dormitory accommodation was provided
at Hotel Tourist Home @ 175/- per student for a single day. The staff was also
charged the same rate.
Many hotels include different meals in the tariff. There are different plans
included in the tariff as below:

While doing the costing of the transportation you have to consider the various
modes of travel undertaken by the tourist like airways, railways, and the ground
transport as the cost varies depending on the type of vehicle used. Example:
For the 12 students + 2 staff members accompanying them for the Aurangabad
tour, a 17 seater vehicle was booked. The students were told to get the best
rates for a vehicle in good condition. The rate of the vehicle was Rs.14.00 per
km. Since the itinerary was planned for 3 days the vehicle was finalized at the
cost of 14.00/km with an average of 300 kmper day. So the total cost of the
vehicle was Rs.12600/- for 3 days. (14.00 x 900 km = Rs.12600/-)
Local Guide/Escort
English speaking and foreign language licensed guides are provided by the India
Tourism offices of the Ministry of Tourism. Authorized local guides are also
available at most of the tourist attractions. As a travel agent you should have
the list of the approved tourist guides available along with other contact details.
The guides are available for Half day, Full day, night halt, and outstation charges
as applicable by the rate decided by Ministry of tourism. Thus, the travel agent
while doing the tour cost needs to include the guide charges as well. Escorts are
normally provided by the tour operator for the group tours.

26 | P a g e
Route Map

A road map or route map is a map that primarily displays roads and transport
links rather than natural geographical information. It is a type of navigational
map that commonly includes political boundaries and labels, making it also a
type of political map. In addition to roads and boundaries, road maps often
include points of interest, such as prominent businesses or buildings, tourism
sites, parks and recreational facilities, hotels and restaurants, as well as airports
and train stations. A road map may also document non-automotive transit
routes, although often these are found only on transit maps.

History of Amritsar
27 | P a g e
Amritsar historically also known as Ramdaspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is
a city in north-western part in India. It is the spiritual centre for the Sikh religion
and the administrative headquarters of the Amritsastate of Punjab.
Amritsar, literally meaning the 'Pool of the Nectar of Immortality', is one of the
major cities of the Punjab state. The administrative headquarters of the
Amritsar District, it is the major spiritual and cultural centre of Sikhs.
The city was founded by Guru Ram Das in 1574 on land bought by him for 700
rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. Earlier Guru Ram Das had begun
building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 (according
to one source in 1570). It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru
Ram Das built his residence and moved to this place. At that time, it was known
as Guru Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das).
It is home to the Harmandir Sahib (referred to as the "Golden Temple" in the
western media), the spiritual and cultural center for the Sikh religion. This
important Sikh shrine attracts more visitors than the Taj Mahal with more than
100,000 visitors on week days alone and is the most popular destination for
Non-resident Indians (NRI) in the whole of India. The city also houses the Sikh
temporal and political authority, Akal Takht, as well as the Sikh Parliament.
Amritsar is one of the largest cities of the Punjab state in India. The city origin
lies in the village of Tung, and was named after the lake founded by the fourth
Sikh Guru Ram Das in 1574 on land bought by him for 700 rupees from the
owners of the village of Tung. Earlier Guru Ram Das had begun building
Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 (according to one
source in 1570). It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das
built his residence and moved to this place. At that time, it was known as Guru
Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das.)
Amritsar's central walled city has narrow streets mostly developed in the 17th
and 18th century. The city is a peculiar example of an introverted planning

28 | P a g e
system with unique areas called Katras. The Katras are self-styled residential
units that provided unique defence system during attacks on the city.
The city lies on the main Grand Trunk Road (GT Road) from Delhi to Amritsar
connecting to Lahore in Pakistan. The G. T. Road, built by Sher Shah Suri, runs
through the whole of the northern half of the Indian subcontinent, connecting
Peshawar, Pakistan to Sonargaon, Bangladesh. The city is also connected to
most other major cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta by an extensive
network of rail system. The city also provides air connectivity to major Indian
cities, as well as international cities such as Birmingham, Toronto, Dubai,
Singapore, Tashkent, Ashgabat, London etc. from the Raja Sansi International
Airport, recently renamed as Guru Ramdas International Airport. The airport is
being developed for increasing demand in future; a new International inbound
and outbound terminal is operational, and a cargo terminal is under
construction. The city is the administrative center for the Amritsar District.
However, it did not become the industrial center of Punjab due to its proximity
to the volatile Indo-Pakistan border.
Climate of Amritsar:

Amritsar has an extreme type of climate with very hot summers and chilly
winters. The region has four distinct seasons- the winter season (November to
March), the summer season (April to June), monsoon season ( July to
September) and post- monsoon season (September to November). Summers
can be as hot as 46 degrees. During winters, temperature may drop down to a
minimum of - 3 degrees centigrade. The ideal time to visit Amritsar is between
the months of October and March.
Tourist Places of Amritsar:

Golden Temple - The Golden Temple or Har Mandir Saheb is the holiest shrine
for the people of Sikh religion. The temple was the main centre of the old

29 | P a g e
Amritsar city, which is visited by the Sikh devotees from all parts of the world.
Built between 1588 and 1601, the temple architecture is a combination of
Hindu and Muslim styles.
Jallianwala Bagh - The park is situated close to the Golden Temple. It
commemorates 2,000 Indians, who were killed or wounded by the British
soldiers during a meeting.
Wagah Border - Wagah Border, the final frontier is located about 47 kms from
Amritsar. This is the only border crossing between India and neighbour country
Pakistan. Every evening at sunset the parade takes place between the soldiers
of India and Pakistan. It is a great moment to see the soldiers of both the
countries in high enthusiasm and respect for each other.
Mata Mandir Temple - Located at Rani Ka Bagh, this temple was developed by a
grand old pious woman. Built on the lines of holy shrine of Mata Vasihno Devi
in Jammu, the temple is thronged by a large number of devotees.
Ram Tirath Temple - Situated on the outskirts of Amritsar, the temple is the
birthplace of Lav and Kush. The sacred place for the Hindus, is visited by a large
number of people to get a glimpse of statues illustrating scenes from the
mythological Ramayana.
Lalbagh Garden - Covering an area of 240 km, this beautifully laid out garden is
a popular picnic spot in the city. The garden is home to many tropical and
subtropical plants, a deer park, fountains and pond that attract the visitors.
Mata Temple - This Hindu temple, was built to commemorate a bespectacled
20th century female Saint Lal Devi. Mata Temple is mostly visited by women
wishing to have children.
Tarn Taran - Located about 25 kms south of Amritsar, this is an important Sikh
tank. It is said that the tank has healing properties and corrects minor skin

30 | P a g e
Basic facts of Amritsar
India is an old country & together with China, they form the oldest countries
that existed as cohesive units thousands of years ago.

