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INSTRUMENT NOTES FOR QA/QC

INTRODUCTION:
It is the branch of engineering which deals with the measurement, monitoring, display etc. of the several of
energy exchanges which take place during process operations. "In short Instrumentation is the study of
Instrument."

INSTRUMENT:
Instrument is a device which is used to measure, monitor, display etc. of a process variable.

SOME SAUDI ARAMCO STANDARDS (SAES):


1- SAES – J001 (Instrument Index)
2- SAES – J002 (Regulated Vendor List for Instrument/Technically Acceptable Instrument)
3- SAES – J003 (Basic Design Criteria)
4- SAES – J004 (Instrument Symbol and Identification)
5- SAES – J005 (Drawing and Forms)
6- SAES – J100 (Flow Measurement)
7- SAES – J200 (Pressure Measurement)
8- SAES – J300 (Level Measurement)
9- SAES – J400 (Temperature Measurement)
10- SAES – J502 (Analyzer Shelter)
11- SAES – J505 (Combustible Gas and Hydrogen Sulfide in Air Detection System).
12- SAES – J600 (Pressure Relief Valve)
13- SEAS – J-601 (Emergency Shutdown and Isolation Systems)
14- SAES – J700 (Control Valve)
15- SAES – J801 (Control Building)
16- SAES – J901 (Instrument Air Supply System)
17- SAES – J902 (Electrical System for Instrumentation)
18- SAES – J903 (Intrinsically Safe System)
19- SEAS – B006 (Fire Proofing of Cable for Fire Hazardous Area)

VARIOUS NEC ARTICLE NUMBERS:


250 Grounding and Bonding.
300 Wiring Methods & Materials.
320 Armored Cable
344 Rigid Metal Conduits.
352 Rigid Nonmetallic conduits.
354 Nonmetallic Underground Conduits.
358 High Density Polyethylene Conduits.
360 Flexible Metallic Tubing.
362 Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing (EMT)
366 Power and Tray Cable.
392 Cable Tray
500/505 Hazardous Location
504 Intrinsically Safe System
700 Emergency System
727 Instrument Cable Tray
760 Fire Alarm System

SOME ABBREVIATIONS:
QCP Quality Control Plan
ITP Inspection Test Plan
TQ Technical Query
SAEP Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAES Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard
SAIC Saudi Aramco Inspection Checklist
SATIP Saudi Aramco Typical Inspection Plan
SATR Saudi Aramco Test Report
SASD Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing
Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 1
SAIP Saudi Aramco Inspection Personal
SAMSS Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification
SASO Saudi Arabian Standards Organization
NEC National Electrical Code
NACE National American Corrosion Engineers
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Equation
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
BS British Standards
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Associations
IEC International Electro Technical Commission
NEMA National Electrical Manufactures Associations
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
FM Factory Mutual
IP Ingress Protection
UL Underwriters Laboratories
ITC Instrument Tray Cable
PLTC Power Limited Tray Cable
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
XLPE Cross Linked Polyethylene
XLPO Cross Linked Polyolefin
HDP Sigh Density Polyethylene
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
SWA Still Wire Armored
MICC Mineral Insulation Copper Conductor
PILC Paper Insulation Copper Conductor
FOC Fiber Optical Cable
OTDR Optical Time Domain Refrectoneter

CABLE SPECIFICATIONS AND CABLE INSTALLATION:


Group – 1: Single Twisted pair/Triad, Unshielded.
Conductor: Stranded, Circular Copper (Material) as per ASTMB3.
Conductor Size: 16 AWG
Primary Insulation Material: Flame Retardant PVC or XLPO or XLPE minimum temperature rating is 90 oC
(NEC 501-4 (b), NEC 502-4 (b).
Primary Insulation Voltage Rating: 300V for Type PLTC and type IT cable, 600V for type TC Cable.
Primary Insulation Thickness: (.38mm for PLTC and ITC Cable), (.64mm for TC cable).
Shield Thickness: 0.022mm

Group 2: Single twisted pair/triad shield.


Shield Material: Aluminum foil bonded to non hygroscopic polyester (Mylar) tape.
Shield Thickness: 0.022mm
Shield Application: Helical, Minimum 25% overlap, to provide 100% coverage and electrical isolation from
conductors.

Group 3: Multipair / Triad, Unshielded or without overall shield thickness 0.022mm.


Communication Wire: Not required if required shall be manufacturer’s standard size, Insulation same as
primary insulation – Orange Color.

Group 4: Multipair / triad, Individual and overall shields.

Group 5: Thermocouple Extension wire conductor – solid thermocouple extension wire as per ANSI MC 96.1
Conductor Size: 16AWG for singal pair, 18 AWG for multipair.
Color Code: ANSI MC 96.1(Temperature Measurement Thermocouple), (Yellow and Red) Negative shall be
Red color and magnetic

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 2


Terminal Block: As per minimum thickness of terminal block shall be 5mm or higher with Spring type
terminal block are not acceptable, Terminal block shall be fire retardant halogen free, High strength material
such as polyamide on equivalent in accordance with UL94.

Lugs: Drawing / Color Codes / Ferruling will be done for easy identification with use of lugs. Lugs are two
types. One is crimping type and the other one is soldering type.
Type of Lugs: (1) Shanap Type (2) Pin Type (3) Ring Type (4) U Type
Gland Size: ½” ¾” 1”1½” 2”

Thread Type: ET (Equal Thread), BSP (British Standard Pitch), NPT (National Pipe Pitch).

