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F. KLUCKHOHN AND F.

STRODTBECK VALUE ORIENTATIONS


HUMAN NATURE:

-People are inherently good, and this innate predisposition remains unchanged.

 the strong influence of “Shinto”

“Shinto ( 神道) is an authentic ethnic religion of Japan ,which contributed to


the formation of the basic structure of Japanese mentality and behaviour”
(Herbert, 2010)

-“Kami (神) are real world phenomena understood as divine (Nelson, 1996), “human
beings, birds, animals, trees, plants, mountains, oceans – all may be kami” (Harris, 2001)

-Later, Shinto assimilated Confucianism and Buddhism.

- We live in amoral world, people are basically good and can cultivate virtue and act in accordance
with Will of Heaven.

- All beings have Buddha nature and are inherently perfect.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMANS AND NATURE:

- To maintain the balance of the system and to stay in harmony with nature.
- Cherry and plum blossoms, falling snow, the full Moon in September, flaming maple leaves.
- Bring nature into their daily lives:

+ Kimono fabric which is designed after natural objects and phenomena


+ Japanese’s Art and literature are filled with references of all kinds of animals and insects
Butterfly -> Joy and happiness

Cicada -> Summer

Frog -> Good fortune in things returning


Crane -> fortune and longevity

- Arranging flowers (Ikebana), cultivating a dwarfed pine tree (bonsai), tea ceremony
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMANS:

- a “collectivistic” and “collateral” society.

1. “Collectivistic”:

- Group interests > personal interests.

- Japanese children learn that they are part of an interdependent society.

- Decisions often get made only after consultation with the whole group.

- People in Japan work well in groups

Eg: sports teams, student associations, or workplace committees.

-The difference between Collectivism And Individualism In Cultures:

Collectivism in Japan says, “When something is wrong, the group is


right and I am wrong. I am responsible.” Individualism in the US
says, “When something is wrong, the world is wrong and I am right.
Others are responsible.”
2. “Collateral”:

- Specific rules of behaviour in society and attaches great importance to family.

- An individual in Japan exists only in terms of the groups.

- Emphasize the value of collaterality in familial and occupational life. The tendency is also evident
even in sleeping arrangements and in modern urban Japan.
PREFERRED PERSONALITY:

1. “Doing” orientation: + emphasizes productivity


+ Reward practices in Japan emphasize family, group, harmony and commitment to the long
term
+ Encourage teamwork and discourage competition among employees.

2. “Growing” orientation: emphasizes spiritual aspects of life (Zen Buddhism)


+ The essence of Zen is attempting to understand the meaning of life directly, without being
misled by logical thought or language.
 gardens, art and meditation

TIME ORIENTATION:
- Culture values tradition and experience and tends to view them as a guide when making
decisions.
- Values the elderly as an essential part of society and as a source of wisdom and knowledge.
- Shinto views history as cyclical: the story is constantly repeated like lunar phases of
agricultural calendar.
- This perception of the world has not changed even in the later periods of Japanese history.
- Buddhism had a particularly great impact on Japanese spiritual tradition and contributed in
spreading reincarnation and karma concept.
 These attitudes towards traditions is not a blind imitation; it does not block the path to
innovation and modernization of society.

References:

https://www.academia.edu/7271489/DANYLOVA_TATYANA_._APPROACHING_THE_EAST_BRIEFLY_
ON_JAPANESE_VALUE_ORIENTATIONS

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247756924_Rewards_and_Organizational_Performance
_in_Japan_and_the_United_States_A_Comparison

https://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Japan.html

HOFSTEDE VALUE ORIENTATIONS


POWER DISTANCE:
Japan -> not so high power distance
Ex: slow decision making process: all the decisions must be confirmed by each hierarchical layer and
finally by the top management in Tokyo which means in Japanese society there is no one top guy
who can take decision like in more hierarchical societies
Ex: Japan has always been a meritocratic society -> There is a strong notion in the Japanese
education system that everybody is born equal and anyone can get ahead and become anything if he
works hard enough.

FEMINITY/ MASCULINITY
Japan is one of the most Masculine societies in the world
Ex: Japanese is notorious for hard work. It is still hard for women to climb up the corporate ladders
in Japan with their Masculine norm of hard and long working hours
https://vtv.vn/chuyen-dong-24h/su-phan-biet-doi-xu-trong-xa-hoi-nhat-ban-
20180808123431212.htm
Ex: In August, 2018, Tokyo Medical University deducted points from female applicants' entrance
exams to keep the ratio of women studying at the university
https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/08/02/national/tokyo-medical-university-discriminated-
female-applicants-lowering-entrance-exam-scores-sources/#.XISIzZA3vIU

UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
Japan -> high uncertainty avoidance
At weddings, funerals and other important social events, what people wear and how people should
behave are prescribed in great detail in etiquette books. They are not very comfortable with new
ideas, changes, or technologies. Because of this knowledge, it is not surprising that they find written
rules, regulations, rituals, and ceremonies to be a principal part of life in order to add structure to
their lives.

LONG-TERM/ SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION


Japan is Long term orientation oriented society. Japanese see their life as a very short moment in a
long history of mankind. People live their lives guided by virtues and practical good examples
Ex: Matsushita Konosuke
In 1980, at age 85, he opened the Matsushita Institute of Government. The goal was to train leaders
to lay the foundation for the better society Matsushita had dreamed of. At the entrance ceremony,
Matsushita said he wanted the school to help realize a 100-year plan for the country. He said he
wanted the institution to help Japan and the world, and to bring happiness to people.
https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Companies/Innovator-educator-tax-objector-The-life-of-Panasonic-
s-founder

https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/japan/

STEREOTYPES
1/”Japanese people are so nice and polite”
 avoid trouble, avoid involve others as little as possible
https://livejapan.com/en/in-tokyo/in-pref-tokyo/in-tokyo_suburbs/article-a0001921/

2/”Do Japanese eat sushi everyday?”


 they only eat sushi occasionally as the typical meal is already balanced nutritionally
https://www.asakusa-tokyokitchen.com/blog/how-often-do-japanese-people-eat-sushi

3/”Japanese eat whale meat everyday”


To Japanese, whale meat has been an important protein source as ordinary everyday food but it
also has been treated as a special food with regional and social significance.
https://www.icrwhale.org/pdf/59FoodCulture.pdf

4/ Japanese People are Bad at all Sports That aren’t Sumo Wrestling
 Baseball is hugely popular in Japan, as is tennis, soccer, swimming, basketball, track and field –

the list goes on.


https://theculturetrip.com/asia/japan/articles/15-stereotypes-all-japanese-people-hate/

5/the Japanese young people have no interest in dating or romance


 It’s true. There’s many reason for this aspect: insecure financial prospects,education
overemphasis about “sex”
https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/01/05/national/social-issues/many-young-japanese-
marriage-sex-low-priorities/#.XIVQPygzbIU

6/ Japanese people is very short


 The average height nowsadays is very high: 160.3 cm(men) and 148.9 cm (women)
https://livejapan.com/en/in-tokyo/in-pref-tokyo/in-shinjuku/article-a0000962/