One of the biggest advantages of being an old country is the amount of heritage
and cultural practices that will be exported to rest of the world.

Among the most prominent heritage sites in India that have made an impact in
the world is the Golden Temple. Peruse the list below and see religious heritage
at its best.

1. The Golden Temple is also referred to as "Darbar Sahib” or “Harmandar

Sahib", and is one of the oldest worship places for the Indian Sikh. It is located
in Amritsar, Punjab.

2. The entire top of the temple is made of pure gold, adding to the beauty of
the temple.

3. The temple is surrounded by a manmade lake that boasts a lot of exotic fish
in it. To get to the temple, you will literally have to walk on water.

4. The temple is entered from four different sides to show openness and

5. The temple was initially built without any gold coating. It is during the reign
of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Punjab in the early 19th century that the
temple went under full renovation and made into what it is today.

31 | P a g e
6. Before the temple was built, the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, used to
meditate at the site. It was not until the fifth Guru, Guru Arjana that the temple
was built.

7. The manmade lake around the temple is known as 'Amrit Sarovar' which is
translated as ‘Pool of Holy Nectar’.

8. The temple is considered holy such that 35% of the pilgrims that visit it are
from faiths other than Sikh.

9. The Langar at the Golden temple serves up to 200,000 people during special
religious events. Amazingly, all the food served are donations from faithful.

10. With hand painted mosaics and patterns, the Golden temple is one of the
most significant symbols of Mughal and Indian architectural genius.

Education in Amritsar
Gurunanak Dev University ,Amritsar

Guru Nanak Dev University was established in 1969 to commemorate the

500th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev , the first Guru of the Sikhs. The
foundation stone of the Guru Nanak Dev Uniersity was laid on 24 November
1969 by the then President of India , Late Shri V.V.Giri The University is catering

32 | P a g e
to the needs of higher education in this border belt.The beautifull sprawling
campus over an area of 500 acres has at present colleges under its jurisdiction
in the districts of Amritsar,Gurdaspur,Jalandhar & Kapurthala.The university
teaching & research departments in arts,social sciences ,laws,pures & applied
sciences .Special emphasis is given on teaching & promotion of research in
applied sciences & technology .The University library being the nucleus is
housed in modern building , which is an architectural landmark in Asia . The
University is leading in the field of sports.It won for the 18th time in succession
the coveted Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad Trophy which is awarded by the
Government of India to the best University in sports.In the cultural field also,
the University has achieved a number of distinctions

Khalsa College, Amritsar

Khalsa College Amritsar which has successfully completed one hundred years of
its existence has over this period carved for itself a unique niche on the
educational map of the country.The high administrative acumen, unflagging zeal
and sincerity of purpose of the teachers has steered the college to attain high
academic laurels .

The History of the college is practically the history of renaissance among the
Sikhs .There is hardly any eminent educated Sikhs of the other generation who
had not at one time or the other been connected with this reputed institution.

The flickering torch of religious, social and political life among the Sikhs that
was becoming dimmer and dimmer after the fall of the Sikh empire has not
only been kept burring by this college but it has also contributed a lot to spread
Knowledge, even to the remotest parts of the country. The Institution has a big
hand in elevating the community to its present enviable position in the field of
education and social uplift .With the establishment of the college in 1892,

33 | P a g e
began a movement for the education of Sikh boys and girls on an extensive
scale .

The main objective of the college was to spread amongst the Sikhs modern
education on western lines, so that they were kept abreast of the times. The
avowed aim of its founding fathers was the eradication of ignorance, illiteracy
and pernicious social evils bedewelling the Indian society through the spread of
enlightened, progressive and value-oriented education in the fields of
humanities, agriculture and science and technology. Propagation of Sikh
cultural heritage and promotion of Punjabi language were its other professed

Although the stress was laid on moulding and reshaping Punjab Youth according
to the Sikh ideals, Khalsa College has always maintained a secular stance and
outlook ever since its inception. This is borne out by fact that students of all
castes and creeds have always been on the rolls of the college. The secular
stance was maintained even at a time when terrorism was at its peak in the

The majestic and stately building of the College is a fine specimen of

architecture. The layout plan of the splendid building was prepared by S.Ram
Singh, Vice- Principal, Mayo School of Arts, Lahore and the construction was
carried out under the supervision of a reputed engineer, Dharam Singh, The
establishment of the College was a result of joint efforts of various intellectuals
and princes of the chief sects of Sikhs, who wanted to give a new direction

34 | P a g e
Sports in Amritsar

Punjabis are regarded as strong-willed people and sport is the best platform to
show that positivity. With great sporting spirit, this very tradition continues in
Amritsar. Here, you will find people giving a break to their busy lives and
indulging in some activity or the other. Of course the city has many means of
entertainment, but the relaxation that any sports promises is not go amiss.
Playing different sports brings discipline and that very quality is seen in the
people here. They are active when it comes to any game. Over the years, the
state government has taken many successful initiatives to give the city the best
sporting facilities. In return, sports persons from Amritsar have risen to
remarkable levels, making this otherwise calm.

35 | P a g e
Cricket in Amritsar

Cricket as a sport is literally worshiped and watched closely in our country. The
same fervor holds true for the city of Amritsar, which

has also given to the country many significant players. Cricket has strong hold
on the sporting atmosphere in Amritsar. From schools, small lanes to the
stadiums and other sport centers and grounds, the bat and the ball never leave
your site.
There is immense talent that makes way to these stadiums. And from here have
risen many players who have gained national and international success. Some
of the prominent names are:

Kamal Passi

Bishan Singh Bedi

Navjot Singh Sidhu

Manish Sharma

Vijay Mehra

Munir Hussain

Hockey in Amritsar

Hockey is another favourite sport of the city. The young lads especially gear to
play this sport as it gives them extreme stamina and builds competitive spirit.
Colleges encourage this sport making sure that players make the best of their

Amritsar Hockey Club

36 | P a g e
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Hockey Academy

Each year many members become a part of the club and many students of the
academy. As a result, there is a sense of great sportsmanship that is prevalent
even on the field.

