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# PHYSICS #electrons= _q total_

## Electricity- comes from the word “electron” 1.6x10-19

which means amber.
Amber effect- literally called static electricity Particle Charge(c) Mass(kg)
-19
electron -1.6x10 9.109x1013
Benjamin Franklin-made the arbitrary choice of 1.673x10-27
proton 1.6x10-19
calling the positive and one negative.
neutron 0 1.675x10-27
 “an equal amount of the opposite
charge is produced on another object
when a certain amount of charge is Ways to charge a neutral object by :
induced on one object”
1). Conduction- interaction occurs
Electrostatics- study of charge that can be
between charged object and neutral
localized and contained. Studies electric charges
object
at rest.
Consequence: two objects with the
Electric Charge- same charges
2). Induction- no interaction occurs
 Electric charge is conserved and it is
between charged object and neutral
quantized with units of e.
object
 An atom that loses an electron
becomes positively charged(positive Consequence: two objects with
ion) opposite charges
 Atom that gains an electron becomes 3). Friction: Rubbing two materials
negatively charged(negative ion) together can rub electrons off from one
 Some material may be polarized such object to another.
their atoms interchange in response to
Conductor
an external charge.
 Materials that allow electrons to pass
Charge Concepts- opposite charges attract, like
charges repel through them.
 Metals are naturally excellent
Law of conservation of Charge conductors because their valence(outer
 The total amount of electric charge shell) electrons are not confined to any
produced in this process is zero one atom.
 Symbol: q, Q  Electrons are free to roam on metal
 Unit: C , Coulomb named after Charles object.
De Coulomb  If a conductor carries excess charge, the
 Our body contains more than 1X1028 excess is distributed over the surface of
 The net charge of an object is the the conductor.
excess of any charges as a result of
Insulator
the transfer of electrons
 Essential principle in electrical  Materials that hinders the flow of
phenomena is the conversation of electrons and atoms are tightly bond.
charge; The total charge of an  Non-metals are mostly insulators
isolated system remains constant
 Insulators are useful for studying Electric Fields
electrostatics.
 a region of space in which an electric
 Electrons are not free to roam on
charge will experience a force when
nonmetallic objects.
placed on it.
Semi-Conductor  An electric field may be produced by
one or more charges and it may be
 Materials that are considered neither
uniform or it may vary in magnitude,
good conductors nor insulators.
direction or both, from place to place.
 Their properties change with their
chemical composition. Electric Field Intensity
 Photoconductive materials become
 Coulomb force per unit charge the
conductor when light shines of them.
electric field exerts on a positive
Super Conductor charged placed in the region of the
field.
 Material that considered as perfect
conductors of electricity. Mathematically can be written as:

____________________________________ E= _F_ or E= Q1
Qt r2
Coulomb’s Law

##  In 1778, a French physicist Charles Where is…

Augustine de Coulomb formulated the
 E= electric field(N/C)
relation between charged particles
 F= electric force(N)
which is called Coulomb’s law.
 Qt= test charge(c)
 States that ”the magnitude of the
electric force between two-point Electric Flux
charges is directly proportional to the
product of the charges and indirectly  Defined as the rate of flow of the
proportional to the square of distance electric field through a given area.
that separates them” Gauss’s Law
Mathematically can be written as:  Powerful tool for the evaluation of
electric fields when they are produced
Fe= k Q1 Q2
from charge distributions of enough
r2
symmetry to apply it.
where…

Fe = electric force(N)

## Q1 Q2= electric charge(c)

r= distance between 2 charges(m)
k= coulomb constant= 9x109 Nm/c2
or 8.998x109 Nm/c2