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which means amber.

Amber effect- literally called static electricity Particle Charge(c) Mass(kg)

-19

electron -1.6x10 9.109x1013

Benjamin Franklin-made the arbitrary choice of 1.673x10-27

proton 1.6x10-19

calling the positive and one negative.

neutron 0 1.675x10-27

“an equal amount of the opposite

charge is produced on another object

when a certain amount of charge is Ways to charge a neutral object by :

induced on one object”

1). Conduction- interaction occurs

Electrostatics- study of charge that can be

between charged object and neutral

localized and contained. Studies electric charges

object

at rest.

Consequence: two objects with the

Electric Charge- same charges

2). Induction- no interaction occurs

Electric charge is conserved and it is

between charged object and neutral

quantized with units of e.

object

An atom that loses an electron

becomes positively charged(positive Consequence: two objects with

ion) opposite charges

Atom that gains an electron becomes 3). Friction: Rubbing two materials

negatively charged(negative ion) together can rub electrons off from one

Some material may be polarized such object to another.

their atoms interchange in response to

Conductor

an external charge.

Materials that allow electrons to pass

Charge Concepts- opposite charges attract, like

charges repel through them.

Metals are naturally excellent

Law of conservation of Charge conductors because their valence(outer

The total amount of electric charge shell) electrons are not confined to any

produced in this process is zero one atom.

Symbol: q, Q Electrons are free to roam on metal

Unit: C , Coulomb named after Charles object.

De Coulomb If a conductor carries excess charge, the

Our body contains more than 1X1028 excess is distributed over the surface of

The net charge of an object is the the conductor.

excess of any charges as a result of

Insulator

the transfer of electrons

Essential principle in electrical Materials that hinders the flow of

phenomena is the conversation of electrons and atoms are tightly bond.

charge; The total charge of an Non-metals are mostly insulators

isolated system remains constant

Insulators are useful for studying Electric Fields

electrostatics.

a region of space in which an electric

Electrons are not free to roam on

charge will experience a force when

nonmetallic objects.

placed on it.

Semi-Conductor An electric field may be produced by

one or more charges and it may be

Materials that are considered neither

uniform or it may vary in magnitude,

good conductors nor insulators.

direction or both, from place to place.

Their properties change with their

chemical composition. Electric Field Intensity

Photoconductive materials become

Coulomb force per unit charge the

conductor when light shines of them.

electric field exerts on a positive

Super Conductor charged placed in the region of the

field.

Material that considered as perfect

conductors of electricity. Mathematically can be written as:

____________________________________ E= _F_ or E= Q1

Qt r2

Coulomb’s Law

Augustine de Coulomb formulated the

E= electric field(N/C)

relation between charged particles

F= electric force(N)

which is called Coulomb’s law.

Qt= test charge(c)

States that ”the magnitude of the

electric force between two-point Electric Flux

charges is directly proportional to the

product of the charges and indirectly Defined as the rate of flow of the

proportional to the square of distance electric field through a given area.

that separates them” Gauss’s Law

Mathematically can be written as: Powerful tool for the evaluation of

electric fields when they are produced

Fe= k Q1 Q2

from charge distributions of enough

r2

symmetry to apply it.

where…

Fe = electric force(N)

r= distance between 2 charges(m)

k= coulomb constant= 9x109 Nm/c2

or 8.998x109 Nm/c2

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