COLOR CODE:
AC Supply: Phase Black
Neutral White
Ground Green or Green with yellow tracer

DC Supply: Positive Red


Negative Black

Signal Pair: Positive Black


Negative White

Signal Tried: Positive Black


Negative White
Third Wire Red

Thermocouple: Positive as per ANSI MC 96.1 (Yellow)


Negative as per ANSI MC 96.1 (Red)

TYPE OF THERMOCOUPLE:

o
T Type Thermocouple Copper + Constant -185 ~ 371 C Blue - Red
J Type Thermocouple Iron + Constant -190 ~ 750 oC White - Red
K Type Thermocouple Cromel + Alumel -190 ~ 1250 oC Yellow - Red
E Type Thermocouple Chromel + Constantan -196 ~ 982 oC Purple - Red
S Type Thermocouple Platinum/Rhodium-Platinum -18.0 ~ 1760 oC Black - Red
R Type Thermocouple Pt87/Rh13 + Platinum -17.7 ~ 1704 oC Black - Red

 Design and installation of power and wiring system for instrument shall be in accordance with NFPA 70
and NEC.
 Fireproofing of cable in fire hazardous area shall be in accordance with SAES-B-006.
 Shielded cables shall be used as required to reduce Electrostatic noise. The shield shall be grounded at
one point only.

Cable Shield: Prevent Electromagnetic Electrostatic Interference from being endued into the inner wire
conductor.
Field Bus Cable shall Comply with IEC 61158-2 (Type A)
Pulling tension of FOC = 600 Pounds.
Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 3
Fir Resisting: (CI: Circuit Integrity), Flame Retardant.
For transmission of analog or digital signal to instrument and control systems.
Insulation: Silicon Rubber
Armor: Zinc Coated round steel.
RE: Instrument Cable
2G: Insulation of Silicon
SI: Collective Screen
H: Inner Jacket of LSZH
SWA: Round Steel wire armor
I/W: Outer Jacket of heat resistant PVC
FL: Reduced flame propagation
CI: Circuit Integrity
FB: Field Bus Cable
Y: Outer sheath of PVC
2X: Insulation of XLPE
PIMF: Pair Screen
Cable Bending Radius = 10 x Cable ϕ
HVAC: Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning.
ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network
LASER: Light Amplification by stimulated.
 Primary cable installation 350mm we can keep it open with instrument side otherwise have to provide
conduit or tray.
 Cable Insulation thickness .38 mm PLTC/ITC
 TC Cable thickness = 0.64mm
 Light blue color coding shall be used to identify intrinsically safe wiring the preferred practice is to specify
intrinsically safe interconnecting cable with blue outer jacket. Alternative blue sleeves slipped over the
jacket.
 At all the points of termination may used to identify I.S. wiring.
 If used for connections of equipment to ground rods or ground grid be min 25 mm2 (#4AWG)
 Intrinsically safe system shall only be used in zone 0 hazardous area.

Guide Lines to identify T/C and T/C Extension wires:


For Extension wires having insulation color to American National Standard Institute ANSI C96.1 the negative
wire is always RED colored as per American standard.
CABLE GLAND:
o For Hazardous & Non Hazardous locations shall be in accordance with BS 6121 or BS 50262.
o Cable Gland: Cable glands are used to protect Mechanical damage. To give earth continuity and
for entering it a junction box & MCC etc. For PILC (Paper Insulation Copper Conductor) cables
lead covered are used because in refinery, hydrocarbon gases will damage the PVC insulation,
for this purpose lead cover is used, for these purpose plumbing type glands are used.
o In Explosion proof areas double compression glands are used to avoid these gasses entering in
the electric at apparatus.
FASTENER TORQUE VALUE:
M8 14~16NM
M10 26~33NM
M12 45~58NM

SIZING OF CABLE:
1mm2 18 AWG 1 mm2
1.5 mm2 16 AWG 1.5 mm2
2.5 mm2 14 AWG 25 mm2
4 mm2 12 AWG 35 mm2
6 mm2 10 AWG 50 mm2
10 mm2 8 AWG 70 mm2
16 mm2 5 AWG 120 mm2
Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 4
GROUNDING SYSTEM:
 Ground rods 2.4M minimum length.
 Cathode protection material is used galvanized steel.
 Individual Ground rod maximum resistance should be 2.5 Ohm.
 For copper or copper jacketed steel rods is a min of 16mm in diameter or 19mm in diameters.
 Earth Tester is used for measuring of earthling system.
 Underground wire to wire connections shall be Caldwell or thermoweld. Compression connector shall
not be used.
 Shields and amour of power cables shall be grounded at both ends.
 If used for connections of equipment to ground rods or ground grid be min 25 mm2 (#4AWG)
 Metallic cable trays shall be bonded at both end points and a min of every 25m to the local ground
grid.
 If buried and used for grids and or interconnections of ground rods be min 70mm2 (2/0AWG)
 Be copper or copper jacketed steel or galvanized steel copper jacketed steel shall meet the
requirements of UL 476 (Underwriters Laboratories).
 Power Applications: Metal cable trays must be grounded and eclectically continuous systems per
NEC article 318.
 Non-Power Applications: Cable tray systems containing conductors outside the scope of NEC
Article 250 (such as communications, data, signal cables, etc.)

TO GROUNDING SYSTEM ARE REQUIRED FOR INSTRUMENTATION:


1) Safety ground for personnel safety.
2) Instrument CKT ground.

TRAY INSTALLATION:

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 5


Cable Tray Installation: The publication is intended as practical guide for the proper installation of cable
system. Cable tray systems design and Installation shall comply with NEC Article – 392 & 318, NEMA VE 1,
NEME VE 2 and NEMA FG 1 and follow safe practices as described in NFPA 70E.

NSL: Noise Susceptibility Level


Level 1: High to Medium susceptibility analog signals of less than 50V and discrete instrument signal of less
than 30V.
Level 2: Low susceptibility switching signal greater than 30V, analog signals grater then 50 V and 120 ~ 240
AC feeder less than 20 Amps.
Level 3: Power AC and DC buses of 0 ~ 1000 V with currents of 20 ~ 800 Amps.