Swimming in Amritsar

Swimming is seen more of a complete body exercise. It allows the body to

develop from all areas as there is a full movement. Group of friends, families
and little ones come in to take a dip in the fresh water while some experts
demonstrate their skills. For swimming, people in Amritsar once again have
several options. The top class hotels ensure that this facility is provided and on
becoming a member you can easily swim your way through. Places where you
can visit for swimming.

Stadiums in Amritsar

The city has been provided very high standard stadiums and popular grounds

Gandhi Ground / International Cricket Stadium

Gandhi Sports Complex Ground

37 | P a g e
Amritsar International Cricket Stadium

Guru Nanak Stadium

Culture and heritage

Pakistan. Punj means five and aab means water, so Punjab means five waters.
These five rivers named Beas, Satluj, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. Beas, and
Satluj . These five rivers divide the state into three regions : Majha, Doaba and
Malwa. Punjab enjoys the natural benefits and fertile soil the gives good
cultivation.Punjab is the oldest cultivation on the earth and with its
distinguished language, culture, food, attire, script, folklore, people, etc. Punjabi
language has its originating source in Sanskrit (not Hindi or Urdu as many young
Indian Pakistanis believe), i.e. the family of Indo-European group of languages
38 | P a g e
which includes Persian and Latin. Punjab has always been land of great saints
and fighters.

Tourist places - Punjab is the place of Sikhism . The holiest of Sikh shrines, the
Sri Harmandir Sahib (or Golden Temple), is in the city of Amritsar . The five
Takhts (Temporal Seats of religious authority) of Sikhism, three are in Punjab.
These are Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Damdama Sahib and Anandpur Sahib. Punjab is
one of the leading states of India in terms of infrastructure . It is also known for
its sports and hosiery goods industry. Enjoy the unparalleled hospitality and
warmth of the natives .Some of the leading tourist attractions in Punjab are:
Amritsar- Golden temple , Jallianwala bagh, Wagah Border, Maharaja Ranjit
Singh Museum, Patiala - Sheesh mahal, Quila Muabrak , Moti Bagh Palace, Kali
devi Temple , Chandigarh- Sikh Ajaibghar, Sukhna lake, Rock garden , Rose
garden etc.

drumming of the dholak, people dance with zeal to the tunes of the music.
"Giddha" is another important variant of dance practiced by Punjabi women.
Cuisine Of Punjab – The cuisine of Punjab has great variety of mouth-watering
vegetarian as well as non vegetarian dishes. In Punjab, home cooking is
different from the restaurant cooking style. At the restaurants use desi ghee,
butter and cream to make the food lip smacking and finger licking. On the other
hand, at home, people prefer using sunflower oil or some other refined oil for
cooking, with the basic idea of making the food low in fat content. The main
Traditional Punjabi food are - Sarson ka saag, Shahi paneer, Dal makhni, Rajma,
Chole, Aloo, Chicken karahi, Chicken Tandori, makki di Roti, Naan, Phulka, Puri,
Papad, Lassi, Kheer, rabri.

Culture and Tradition of Punjab – The culture of Punjab is the richest culture in
the world. Punjabi songs are full of melody and energy. The dance styles of
Punjab has more flavor with its bhangra, giddha, kikli and sammi.Bhangra" is
one of the most famous dance forms of Punjab. With the loud Bolis are lyrically
sung and danced by women. Other popular dance forms are Jhumar, Dhankara
and Gatka. Irrespective of age or religion, Punjabis love to dance and enjoy
themselves to mark festivity. Folk music is the soul of Punjabi culture. Folk

39 | P a g e
music comprises of simple musical instruments like dholak and dhol drum.
Punjabi music relates to the zestful people of Punjab.. Boliyas are sung and
music is played in tune with the lyrics. Punjabi songsat the wedding range from
emotional interludes to very peppy beats, where there is a constant chiding of
the bride and groom. A sense of humor is essential to enjoy the wedding songs.
The traditional dress of people is Kurta-pyjama with turban for men. Women
prefer Patiala suits as part of their traditional attire. There is a riot of colors in
the pagdi-turban and phulkari dupattas, that comes out during the Baisakhi
festival. The traditional dress of the Punjabis comprising of the salwar-kameez
for women and lehenga-kurta with a waistcoast has many colors and styling.
Turban styles can be explored and is compulsory for all Sikhs.

Art and craft of Punjab - Punjabis are renowned for their utmost interest in arts
and crafts. Many phrases have decorative designs and handicrafts. Women used
to weave woolen attire for everybody in the family. "Phulkari" is recognized
worldwide for its intricate work. Shawls in silk are carefully hand-woven using
traditional motifs as designs. Other famous crafts of the region include lacquer
work, wooden work, Calico painting, paper mache` and many more. Wooden
furniture is beautifully crafted by artisans with exquisite craftsmanship.
Punjabi dances are an array of folk and religious dances of the Punjabi
people indigenous to the Punjab region, straddling the border
of India and Pakistan. The style of Punjabi dances ranges from very high energy
to slow and reserved, and there are specific styles for men and women. Some
of the dances are secular while others are presented in religious contexts.
The dances are typically performed at times of celebration, such as Harvest
(Visakhi), Weddings, Melas (Festivals) like Lohri, Jashan-e-Baharan (Spring
Festival) etc., at which everyone is encouraged to dance. Married Punjabi
couples usually dance together. The husband dances in the style of male
Punjabi dances, frequently with arms raised, and the wife dances in the style of
female Punjabi dances.
Main Punjabi folk dance for men or for all is Bhangda or Bhangra and for
females is Giddha or Giddhah.
Common Punjabi Folk Dances for "Females"
Punjabi Girls dancing

40 | P a g e
 Sammi

 Giddha

 Jaago

 Kikli
Common Punjabi Folk Dances for Males
Dhamaal Dance

 Bhangra

 Malwai Giddha

 Jhumar

 Luddi

 Mirza

 Sial Koti

 Jugni

 Khichan

 Dhamal

 Dankara

 Khatka (Sword Dance)

Common Punjabi Folk Dances for Males and Females

 Bhangra

 Karthi

 Jindua

 Dandass

41 | P a g e
Sri Guru Ram Das Jee International Airport
(IATA: ATQ, ICAO: VIARnamed after Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth Sikh Guru and
the founder of Amritsar city, is an international airport about 11 kilometres
(7 mi) northwest of the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is located on the
Amritsar-Ajnala Road, near the village of Raja Sansi. Besides Amritsar, the
airport serves neighboring areas of Punjab, Western districts of Himachal
Pradesh and Southern districts of Jammu and Kashmir. The new integrated
terminal has doubled the capacity of the old terminal.