Tray to Tray Spacing in mm:


NSL 1 2 3
1 0 150 650

Tray to Conduit Spacing in mm:


NSL 1 2 3
1 0 100 450

Conduit to Conduit Spacing in mm:


NSL 1 2 3
1 0 75 300

Tray to Tray:
Level 1 to Level 2 gap should be 150mm
Level 2 to Level 3 gaps should be 500mm
Level 1 to Level 3 gaps should be 650mm

Tray to Conduits:
Level 1 to Level 2 gap should be 100mm
Level 2 to Level 3 gap should be 350mm
Level 1 to level 3 gaps should be 450mm

Conduit to Conduit:
Level 1 to Level 2 gap should be 75mm
Level 2 to Level 3 gap should be 225mm
Level 1 to level 3 gap should be 300mm

TIPS FOR CABLE TRAY INSTALLATION:


 Cable tray specification shall be per NEMA V1 the tray shall be per NEMA VE2.
 The distance between consecutive rungs shall not exceed 229mm (9 Inch)
 The cable tray system shall be installation with manufactures standards fittings.
 Such as Clamps, Splicer Plates, Connector, Hangers, Reducer Plates, Grounding Brackets Blind, Nut
Bolts, Washers etc.
 The channel cable tray material shall be copper free aluminum (Aluminum with max of 0.4% copper)
 Channel cable tray width shall be 3, 4, or 6 inches with a minimum loading depth of 1-1/4 inch.
 Non metallic cable tray permitted in corrosive area. Non metallic cable trays shall be made of flame
retardant material.

DUCT BANKS:
 Consist of either hot dip galvanized rigid steel or PVC conduit, incase in concrete.
 75 mm of concrete from the outside surface of the duck bank to any conduit or reinforcing steel.
 Fabricated spacers shall be used at intewals not exceeding 2.4m.
 The spacers shall provide a min conduit separation of 50 mm for 2 inch conduit.
 For equipment, devices, or appropriates certified as intrinsically safe, only those that are certified are
category EEX or AEX “ia” shall be used.
 All metal cable trays, enclosures used for intrinsically safe wiring shall be grounded to the plant
grounding system with a min of # 4AWG copper wire with green insulation.

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 6


 Cable Tray material shall be galvanized, carbon steel in indoor air condition area.
 Bare copper cable does not used in or on aluminum cable tray.

CONDUIT INSTALLATION:
Conduit fittings and accessories include conduits and pull boxes:
 Conduit cover and gaskets
 Conduit Seal
 Conduit Unions and Couplings
 Factory Elbows
 Drain
 Breathers
 Plugs
 Conduit Connectors reducers
 Expansion fittings
 Straps and Clamps
 Bushing
 Cable and duct seal, etc.

TIPS FOR CONDUIT INSTALLATION:


 Conduit Expansion fitting shall be provided in indoor 30 M.
 Conduit Puller J/B shall be provided every 25 M.
 Pull Box to Pull Box maximum bends acceptable in 360 deg. without 90 deg. bend.
 Support (Bending) does not occur NEC-344
 Pull & JB are Installed & Securely fixed as per NEC-314.28
 When Eys type sealing fittings are used to seal cables in conduit entering enclosures, a conduit union
shall be installed between the sealing fittings and the enclosure.
 Sealing fitting used in hazards are horizontal and vertical Eya and Eyam type.
 NPT type accordance with UL34E 34997 or CSA (Canadian Standard) LR 9795.
 For Vertical Type: Eyd and Eydm drain seal fittings.
 Seal fitting shall not be less than 5/8”
 Sealing compound shall be 35 to 85 deg F.

Support for Rigid Metal Conduits:


½” ~ ¾” 3M
1” 3.7 M
1 ½” ~ 1 ¾” 4.3 M
2” 6.0 M

 Seals are provided in conduit & cable system to minimize the passage of gases and vapors and
prevent the passage of flame from one portion the electrical installation the conduit.
 Bushings: where a conduit enters a box, fittings or other enclosure a bushing shall be provided to
protect the wire from abrasion.

BENDS:
Number in one run: There shall not be more than the equivalent of four quarter bends (360 degree total)
between pull point to point.
Mandrel Testing: Testing of underground duct bank and bend radius of conduit is 90 deg.
When union cannot be avoided in underground conduit installation, unions shall be protected with heat
shrinkable sleeves.
Conduit and cable sealing shall be installed in accordance with NEC-5050.10.
Conduit seals shall be installed within 450mm (18 inches) from the enclosure.
PB: Pull Box
RGS: Rigid Galvanized Steel.
Split Conduits: Split conduit Installation shall be used to repair existing conduits which contains existing
cable these conduits shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations or NEMA
TCB2 User manual for the installation of order ground plastic conduits.

 We can use maximum bend in one conduit (Point to Point) 360 degree, but we have to avoid 90
degree bend or sharp bends.
Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 7
If there is sharp bend so we can perform Mineral Test.
Direct buried conduits (Underground) shall be threaded, rigid steel per accordance ANSI C80.1 and
addition it shall be hot dip galvanized and PVC coated as per NEMA RN1 (min thickness of PVC 40
mils) or PVC conduit type DB-120 (Minimum elasticity 500-000 PSI) as per NEMA TC6 & TC8 type.
 Concrete incase conduit shall be threaded, rigid steel as per ANSI C80.1 and in addition it shall be
hot dip galvanized.
 Conduit Installed exposed (not embedded in walls) above grounding in outdoor industrial facilities
shall be threaded rigid steel per ANSI C80.1 and in addition it shall be sot dip galvanized.
 Conduit above ground in severe corrosive environments shall be as threaded, rigid steel as per ANSI
C80.1, in addition shall be factory PVC Coated (min thickness of 40 PVC mils) as per NEMA RN-1.
 Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) is acceptable only in non-hazardous indoor locations. EMT shall
comply with the requirement of ANSI C80.3
 Intermediate metal conduit (IMC) is prohibited.
 The Min conduit size shall be ¾ inch, except for instrumentation wiring inside building.
 Conduit and threaded conduit fitting shall have tapered (NPT) threads in accordance with
ANSI/ASME B1.20.1

ANSI C80.1 Rigid Steel Conduit-Zinc Coated


ANSI C80.3 Electrical Metallic Tubing-Zinc Coated (for indoor only)

 Process Piping shall be used to support conduits.


 Flexible conduit: shall be used at instrument end of the conduit to provide isolation from vibration
prate against thermal expansion of the rigid conduit systems
 Conduit sealing shall only be poured at temp between 35F and 85F
 The sealing compound shall provide a seal against passage of gas or vapors through the seal fittings.
 The minimum thickness of the sealing compound shall not be less than 5/8 Inch.
 Conduit seal fitting plug is painted with red color and non poured seat fitting are painted with green
color.
 Gap selling of expansion splice palate 25.4 mm (gap max)
 50F or 10C gap is 9.5 mm (Standard)

DUCT BANK INSTALLATION:


Conduit size shall be as per design of duct bank to be installed with minimum gap from wall to wall shall be
75mm. Support of Conduit to be fixed every 2.4 M. Support shall be PVC material anchor type.

System Voltage Direct Buried Cable Direct Buried Duct Bank & Direct Buried Rigid Steel
600V & Below 610 460 460
600V to 35 KV 920 610 460
Over 35 KV 1070 760 460

IMPULSE TUBING INSTALLATION:


Tubing: Stainless steel tubing shall seamless, annealed, min wall thick 1.24mm as per ASTM A269 Gras IP –
316L

IMPULSE TUBING INSTALLATION TIPS:


Slop of Impulse tubing: Minimum of 1mm, for every 12mm towards tapping point.
Test Pressure of Impulse Line: 1.5 Times of the working pressure with 3 minute.
Instrument Tubing size = ½” x 0.89mm (Wall thickness) = 0.035 Inches.

ENCLOSURES:
Indoors and Outdoors Plant Area:
Indoors: With in the Perimeter of the Process Unit (NEMA 250 / NEMA ICS6)
Outdoor: Out side the Perimeter of Process Area (IP54)
 Severe Corrosive Environment (Industrial Area) NEMA Type 4X or IP66.
 Non Industrial Area IP34.
 Name Plate Shall is attached to the cabinets using stainless screws.

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 8


 Indoor Cabinets shall be made of metal.
 The Cabinet shall be a NEMA Type 1 as per NEMA 250 and NEMA ICS6.
 NEMA ICS6: Enclosures for Industrial Controls and System.
 The Max Door Width shall be 900mm (36 Inch)
 The Marshalling cabinets from the front surface to the surface of rear terminal block, shall not be
more than 46 cm (18 Inch)
 A min of prime, undercoat & finishing coat of enamel or polish is required.
 Interior cabined color shall be white or of light color such as light gray off.
 Name plate for cabinets and panels letter height and spacing shall follow ISA RP 60.6
 Name Plate shall be made from laminate Plastic, white – Black - White (Information engraved into the
black core) with white surface.


INSTRUMENTATION QUESTION AND ANSWER

1. What is QA/QC?
Ans: QA/QC means, “Quality Assurance / Quality Control” The purpose of this (QA/QC) is to
establish the sequence of requirement for the quality of material, quality of works, its inspection, and
records.

2. What is the MMG Quality Control Management System?


Ans: ISO 9001 ~ 2000

3. What is the Quality Control?


Ans: Quality Control “Those activities and techniques used to achieve and maintain the quality of
product, process or service”.

4. What is Quality Control Plan?


Ans: Quality Plan “Document Specification which procedures and associated resources shall be
applied by whom and when to specific project, product, process or contract”.

5. What is non-conformity?
Ans: Non-conformity “Non-fulfillment of requirement”. (Complete failure of a system, or controls,
which result in completely unsatisfactory goods or services being provided).

6. What is the Specification?


Ans: Governing Document Acceptance Criteria.

7. Who are the responsible for Quality?


Ans: Everybody within all organization.

8. What is the basic responsibility of a QA/QC personal?


Ans: To ensure execution of works and comply fully as per standard and approved specs.

9. What is the basic required document for a QA/QC personal?


Ans: The basic required documents for a QA/QC personal are as following.
ITP (Inspection Test Plan): to conduct the quality check (Inspection / Witness / Surveillance) etc.
WP (Work Procedure): Standard procedure to execute the works.
P & ID: As a reference to ensure that the work is as per standard drawing.
MTC: To ensure that material comply the PES standard specs.
Calibration Report: To ensure parameters are function checked as per IDS.
PP (Project Plan): To ensure that the instruments are installation as per P & ID and PP as per
convenience.
Hook-up: To ensure that the remote connection of pneumatic is done correctly.
Wiring Diagrams: To ensure that wiring is done correctly
ILD: To ensure that the sequential wiring is done correctly.
IDS/ISS: To ensure that the instruments comply with the basic requirement.
RFI: To conduct the inspection of completed work.
Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 9
QR (Quality Record): To maintain the quality records of completed works etc.
QCO: To issue a warning in case of little violation and observation.
NCR: To issue warning in case of serious violation of standard.
DR: Discrepancy Report.

10. What are QA/QC’s ITP and QCP? Give brief?


Ans: ITP: This procedure informs about the kinds of quality check (surveillance, inspection, witness
or hold pints) means quality of works is being done in proper sequences.
QCP: This procedure addresses the activities and requirement in details.