 1Facilities

 2Runway

 3Airlines and destinations

 4References

 5External links


Airport Entrance
The arrivals section of the old terminal was inaugurated in September 2005,
and the departures section was made operational in March 2006. A new
integrated terminal building, built in glass and steel and equipped with modern
facilities like an inline X-ray baggage inspection and conveyor system, Flight
Information Display System (FIDS), Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE),
and CCTV for surveillance among others, was inaugurated on 25 February 2009,
with an area of 40,175 square metres (432,440 sq ft) marking an improvement
over the earlier 12,770 square metres (137,500 sq ft) facility. The new terminal
building is a blend of modern and Indian designs, constructed in glass and steel

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with Indian style arches and colours. For the quarter ending June 30, 2016, the
airport registered a 59.6% growth of international passenger traffic.[4]

The baggage area in Amritsar airport before its opening.

The integrated terminal building has now four aero bridges (including new
recently fitted ones at bay no. 2 and bay no. 4), an annual capacity of 1.46
million passengers with a peak hour capacity of 1,200 passengers. The building
has 30 check-in counters, 4 X-ray scanners (for baggage), 26 immigration
Counters, 10 custom counters, 12 security check booths, and 4 conveyor belts
for arrivals. The apron has been extended to cater for parking of a total of 14
aircraft (8 Category 'E’, 3 Category 'D’ and 3 Category 'C’ types of aircraft) from
the earlier capacity of ten aircraft and strengthened for parking of Category 'E’
type of aircraft. The departure and arrival halls operate duty-free shops. The
departure hall also accommodates foreign currency exchange service, a book
store, restaurants and other shops for the convenience of departing passengers.
In 2017, the Amritsar Vikas Manch (AVM) approached the Punjab and Haryana
High court for resumption of non-stop flights to Birmingham and other
destinations.[6]. Air India Birmingham office has announced launching of twice
a week non-stop Amritsar-Birmingham flight from early 2018.[7]
Amritsar International Airport has ranked 1,surprassing all other airports of the
country for passenger growth during the financial year 2017-18,witnessing a
passenger growth of over 90%.

 Airport on Runway 34 from the existing 650 metres to 350 metres
benefiting airlines in terms of increased safety and avoiding diversions to other
airports resulting in better operational and environmental efficiency.[8]
[9] During 2016-17 runway upgrade, the flexible portion runway was strengthed
and inset lighting installed for ILS CAT III at a cost of 150 crores.[10] On 12 Oct
2017, the Airports Authority of India issued CAT III-B low visibility procedures
(LVP) for Amritsar Airport allowing landing at 50 m visual range.[11]

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"Gateway to Punjab - home to Golden Temple"

Amritsar Tourism
Home of the glorious Golden Temple, the iconic city of Amritsar, portrays the
heroic character of the Punjab. A day in this peaceful city starts with the
spiritual prayers from Gurudwaras. The original name of first the ancient lake,
then of the temple complex, and later the surrounding city, meaning "pool of
ambrosial nectar."

Amritsar is the spiritual and cultural centre of the Sikh Religion. Baisakhi
festival brings out Amritsar's resplendent face with its finest food, clothes and
merry-making. This place is also famous for its Jallianwala Bagh massacre and
its proximity to Wagah Border. The satiating food and generous dollops of
legendary Punjabi hospitality further connive to cast a spell upon the visitor.
From the Operation Blue Star in the Golden Temple to the tragedy of the
Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Amritsar has seen the worst of situations and yet
emerged like a phoenix through testing times. Amritsar today is a thriving city
with active trade and tourism industries. One of the most agriculturally
productive cities of India, Amritsar is well connected with most of the
important cities of India.

Tourist Places

Golden Temple(Harmander Sahib)

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The Golden temple is located in the holy city of the Sikhs, Amritsar. The Golden
temple is famous for its full golden dome, it is one of the most sacred pilgrim
spots for Sikhs. The Mandir is built on a 67-ft square of marble and is a two
storied structure. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had the upper half of the building built
with approximately 400 kg of gold leaf. The Golden Temple is surrounded by a
number of other famous temples like the Durgiana Temple. The fourth Guru of
Sikhs, Guru Ram Das, who had initially constructed a pool here, founded
Amritsar, which houses the Golden Temple or Harmandir Sahib. It is here that
Sage Valmiki wrote the epic, Ramayana. Rama and Sita are believed to have
spent their fourteen-year exile in Amritsar, the epicenter of Sikhism. To the
south of the temple is a garden, and the tower of Baba Atal. The Central Sikh
Museum is atop the Clock Tower. The 'Guru Ka Langar' offers free food to
around 20,000 people everyday. The number shoots up to 100,000 on special
occasions. A visitor must cover his / her head before entering the temple
premises. The Granth Sahib is kept in the Temple during the day and is kept in
the Akal Takht or Eternal Throne in the night. The Akal Takht also houses the
ancient weapons used by the Sikh warriors. Guru Hargobind established it. The
rugged old Jubi Tree in the north west corner of the compound is believed to
possess special powers. It was planted 450 years ago, by the Golden Temple's
first high priest, Baba Buddha. Guru-ka-Langar or the communal canteen is
towards the eastern entrance of the temple complex, and it provides free food
to all visitors, regardless of colour, creed, caste or gender. Visitors to the Golden
Temple must remove their shoes and cover their heads before entering the
temple. The temple is less crowded in the early mornings on weekends.

Around the Golden Temple

Within the sacred precincts of the Golden Temple, a devotee can seek blessing

The Akal Takht

Har Ki Pauri

Dukh Bhanjani Ber (Jujube Tree)

Thara Sahib

Ber Baba Budha Ji

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Gurudwara Ilachi Ber

Ath Sath Tirath

Bunga Baba Deep Singh

Durgiana Temple (Lakshmi Narain Temple)

Built in the third decade of the 20th Century it echoes, not the traditional Hindu
temple architecture, but that of the Golden Temple and, in a similar manner
rises from the midst of a tank and has canopies and the central dome in the
style of the Sikh temple. One of the greatest reformers and political leaders of
resurgent India, Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, laid its foundation stone. It is a
well-known repository of Hindu scriptures

Wagah Border

The international border between India and Pakistan. The pomp and pageantry
of the Beating Retreat and the Change of Guard within handshaking distance of
the Indian and Pakistani forces makes for a most charming spectacle.