11. What is NCR? Why does it need for a QA/QC personal?


Ans: NCR means Non-Compliance Report, QA/QC personal has reserve the right to issue a warning
if the contractor doesn’t comply or violate with the standard procedure.

12. What is the general procedure (WP)?


Ans: The general sequence of activities will be as follows:
Receiving Drawing and Documents.
Reproduction of Drawings
Issuing of drawing to site
New-Issuing new Revision
Shredding drawings
Transmittal of redlines to Client (As-built)
Restricted access to the DCO
Work Permit prior to starts the works
Records
13. What are the common PPE required? Give a brief?
Ans: Following are the common PPE for a safe and quality works-standard procedure.
Qualification: Awareness about all kinds of safety std/codes and work procedure.
Experience: Qualification for the work’s execution.
Use (PPE): Proper equipments and tools shall be used to avoid injuries/loss. Safety shoes, Helmet,
Glass, Gloves, Earplugs, Harness, Proper Tools and certification equipments.
14. What is redlining? Brief its color coding?
Ans: In case of any change occur to the standard approved drawing while the project is being
constructed or tested the relevant drawing will be “redlined”. Following color coding shall be used for
this purpose.
Red: If any addition required from the drawing.
Green: If any Deletion is required from the drawing.
Blue: If any comments is added.
15. What is difference between inspection (Surveillance), witness and Hold point?
Ans: Inspection: Work can be execute without client’s inspection and it can be inspected some part
of them if it is required.
Witness: Work can be executed, without client inspection and then it can be inspected upon the
completion of work.
Hold Point: Work can’t be executed without client inspection.

16. What is difference between hazardous and non-hazardous Areas?


Ans: Hazardous: A hazardous location is defined as an area where a potential for fire or explosion
exists due to the presence of flammable gases, liquids or vapors, combustible dusts or fibers and
flying in sufficient quantities to produce an explosion or ignitable mixture.
Non-hazardous: An area where non risk of presence of any kinds exposition.

17. What are different kinds of certification?


Ans: Weather Proof.
Dust Proof
Water Tight
Explosion Proof
Flame Proof
Intrinsic Safety Proof etc

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 10


18. What is ISO? Explain some of its standards?
Ans: ISO means International Standard Organization, Some are them they are as below;
ISO: 9001, ISO: 9002, ISO: 9003, etc.

19. What are zone classifications? Give a brief?


Ans: Zone classification is to define the area of hazards, they are as below;
Zone – 0: A zone in which explosions gas/air mixture is continuously present or present for extended
periods, during normal operation.
Zone – 1: A zone in which an explosive gas/air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation.
Zone – 2: A zone in which an explosive gas/air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation.
Zone – 10: A zone in which an explosive dust atmosphere is present continuously or for extended
periods of time.
Zone – 11: A zone in which there is a likelihood that explosive atmospheres my occur for short
periods due to unsettled to unsettled dust layers.

20. What are areas Classification? Give a brief?


Ans: As per NEC and NACA, following are the hazard classification?
Class I: Location in which flammable gases or vapors may be present in the atmosphere in quantities
sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixture.
Class I gases/Vapors are divided into four following groups:
Group A: Presence of Acetylene.
Group B: Presence of Hydrogen, Butadiene, Ethylene oxide etc.
Group C: Presence of Ethylene, Glycol-propane, Carbon Mono-oxide etc.
Group D: Presence of gasoline, acetone. Butane, Propane, alcohol, Natural gas (Methane), etc

Class II: Location in which the presence of combustible dust are in the air in sufficient quantity to
ignite or explode.
Class II conductive/non conductive dust is divided into three below.
Group E: Presence of metal dusts (aluminum, magnesium and chemical dust etc)
Group F: Presence of black carbon, charcoal, coal or coke dust etc.
Group G: presence of non-conductive dust (foam, starch, combustible plastics etc.)

Class III: Location in which easily ignitable fiber / flying are present but are not likely to be in
suspension in air in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixture.
Division – 1: The hazards are present continuously or periodically under normal operation condition.
Division – 2: The Hazards are only presents during accidental or abnormal condition.

21. What is the standard height to install the instruments?


Ans: Standard height to install the instrument is 1.4 meter, but it can vary less or more as per
location’s convenience.

22. What is loop check?


Ans: To ensure that the system wiring from field to control consol console functioning fine.

23. What is the logic gate?


Ans: A digital logic circuit with one or more input voltage but only one output voltage.

24. What is the foundation fieldbus system?


Ans: A fully digital control system is called foundation fieldbus system.

25. What are meant by FAT, SAT, RAT?


Ans:
FAT: Factory Acceptance Test.
SAT: Site Acceptance Test.
RAT: Run Acceptance Test.

26. What is Microprocessor control system? Give a brief of PLC, DCS and SCADA?
Ans: Computer based control process system is called microprocessor control system. The brief of
PLC, DCS and SCADA are as following:
Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 11
PLC: Programmable Logic Control System.
PLC’s are used in practice with the aim of achieving a higher degree of availability or fault tolerance.
The types are as follow.
Fault Tolerant: 1 out of 2 system objective: reduce the probability of losses of production by
switching to a standby system.
Fail Safe: 2 out of 2 system objective: protect life, the environment and investment by safely
disconnecting to a secure “off” position.
DCS: Distribute Control System.
SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.

27. What are inspection points for a cable tray installation?


Ans: Material check as per approved spec, size and type, tray’s hook-up, proper distance structure,
tray to tray i.e. power/control/and signal/low voltage and high voltage, support and fixed strongly not
shaking.

28. What are inspection points for field instruments with impulse tubing?
Ans: Materials inspection as per approved spec material, type and size, Installation as per Hook-up,
check line route to avoid any obstruction, check tube bending, and check tube support, compression
fitting or ferrules, and then pressure test (hydrostatic test) shall be done.

29. What are inspection points for a cable laying?


Ans: Material inspection as per approved materials, types and size, meggering, cable routing
drawing, completion of cable route ( tray, conduit or trench etc ) and cable numbering (Tag), cable
bending, use or proper tools and equipment for cable pulling.

30. What are inspection points for Junction Box and Marshalling cabinets?
Ans: Material Inspection, type, size as per approved specification, installation hook up for frame,
bracket or stands, fixed properly means shaking free, Name Plate, and tag no.

31. What are standards methods or ferrules addressing to and from a Junction Box?
Ans: For to side only terminal’s address required which shall be close to terminal either side and
complete information shall be of from side after or before as per left and right side.

32. What is final RFI? When it shall be raised up?


Ans: When the QA/QC department of contractor is satisfied that the work detailed in the construction
RFI is completed, then request shall be submitted for inspection to the client QA/AC department.

33. What is schedule Q?


Ans: Schedule Q is an attachment to the contract, which is the provision of Quality Assurance and
Control, Inspection and test plan.

34. What are the various levels of Inspection? Explain?


Ans: They are as following.
Level of Inspection for Materials:
A: Level 0 – Documents requirements only, no Inspection.
B: Level 1 – Inspection prior to shipping.
C: Level 2 – Minimum requirements, pre-inspection meetings, one or more unspecified “in progress”
surveillance visits.
D: Level 3 – Same as level 2, except that “in progress” surveillance inspection shall be in regular
basis.
E: Level 4 – Resident Inspection Continuously monitor the work.
Level of Inspection for construction phase:
A: Hold Point (H): The inspection activities will not proceed without the presence of inspection.
B: Witness Point (W): Inspection activities can be proceeding after issuing RFI.
C: Review (R): Verification of documentation (NMR) on its correctness as per spec and approved
drawings.
D: Surveillance (S): Inspection has right to conduct random inspection of works.
E: Inspection (I) / Perform (P) / Test (T): construction can be proceeding to next phase without
client inspection.

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 12


35. What is ITP’s? What are Hold and Witness Point?
Ans: ITP mean Inspection and Test Plan, details of work scope and required types of inspections.
Hold Point (H): is the level of inspection that client inspection must require through RFI and can’t be
preceded until inspection is done by client.
Witness Point (W): is the level of inspection that inspection activity can be preceded without client
inspection or if client is not available as per RFI timing.
36. What is RFI? When an RFI will be raised?
Ans: Request for inspection (RFI), RFI shall be raised only when the status of the preliminary
inspection is satisfactory, and the works (items) are Hold or Witness Point.
37. What is Cable tray and how is it identified separately for Electrical and Instrumentation?
Ans: Cable tray is the device used to provide support and protection to the laid cable in side the
building or outside pipe rack.
38. What is name of fieldbus communicator?
Ans: FBT6 (Fieldbus Transducer 6)
39. What is Calibration and what is process calibration?
Ans: Checking / testing the equipment for its accuracy and serviceability are known as calibration.
Process calibration means carrying out calibration activity by following the adopted authorized
method linked with standardization.
40. What is the loop and how is the loop folder made?
Ans: Loop is the electro-mechanical presentation of the circuit concerning to flow of liquid or gas,
alarm system, control valve operation and other specific for which field installation instrument
involvement is considered.
There are certain condition and requirements to be fulfilled to complete the loop check. The list of
attachments including drawing, check list and punch list and other listed documents are arrange in
folder (loop wise) for having an easy access to carry out the loop check and final hand over of the
project. That folder with all possible documents is known as loop folder.
41. What is the specialty rather characteristics of loop check? How do you come to know that loop check
is completed
Ans: a. Loop check is a clear blue print of a successful system functioning (activity wise),
b. This emphasis the serviceability of each instrument installed either in field or inside the building,
c. This exposes also the limitation of some systems functioning as per the attached filled punch list,
d. One of the ready documents for final hand over of a project on completion,
e. It is always two team’s operation-one will be on field and the other will be in the control room, After
every successful completion of loop check it is marked with Red Colored Label bearing the date of
the loop check and the witnessing parties initial.

42. What is the standard and what is the Standardization?


Ans: The standard means the authenticated documented instruction to be followed during execution
of any specific project for which it is made.
Standardization means the method of execution of certain standard which is specific to the one or
more related activities in a project execution process.

43. What is Inspection?


Ans: This is a process of verifying the method application by means of following certain documented
and authenticated instruction i.e. standardization is known as inspection.

44. What are the responsibilities of QC Inspector?


Ans: The following are the phenomenal responsibilities which any QC Inspector is supposed to
execute at the time of carrying out any inspection.
a. Well versed with the technology for which the inspection is carried out.
b. Should have the reasoning capability to analysis the method.
c. Should have thorough knowledge about the procedure to be adopted for inspection i.e. adopted
standards.
d. Should be able to convey the irregularities found to the concerned authorities.
e. Should be absolute sincere about the job execution.
f. Should be vigilant all the time.

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 13


45. What should be the attitude of a QC Inspector while carrying out an Inspection activity?
Ans: Following are the characteristics of a perfect inspector:
a. Should never compromise with the quality at the time of performing inspection.
b. Should be sincere towards performing the responsibilities.
c. Should be punctual.
d. Should be exemplary in approach while carrying out inspection.
e. Should have the capabilities to convince the authorities about the irregularities with
knowledgeable representation.

46. What are the requirements for carrying out installation inspection of any instruments and receiving
inspection of the said equipment?
Ans: Following are the requirements at the time of execution of an inspection.
a. Instrument data sheet.
b. Test Instrument Certificate.
c. Vendor instruction manual.
d. Test Instrument instruction manual.