Wagah, an army outpost on Indo-Pak border - between Amritsar and Lahore, is

an elaborate complex of buildings, roads and barriers on both sides. The daily
highlight is the evening "Beating the Retreat" ceremony. Soldiers from both
countries march in perfect drill, going through the steps of bringing down their
respective national flags. As the sun goes down, nationalistic fervour rises and
lights are switched on marking the end of the day amidst thunderous applause.

Jallian Wala Bagh

The memorial at this site commemorates the 2000 Indians who were killed or
wounded, shot indiscriminately by the British under the command of Gen
Michael O"Dyer on April13, 1919 while participating in a peaceful public
meeting. This was one of the major incidents of India's freedom struggle.The
story of this appaling massacre is told in the Martyr's Gallery at the site. A
section of wall with bullet marks still visible is preserved along with the
memorial well, in which some people jumped to escape. "The impossible men

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of India shall rise and liberate their mother land", declared Mahatma Gandhi,
after the Jallian Wala massacre. "This disproportionate severity of punishment
inflicted upon the unfortunate people and method of carrying it out is without
parallel in the history of civilized govt." wrote Rabindra Nath Tagore the noble
laureate while returning knighthood.

Ram Bagh

Ram Bagh a beautiful garden ,an accustomed listener to the Neighs of thousand
horses, announcing the arrival of the statesman of the century Maharaja Ranjit
Singh (1780-1839) the Lion of Punjab, has in its heart the summer Palace of this
great ruler. Maintenance free inbuilt cooling system designed in the Palace
exhibits the architectural excellence and invokes a keen interest.The king of his
time brought local chieftains under his control and virtually finished any
eventuality of possible attacks on the kingdom raised by him. To commemorate
the memory of his velour Ram Bagh on its one end has a lively statue of
Maharaja Ranjit Singh saddled on a horse in a winsome posture.

The garden was named by the ruler himself as a tribute to Guru Ram Das, the
founder of the city. Now the summer palace of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh has
been converted into a museum which speaks volumes on his times.On display
are weapons dating back to Mughal times, portraits of ruling houses of Punjab
and a replica of diamond "Kohinoor". In those days the garden was approached
by a huge fortified gate which still exists in its original form and is just on the
periphery of the garden.

Ram Tirath

Located 11 Km West of Amritsar on Chogawan road, dates back to the period of

Ramayana, Rishi Valmiki's hermitage. The place has an ancient tank and many
temples. A hut marks the site where Mata Sita gave birth to Luv & Kush and
also, still extant are Rishi Valmiki's hut and the well with stairs where Mata Sita
used to take her bath. The Bedis of Punjab (Guru Nanak Dev , the founder
47 | P a g e
Prophet of Sikhism was a Bedi) trace their descent from Kush and Sodhis (the
10th Prophet of Sikhism, Guru Gibind Singh was a Sodhi) from Luv. A four day
fair, since times immemorial is held here starting on the full moon night in
November. 16 Kilometres west on Choganwan road is Ram Tirath,
commemorating Maharishi Balmik Ji´s heritage.

Pul Kanjari:

It is another heritage sight built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh around which are
sewn many tales and legends. Situated near the villages of Daoka and Dhanoa
Kalan right on the Wagha border, Pul Kanjari is about 35 kms. Both from
Amritsar & Lahore. The Maharaja would often rest and leisure here in the
baradari while passing by along with his royal troop and retinues. Despite a
ruined fort and a baoli-a bathing pool - this heritage sight has a temple, a
Gurudwara and a mosque which bespeak of the secular concerns of the
Maharaja. The inside of the dome on the corner of the baoli enshrines a
number of scenes and sights from the Hindu scriptures and the Raj
Darbar.These frescoes are laced with floral frames.

Samadhi of Guru Angad Dev Ji:

About 30 km south east from Amritsar, and within easy reach from Goindwal
Sahib is a Samadhi of the second Guru. It was built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in
1815 A.D.

Jama Masjid Khairuddin:

Built by Mohd. Khairuddin in 1876, this masjid is a place of architectural beauty

situated in the Hall Bazar. This is the holy place from where a call against the
British rule was given by Tootie-e-Hind, Shah Attaullah Bukhari.

Samadh of Shravan:

About 6 Kilometres from Ajnala near Jastarwal (earlier known as Dashrathwal)

is located one of the oldest heritage spots in Amritsar. It belongs to the
Ramayana period a legend has it that Shravan lies buried here after the fell
from the arrow of King Dashrath, the Lord of Ayodhya. The Samadh is situated
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on the banks of an old rivulet (Purani Dhab ).Shravan had taken his blind
parents on a wide-ranging pilgrimage by cradling them on his shoulder in a
wooden device.

Khoo Kalyanwala

The city has played a stellar role in the liberation of India from the British
clutches. Freedom fighters like Madan Lal Dhingra, Ras Bihari Bose, S.Kartar
Singh Sarabha, Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saif-ud-din Kitchlu are house-hold names in

When Mangal Pande blew the bugle of rebellion against the British in 1857, its
echoes and shock-waves were felt in Amritsar also. A platoon of 400 soldier
stationed at Lahore rebelled against the British Government by fleeing their
barracks. The deserted soldiers bravely swam across the flooded Ravi and
reached Ajnala.The information was received by Mr.Fredric Cooper, the then
Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar.On his order, all of them were put in a coop-
like room where almost 200 soldiers died of asphyxia. The rest of them were
brutally shot dead the next morning and their dead bodies thrown in the well
which is known as the Kalianwala Khoo in Tehsil Ajnala.

The Historical Banyan Tree( Shaheedi Bohr):

This historical tree with massive girth and lushgreen canopy stands majestically
in the Namdhari Shaheedi Samark against the majestic back drop of the
northern boundary of Ram Bagh.Four Kookas were hanged from this tree by the
British Government in 1871.The Kookas were hanged from this tree by the
British Government in 1871 The Kookas were hanged because they had reacted
violently against the hawking of beef around the Golden Temple.