47. What is the CCTV System?


Ans: Close Circuit Television system used for establishing the alarm notification in case of any
unforeseen hazard takes place. It is a digitally controlled system which enables the automatic
notification of the happening in and around the plant and plant premises.

48. What are the differences between QA & QC activities?


Ans: The QA activity means adopted method for verification of the execution of QC activity in turn it
focuses towards the importance of implementation of QC role in the industrial and other sectors
related to maintenance, production and construction specially.
The QC activity means the direct involvement in maintaining quality standard as per the adopted
method/standard by the way of carrying out inspection (activity wise) and making the documentation
related to that. It also involves the activity involving for the project’s quality maintainability and
process execution.

49. What is Schedule ‘Q’and how many appendices are there in schedule ‘Q’?
Ans: Schedule ‘Q’ is the guidelines for the method application related to quality including the
distribution of manpower (quality field oriented) and the quality process execution including quality
control and quality assurance.
It has got six appendices covering all the process implementations related to execution of project
performance with the focus towards maintainability of quality control and quality assurance.

50. What are the linked documentations carried out related to QC activity for oil & gas construction
project?
Ans: a. Application for inspection from construction department after completion of every activity.
b. Production of drawing based on the planning.
c. Method application priority wise.
d. Procurement of item and equipments required for the execution of the project.

51. What is process control system?


Ans: It is the system adopted for the proper execution of the activity by maintaining the adopted
standards and other specific. It involves surveillance on day to day activities performed by the
production unit on operation.

52. What are QCP, QMP and ITP?


Ans: QCP – Quality Control Procedure, QMP – Quality Management Procedure, ITP – Inspection
and Test Plan.

53. Explain procedure related to Quality Control?


Ans: The quality procedure is the series of steps taken to maintain the quality standard as per the
adopted standard and other specific.

54. What do you know about NEC, NEMA VE 1, NEMA VE 2, NEMA RN?

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 14


Ans: NEC – National Electrical Code earlier used to be published under the statutory body of NFPA
since 1897, from 2005 edition it is categorized as an internationally accepted method inspection
procedure guidelines covering all most all the field related to Electrical, Instrumentation and
Communication Engineering.

NEMA VE 1 – National electrical manufacture association VE-1.


NEMA VE 2 – Deals with cable tray installation specification.

55. What are the articles refereed during carrying out the following activities?
(1) Grounding. (2) Installation of cable Tray. (3) Fire alarm System Installation. (4) Installation
Instrument Cable Tray etc,
Ans: (1) Grounding Article 250 (Chapter IX for instrumentation), (2) Installation of cable tray Article
392, (3) Fire Alarm System Art 760, Installation of instrument cable tray art 727.

56. What is Duct bank?


Ans: It is concrete poured structure with conduits laid inside by maintaining certain specified
elevation as per the requirements for the laying of cable through this enabling protection, support and
safety to the cable.

57. What would be the thickness of the top layer of a Duct Bank and color?
Ans: 5mm and Red Dye.

58. What is the purpose of using paint/dye on top layer?


Ans: To give an anticorrosive protection, top layer painting is provided.

59. What are types of conduits used in electrical and instrumentation wiring circuits?
Ans: Rigid Metallic Conduit (RMC), Intermediate Metallic Conduit (IMC), Rigid Nonmetallic Conduit
(RNC).

60. What are the differences between a JB (Junction Box) and Terminal Box?
Ans: The purpose of JB (Junction Box) is used as a linkage between one or more inlet and one or
more outlet. Whether terminal box has inlet on or more but out let may be one for earthen or it may
not be. JB can be used in between the routing for providing support and extra opening but TB is used
as Termination means at the end of the routing.

61. What is ‘termination’ related to construction industry?


Ans: Termination is widely used term in case of construction industry. For electrical and
instrumentation work this is used for make the routing as a complete one.

62. What is the impulse line?


Ans: It is line rather tubing connection made from the source (flow pipeline or vessel) to the
transmitter (sensing device) to create the feasibility to the transmitter to sense the flow and to
generate equivalent electrical signal to get the indication of the status of the system working.

63. What is the check list?


Ans: It is the list of sequential activities to be performed by any QC Inspector during inspection of any
activity performed by construction. It is made separated with distinguished activities for each
construction activity.

64. What is punch list? What is requirement of making a punch list?


Ans: It the list generally identified as RA 60B, which is used at the time of finalization of any activity.
Means every activity should be stamped with a final and foolproof documentation which shows the
clear evidence of the all completed job. It is always signed by QC to ensure the maintainability of the
quality aspect of the job performed.

65. What is the role of QC during shut down?


Ans: QC has the major role to be played at the time of shut down. It is the responsibility of QC to
officially hand over any completed project to the client with all the documentations to be provided with
the real completed project. This including the records of completion (activity wise) areas with

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 15


limitations as shown in punch list, the processing and final inspection test report of the actual
functioning of the project by making it operational.

66. What do mean by Hazardous and Non Hazardous area?


Ans: The area classification is done as per area wise risk involvement (environmental). The area with
maximum percentage of risk in function any system is known as hazardous area (NEC Art 500 –
510).

67. How are the hazardous and non hazardous areas classified?
Ans: Hazardous and non hazardous areas are classified according to the classifications and zones.

68. What is the Expansion joint? What should be the standard gap maintained in expansion joint?
Ans: It I the breathing space provided to accommodate the expansion of horizontal cable tray to suit
with different climatic condition by maintaining a standard length wise distribution.
According to NEMA VE 2 it is after every 20 M with a spacing (expansion joint) of 25mm to be
maintained. It sometimes differs, but should not be more for the horizontal length of the cable try.

69. How the metallic cable trays grounded?


Ans: Metallic cable tray shall be bonded at both end points and minimum of every 25m local ground
grid or ground electrode or to structural steel bonded to local ground grid or ground electrode.