Main Hotels

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History & Culture
Brief History

Amritsar, literally a Pool of Nectar, derives its name from Amrit Sarovar, the holy
tank that surrounds the fabulous Golden Temple. First time visitors to Amritsar
could be forgiven for the impression that Amritsar is like any other small town
in northern India. But Amritsar stands head and shoulders above any other city,
its status elevated and sanctified by the presence of the venerable Golden

Located in the heart of Amritsar, the temple complex is surrounded by a maze

of narrow lanes, or katras, that house one of the busiest markets in India. But
the Golden Temple is a serene presence, radiating a calm that makes people
bow their heads in reverence. The gurudwara, as Sikh temples are called, is the
holiest of Sikh shrines. It is not just Sikhs who travel to the Golden Temple to
pay homage, the sacred shrine is equally revered by Hindus and people of other
faiths who, too, make the pilgrimage to offer prayers at Harmandir Sahib.

There more to Amritsar than that - Amongst other sights is Jallianwala Bagh,
site of the gruesome massacre of unarmed Indians by British troops. A major
tourist attraction these days is the Indo-Pakistan border crossing at Wagah, just
a short distance from Amritsar, with its elaborate change-of-guards drill with a
lot of strutting and intimidatory showing off by both sides.

If you are 'doing' north India, Amritsar is a city you should not miss. It's easy to
travel there from Delhi by road and by rail. It is easy to navigate through the
city; few guides bother you as tourism is not the most important commercial
activity here. Ask them in Amritsar, and they will tell you that if for nothing else
you must travel here for the roadside chhola-bhaturas.

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The Origin of the city of Amritsar lies hidden in the mists of time due to the
scanty evidence available in its early history .On the development of the city,
the generally accepted view is based on the Amritsar District Gazetteers, the
authoritative works of reference on local history.

The various Opinions that the land was granted by emperor Akbar to Guru
Amar Das (later on transferred to Guru Ram Das), or was acquired by Guru Ram
Das before the grant was actually obtained, or the land was purchased by the
Guru on a payment of Rs.700 from the zamindaar of the village at tung at the
instance of Emperor Akbar, or presented by the people of village Sultanwind
out of regard and reverence for the Guru are all versions based on popular
tradition .There are no documentary evidences to support or contradict these
views. But the version regarding the purchase of the land by Guru Ram Das is in
keeping with the tradition of Sikh Gurus who never took any land grants from
the rulers.

It seems that originally the site of Amritsar was a community land lying
between the village of Sultanwind, Tung, Gumtala and Gilwali, and later it was
acquired by the Sikh Gurus either on payment or was received by them free of
cost. Opinions may vary on the question of acquisition of the site, but it is
certain that the selection of the site was planned and not accidental. It was the
choice of the Gurus themselves, and the site of Amritsar was revenue free
land.Even the early name of the city chak Guru,bears testimony to the nature of
the settlement as detached or revenue free. Probably, Chak Guru was granted
exemption from land revenue by the Mughal government during the reign of
Emperor Akbar,Whose policy of religious toleration and religious grants even to
non-Muslims centres is a well known fact.

The original plan of the new project was chalked out by Guru Amardas and
Conveyed to Ram Das for execution .Guru Ram Das was given guidelines for the
location of the site and was instructed to found a village,to build a House for
himself, to dig a tank and to develop the centre gradually into a city .
Arrangements were made for money and assistance .some intelligent,
51 | P a g e
experienced and elderly Sikhs were instructed to assist Ram Das to implement
the project .The project was thus executed by Guru Ram Das.

First of all a boundary line of the settlement was drawn. The foundation was
laid by Guru Ram Das and the village was named Ram Das Pura .Opinions vary
on the date of the founding of the city. Probably the foundation was laid in
1573 AD but the popular view is that it was done in 1577.

The construction of the new centre was started with great enthusiasm.Some
huts and houses were built and then excavation of the tank was startad . when
a portion of the project was completed, Bhai Jetha went to Goindwal to report
the progress of the work.This time Guru Amar Das directed Ram Das to dig
another tank at the low level area near the site of the tank under
construction.On his return, Guru Ram Das selected the site for the second tank
surrounded by a large number of Jujube trees.

The construction of the second tank commenced on Nov.6,1573 and Guru Ram
Das personally supervised it.Many Sikh devotees came to participate in the
Sewa. Simultaneously with the construction of the tank all care was taken to
develop the village Chak.52 types of caste groups from Patti,Kasur and Kalanaur
were called for ensuring regular supply of essential commodities to the settlers.
A market called Guru ka bazar which exists now also was established. Some
wells were dug for water supply .A number of rich bankers and traders also
settled down in the town.

The construction of the tank and the town was going on smoothly .But Guru
Ram Das had to rush back to Goindwal at the call of the dying Guru Amar Das,
while the work was in progress.The work was resumed on his return in 1577
and the construction of the tank and town was completed in the same year.

On the completion of the project, the Guru called the local business community
and told them to take charge of the holy place but they humbly pleaded their
inability to perform religious duties and requested the Guru to engage some
Brahmins and mendicants for the job.

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The Guru and his disciples were thrilled at the completion of the new
pilgrimage centre.Guru Ram Das composed beautiful verses in glorification of
the sarowar,making an injunction upon his followers to take bath in the holy
tank and meditate the name of God.The tank acquired a reputation fo sanctity
and became the head-quarters of the Sikhs.The Amrit Sarowar remained un-
bricked till Guru Arjan Dev ascended the Gur Gaddi in 1581.The tank was made
pacca and its side stairs were bricked. The tank was named .Amar sarowar or
Amritsar .Gradually the fame of the sacred tank led to its identity with the latter
appellation and the city got its final name of Amritsar.Guru Arjan Dev also
settled in the new city artisans and craftsmen of diverse calling and inculcated
in his followers keen interest in horse trade.

Early Period

It has been established now that the whole of Amritsar district was a part of the
vast area covered under Indus valley Civilization during the early period of
history. This civilization developed prior to the Aryans civilization in this region.
These evidences for the prevalence of this ancient civilization in this district of
Punjab have been furnished by the discovery of certain sites by the
archaeologist. The important sites pertaining to Indus valley civilization in
Amritsar district are as under:-





In addition to above, several sites also lie in a row in the Ravi, Beas , Doab.

Even in ancient times, trade was a primary factor in the urban development of
societies. The Indus valley civilization also flourished with the growth of trade
by overland and sea routes. It has been proved by the discovery of various seals
of the ancient sites.

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Ever since the discovery of the Indus Civilization, attempts have made to
decipher the Indus script. In this respect, many theories have been propounded
about the use of the seals, and the language used therein has been taught to be
Sanskrit or Dravadian or an ancestors form thereof, depending largely on the
initial approach of the scholars concerned. However, it has been now been
established that the direction of writing of Indus script is from right to left.
Many effects about Indus civilization will come to light as soon as Indus script is
deciphered. During the vedic period, the area now belonging to Amritsar
district is believed to be the abode of many Saints and Sages. According to a
legend, it was at Ramtirth that Sita took shelter in the Ashram(Cottage) of
Rishi(Saint) Balmiki during her exile. Both love and Kush received there
education at Ramtirth by the learned Sage Balmiki.

The area of the Amritsar district also came under the Greek influence when in
about 326 B.C., the area of Punjab up to the bank of river Beas was conquered
by Alexander. Later on, it became part of Maurya and Gupta empire.

After the overthrow of Greeks, the area of Amritsar district became a part of
the Mighty mauryan empire which extended up to Afghanistan. The most
enlightened ruler of the mauryan was Ashoka, the great, who during the reign
of his father Chandergupta Mauyara was the Viceroy of the principality of Taxila
which included the area of present Amritsar district. Subsequently from the
beginning of the 4th century to the end of the 6thcentury, it had the privilege of
being under Gupta administration, which because of its efficiency is known as
the golden age of Hindu period. Chandergupta was the most famous emperor
of Gupta dynasty. Later on, it came under Kushan rulers and Kanishka was the
most important ruler of this dynasty. With the rise of Rajputs, it began to be
ruled by Rajputs till it became a part of the Shahi Kingdom of Punjab. It is
believed that brave people of Majha formed a significant part of the armies of
mauryan, Gupta, Kushan and Shahi rulers.

Medieval Period

During the last quarter of 10th century, Raja Jaipal of Shahi Dynasty ruled over
Punjab including the present area of Amritsar district. His son and successor,
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Anangpal was finally defeated by Sultan Mahmmod of Ghazni in A.D. 1008.
From that time, until the final overthrow of the Muhammdan Supremacy, The
Amritsar district was attached to the Suba or Province of Lahor. The Important
Muhammdan dynasties were the slave dynasty, the Lodhi dynasty and the
Mughal dynasty. During the medieval period, the people of Amritsar district
were influenced much by the teachings of the Sikh Gurus who were
contemporaries of the Mughal rulers. Before the people of Amritsar district
came under the benign influence of the Sikh Gurus, there were not big cities or
towns in this district. However, Fatehabad( in Tarn Taran Tahsil) was an
important town which lay on the old Delhi and Lahore road. It had an imperial
serai for the halting of armies and carvanas. As most of the Mughal rulers were
fanatics, the Sikh Gurus and their disciples were bound to come in conflict with
them. The impact of the Sikh Gurus on the people of Amritsar district and their
conflicts with the Mughals are briefly given as under:

Amritsar and the sikh gurus

The People of Amritsar District came under the influence of teachings of Guru
Nanak in the beginning of 16thcentury, Bhai Lehna (later known as Guru Angad
Dev), a residence of Khadur Sahib became a devoted follower of Guru Nanak.He
preached people on the lines of Guru Nanak.He preached people on the lines of
his Guru.He converted Takhat Mal, the headman of the village, and many
others to his faith. A community kitchen (langer) was also initiated and men
from far and near started pouring in to receive spiritual instruction from him.
Even Guru Nanak visited him at khadur Sahib twice and on his second visit,
seeing his never-failing devotion to god and man took him back to Kartarpur
and appointed him as his successor on 14 July 1539 and called him Angad.

Guru Angad Dev settled at Khadur Sahib, his native village and made it his
headquarters. He began to preach and spread gospels of Guru Nanak with great

He allowed one of his disciples-Gobind to build a township on the bank of the

river Beas, but refused to call the new settlement after his own name and called
it Gobindwal (now Goindwal) to commemorate the memory of the disciple.It
55 | P a g e
was on 29 March 1552 Amar Das Ji, the most devoted follower of Guru Angad
Dev, was appointed by Baba Buddha as the third Guru of the Sikhs in the benign
presence of the Guru. It may be stated here that Humayun also visited Khadur
Sahib and received the blessings of Guru Angad Dev.

Guru Amar Das guided the Sikhs from Goindwal from 1552-1574.In the year
1567, when Akbar visited Lahore, he made a call on the Guru at Goindwal.On
being told that the Guru would see no one, high or low, till one had partaken of
the food from the langar (community Kitchen), Akbar, a man of broad
sympathies and high culture, welcomed the Idea and partook of the food
distributed there, sitting in a row with his subjects of humble origin.

Guru Amar Das established 22manjis (dioceses) in many parts of the country to
popularise Guru Nanak’s message.Many people came to the Guru to listen to
his precepts.The Guru also got constructed a baoli at Goindwal and fixed the
first of Baisakh as the day of the annual gathering of the Sikhs.He introduced
several new ceremonies on occasions of birth and death,replacing the chanting
of Sanskrit Shiolokas by the recitation of Gurbani.He preached against the
purdah system, the seclusion of women, encouraged inter-caste alliances and
remarriage of widows.The Guru condemned the practice of sati (burning of
widow on the pyre of her husband’s dead body).

In 1573, Guru Amar Das deputed Ram Das ji to start excavation of the tank later
known as Santokhsar and to found a new town later known as
Amritsar.Arrangements and control of funds for the purpose were entrusted to
Baba Buddha.A number of intelligent, experienced, devoted and elderly Sikhs
were instructed to join Ram Das in accomplishing the task. The inauguration of
the work was made in the traditional Indian style.Paid labourers were engaged.
The visiting Sikh devotees were exhorted to lend a helping hand. Before regular
excavation work of the tank (later on named ‘Santokhsar’),started, the
boundary line of the new settlement was marked and it was named chak Guru
or simply the chak. Later on it began to be called, variously, as Guru ka Chak,
Chak Guru Ram Das, or Ram Das Pura. Kilns were laid and a number of

56 | P a g e
hutments were built. The Guru also took abode in a hut near the site (later
named Guru ke Mehal)

After the portion of the project was completed, Ram Das went to Goindwal to
pay his homage to Guru Amar Das and report the progress to him. This time,
Guru Amar Das instructed Ram Das to dig another tank at a lower level near the
site of the tank that was already under construction. On his return to the Chak,
Ram Das made a search for the beri, the covered site for the second tank as
instructed by Guru Amar Das .The site having been selected, the construction of
the second tank (later on named Amrit sarowar ) commenced under the
personal supervision of Ram Das assisted by Baba Buddha. According to Gian
Singh Giani (Tawarikh Guru Khalsa, p.344), the digging of the tank commenced
on 7 Kartika 1630 BK (6 November 1573).A large number of labourers were
engaged . Many Sikh devotees came to the chak to participate in the work of
the digging of the tank.The digging continued for many months.Simultaneously
with the construction of the tank, every care was taken to develop the chak also
.A large number of traders and businessmen from the neighbouring areas were
induced to settle in the new township. In due course a market, called Guru ka
Bazar, also sprang up there. Some wells were dug for supplying drinking water.
A number of rich sarafs (bankers) and banjaras (traders) found their way to the
town. A considerable number of the disciples of the Guru shifted to the town.