70. How the metallic conduit grounded?


Ans: grounded at both end points by bonding to grounding conductor, grounded metal enclosure or
to grounded metal cable tray by using approved grounding clamps.
A grounding bushing must be used with PVC coated conduit.

71. How many connection points required for equipment ground?


Ans:
a) For equipments like (motor, generators and transformers) which operated at 1000 v or greater
shall have two connections to supplementary electrode.
b) If the motors, generators and transformers operating at nominal voltage 480 v shall have a
minimum of one connections to supplementary grounding electrode.

72. What type of conduit is used in duct bank?


Ans: Duct bank consists of either hot-dip galvanized rigid steel or PVC conduit, encased in concrete.

73. What is the minimum thickness of concrete from outside surface of the duct bank to any conduit or
reinforcing steel?
Ans: 75mm

74. What is mean by Guwat and Guwa, where it is applicable for use?
Ans: You can use in conduit installation for lighting purpose.
Guwat: With terminal block.
Guwa: Withought Terminal block.

75. How the Metallic and PVC conduit entering from below of any equipment like switchgear control
cabinets and similar enclosures sitting?
Ans: The metallic conduit shall be cut and threaded 50mm above finished grade level and a threaded
insulated grounding bushing shall installed, also PVC conduit shall be cut flush with finished grade
level and shall have its inner edge filed to a smooth radius.

76. What type of sealing is used for all ducts inside all manholes and hands holes where permitted inside
hydrocarbon handling plants?
Ans: All ducts shall be sealed with 3M scotch cast brand 4416 cable duct sealing kits or other
methods approved by the electrical standards committee chairman.

77. What is a Mandrel testing?


Ans: Testing of underground duct bank.

78. What should be done, when union cannot be avoided in underground conduit installation?

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 16


Ans: Unions shall be protected with heat-shrinkable sleeves.

79. What shall be provided on each duct where it terminates?


Ans: Bell end fitting or protective bushings.

80. How many spare ducts in duct banks?


Ans: Duct bank shall have 20% spare ducts (minimum one), unless this number is decreased by the
facility proponent.

81. What is the minimum conduit size excepted for instrumentation wiring inside building?
Ans: ¾ Inch.

82. What is the minimum conduit size excepted for prefabricated skids and in-industrial area?
Ans: ½ Inch.

83. What the meaning of (EMT) and for what used?


Ans: Electrical Metal Conduit (EMT), you can use only indoor.

84. What are the conduit fittings for outdoor rigid steel conduit and liquid tight flexible metal (LFMC)?
Ans: Shall be cast or forged steel, cast iron or malleable iron either hot-dip galvanized (preferably)
electroplated.

85. Can be use the aluminum fitting in outdoor?


Ans: No aluminum fitting or fitting accessories such as covers, sealing fitting plugs shall be used
outdoor only malleable iron sealing fitting shall be used.

86. What shall be the slop for impulse line?


Ans: a minimum of a 1mm, for every 12 mm towards tapping point.

87. What shall be having extra length for unistrate support?


Ans: 40 mm should be extra

88. What shall be the test pressure of instrument impulse line?


Ans: 1.5 times of the working pressure.

89. What is RTD stands for?


Ans: Resistance Temperature Detector.

90. What shall be minimum acceptable insulation resistance of instrument cable during megger test?
Ans: 100 Mega ohms

91. Name some testing equipments used for instrument calibration?


Ans: Deadweight tester, Digital multimetter, Megger, Digital pressure calibrator, Temperature
calibrator, Temperature bath, Field communicator, Vibration meter.

92. What shall be the maximum acceptable attention value of fiber during OTDR test?
Ans: 0.5Db/Km or less for wave length of 1310 nm and 0.3Db/Km or less .for wave length of
1550nm.
93. What shall be the maximum pulling tension of FOC?
Ans: 600 Pounds.
94. What is the meaning AWG?
Ans: American Wire Gage

95. What is the Principle of Bimetal Thermometer?


Ans: Different Metal of Different Coefficient.
96. How do you calculate new factor from new range using old factor and old range?
Ans:

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 17


97. Definition of Instrument Range and Span?
Ans:

98. Calculation of Resistance or Pt100?


Ans:
Ro = 100 Ω
X for platinum = 0.00385 / C
To calculate resistance at 100 oC
R100 = 100 [1 + (.385 x 100)]
= 100 + (100 x 0.385)
R100 = 138.5
Resistance at 100 oC = 138.5 Ω

99. What is the effect of weep hole on calculation of orifice bore?


Ans: D = dm {1 + 0.55 (dm) 2 / dh}
Where: dm = Measured diameter of orifice
dh = Drain hole diameter
d = Corrected diameter orifice size

100. What is CV of a valve?


Ans: CV is the capacity of a valve and is defined as:
“No of gallons per minute of water which passes through a fully open valve at a pressure drop of 1
PSI”
CV = q (▲P / G)
Where: CV = Valve co-efficient
Q = Volumetric flow rate (gallons/minute)

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 18


▲P = Pressure drop across the valve in psi.
G = Specific gravity of flowing fluid.

101. Why does control valve operate at is PSI?


Ans: On higher pressure the actuator sizes becomes bigger in area. The actual force produced by
the actuator.
Force = Pressure x Area.
= 15 psi x Area, If Area = 15"
Force produced = 15 psi x 25 in2 = 375 pounds.
Actual force acting on a control valve = 375 pounds.

102. How to calculate the Accuracy of Instrument?


Ans: Accuracy = Actual Value – measured Value/Full Span x 100

103. How to calculate the Resistance of Cable?


Ans: Generally voltage drop calculation is done for selecting the cable size for particular motor and
the distance involved. As distance increases voltage drop occurs due to increase in resistance of
cables for reason we should find the voltage drop.

Merajul Haque Siddique | QA/QC Notes 19