In 1574, when Guru Amar Das saw his end approaching, he summoned Ram
Das to Goindwal and made him his successor on 1 september 1574.Guru Ram
Das ascended the spiritual throne of Guru Nanak at the age of about forty years
in 1574.During his brief period of seven years, he achieved considerable
progress in expanding the activities of the Sikh religion. He sent out many of his
disciples called Masands even to neighbouring countries like Afganistan to
spread the gospel and also to collect offerings of the devotees which he needed
more than ever not only to run the community kitchen, but also to complete
the excavation of the sacred tank later called Amritsar and to expand the
activities of the city of Ramdaspur he had founded in the life time of Guru Amar
Das .

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Amritsar - The Cultural Hub of Punjab

The city of Amritsar a dazzling showcase of composite culture and secular

heritage .It has a proud past .a glorious present and a promising future .This
most important city of Majha has rightly been called the mukut-mani (Jewel of
the crown)of the Punjab. A rich repository of spiritual and national heritage, It
has been hailed as the home of all virtues’(sifti da ghar) .while praying, every
devout Sikh longs to be blessed with a pilgrimage to Amritsar and a holy bath at
the Golden Temple (Amritsar ke darsan isnan).A visit to Amritsar is believed to
wash off all the sins.

A focal point of Sikh faith, a pivot of Punjab politics, a gateway to the Middle-
East, a nursery of defence pool, an alert sentinel at the Indo-Pak border,
Amritsar is the place where the first Sikh Army was raised by the sixth Guru,
Guru Hargobind. The city saw the fierce onslaughts of the invading armies of
Ahmad Shah Abdali and a reckless carnage at the Jallianwala Bagh. An epicenter
of Kooka and Akali movements and a symbol of resistance against the British
tyranny, Amritsar had been a favourite place of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It was in
Amritsar that the clarion-call for the liberation of India sounded louder and
clearer. In the recent times, the has at regular intervals borne the brunt of Indo-
Pak conflicts.

Amritsar is like a diamond with many facets. The essential spirit of the city is
found not only in its gurudwaras & temples, mosques & churches, takias &
khankahs but also in its theatres & galleries, parks & gardens, archives &
libraries, art & architecture, museums & memorials, havelis & forts, fairs &
festivals, vibrant folk dances & scintillating taans, narrow lanes & winding alleys,
parlours & boutiques, clubs & pubs, traditional bustling markets & lip-smacking

The most dominating asset, however, is its people who are friendly, God-
fearing, hospitable, hard working informal, robust and with a tremendous zest
for living. They are fond of good food, good dress and all the external symbols
of life.

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Amritsar is the heart-beat of the Majha region which has provided Punjabi
literature with its standard language. A launching pad of several renowned
artists, authors and poets, the city has been a home of handloom and carpet
industry for more than a century. The city is proud to have the second largest
Milk plant in the country.

Amritsar is not just bhangra or giddha, sarson ka saag and makki ki roti, it is an
attitude and a way of life, despite the modern winds blowing, the city still
enshrines and exudes its essential cultural identity. Being the only land-route
opening to Pakistan the city has become a favourite rendezvous of Track-II

Amritsar Other Attractions

Jagdev Kalan is related with the name of Muslim poet Hasham Shah, the
famous author of Sassi-Punnu. In an era of Indo-Pak bonhomie, this village is a
hotspot for mutual meeting-ground of interests, secular thinking and composite


Kotli Sultan Singh about 32 kilometers from Amritsar, is the native place of
Mohammad Rafi, the legendary singer of the celluloid world.

Serai Amanat Khan is a very charming and elegant structure situated in a small
village south west of Amritsar. The Serai has a beautiful gate constructed in a
Mughal style of architecture. The tomb of Amanat Khan is surrounded by four
minarets. The mosque near the tomb is decorated with Persian verses.

Indiais one of the oldest countries in the world, full of charming and attractive
historicalsites and challenging and mysterious stories that were laid in the
foundation ofIndian cities, regions and even buildings.Indiais the country of
contrasts from architectural and cultural perspectives. If you want to amuse
yourself with food, culture, language, clothing and various traditions,India is the
right placefor you to visit. With the population of over onebillion people,India is
very multiculturaland each of the twenty eight states in the country has its
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unique identity that determines and directs its history.India is the motherland
of such famous peopleasMahatma Ghandi, Siddhartha, Tataand the others.
Everybody knows and heard the namesofTaj Mahal, Mumbai, Great Indian
HimalayasandBengal Tiger, which became the icons ofIndia tourism. For those
who prefer beach andsun
Beacheswith more than hundred kilometres long sea line.For visitors who
prefer something exotic, India is opening the doors of theKhajurahotemples
with its magnificent arts of early medieval period. Constructed back in the ninth
and tenthcenturies, these buildings keep thehistory of Indiaand will not leave
even the most demanding tourist uninterested.Cultural Indiais for those who
love to dive into local traditions and celebrations to feel the realcountry’s
spirit.Goa carnival, Varanasi GhatsandPushkar Fairare the places that you
cannot miss if you are in search of spiritual and cultural tourism.

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amritsar tourism - Google
Amritsar Tourism > Travel Guide, Best Attractions, Tours &
Places to Visit in Amritsar, Sightseeing & Tourist Attractions in Amritsar .
Punjab Tourism -
about amritsar airport - Google
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport -
Amritsar International Airport (ATQ)
historical background of amritsar - Google
tourist places of of amritsar - Google
15 Best Places to Visit Near Golden Temple,
10 Places To Visit In Amritsar, Tourist Places And Things To Do In
History &
conclusion - Google

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