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For SCRs the device consists of an anode

and a cathode, where the joints are of type

LABORATORY N.2 P-N-P-N between them. Therefore it can
CONTROL ANGLE OF SHOOTING be modeled as 2 typical transistors P-N-P
WITH SCR and N-P-N, so it is also said that the
Agustin castro lopez - thyristor works with voltage feedback. 3
joints are thus created (called J1, J2, J3
Gabriel Gonzalez
respectively), the door terminal is


• Overall objective

- Design and implement a circuit

that allows controlling the angle of
conduction or firing in a load.

• Specific objectives

- Carry out measurements of and

make theoretical comparisons with connected to junction J2 (NP junction).
the practices o Observe and
analyze the behavior of said
assembly make changes based on Figura 1. Esquema tiristor
the measurements to achieve the
objective proposed in class.

1.1 Shooting methods

For the triggering of a thyristor, the anode
1.1 Definition - cathode junction must be live polarized
and the control signal must remain long
The thyristor corresponds to a family of enough to allow the thyristor to reach an
electronic components consisting of anode current value greater than IL, the
semiconductor elements that use internal necessary current to allow the SCR to
feedback to produce a switching. The start driving. So that, once fired, it remains
materials of which it is composed are of in the driving zone, a minimum current of
the semiconductor type, that is to say, IH value must circulate, marking the
depending on the temperature at which passage from the driving state to the direct
they are located they can function as blocking state.
insulators or as conductors. They are
unidirectional (SCR) or bidirectional 1.1.1 Shot per door
(TRIAC) or (DIAC) devices. It is generally
used for the control of electrical power.
When the anode voltage becomes
positive with respect to the cathode,
junctions J1 and J3 have direct or positive
polarization. Junction J2 has reverse 2.2.3 Triggering by voltage gradient
polarization, and only a small leakage
current called idle state current ID will flow. A sharp rise in the anode potential in the
It is then said that the Thyristor is in a direct direction of conduction causes the
direct blocking condition in the deactivated trip. This case, rather than a method, is
state. If the anode to cathode voltage VAK considered an inconvenience.
increases to a sufficiently large value, the
reverse polarized J2 junction will break.
This is known as avalanche rupture and 2.2.4 Radiation firing
the corresponding voltage is called the
direct breaking voltage VB0. Since the It is associated with the creation of
junctions J1 and J3 already have direct electron-hole pairs by the absorption of
polarization, there will be a free movement light from the semiconductor element. The
of carriers through the three junctions, light-activated SCR is called LASCR.
which will cause a large direct current from
the anode. It is then said that the device is 2.2.5 Shooting by temperature
in a driving or activated state. The above
can be better understood when observing The temperature trigger is associated with
the graph of the characteristic curve of the the increase of electron-hole pairs
Thyristor, which is shown in the following generated in the semiconductor junctions.
figure. Thus, the sum of the currents tends rapidly
as the temperature increases. The
breaking voltage remains constant up to a
certain value of the temperature and
decreases with increasing temperature.

Figura 2. Curva característica del tiristor

Figura 3. Disparos de SCR

Effects with inductive loads

2.2.2 Triggering by voltage module
When the load of the SCR is an inductive
It is due to the avalanche multiplication load, (it behaves like an inductor), it is
mechanism. This form of trip is not used to important to take into account the time it
intentionally trip the thyristor; however, it takes the current to increase in a coil. The
pulse applied to the gate must be durable
happens in a fortuitous way caused by
enough so that the current of the load
abnormal voltage in the electronic equals the coupling current and thus the
equipment. thyristor remains in conduction. In this
type of charge, the current can, in
principle, change as suddenly as the In the laboratory there are four assemblies
voltage does. But if the circuit is inductive, with different types of power and tripping
as it is the case of electric motors, then the in addition to the variation of the loads
current can not undergo sudden changes, between resistive and inductive, that is,
being able to arrive to have a considerable there will be eight assemblies based on
delay with respect to the tension. If the the four basic ones.
inductance is high, two problems can
appear: Materials used in practice
• Tiristor BT151-500R-only for simulation
It can happen that the thyristor does not • Thyristor C106D
even turn on, if it turns out that when the • Capacitors
current is very slowly growing at the • Reducer Motor
moment of activation of the gate, when the • AC motor
activation pulse stops, the current has not • DC Bulb
even reached the minimum IH necessary • AC bulbs
to keep the thyristor on. The solution to
this problem is to make the ignition pulses 3.1 Circuit.
If the current delay is very large, it may be In order to achieve AC tripping, it must be
that when it becomes less than the holding clear what type of thyristor is to be used
current I_H, the voltage is already so great since, depending on the model, the values
that the thyristor remains on, so that it provided in the datasheet by the
never shuts off. To avoid this problem, a manufacturer will allow the mathematical
diode is mounted in parallel with the load development of the components of the
to derive the excess current that causes tripping circuit, the proposed assembly is
the thyristor to not clos the next:

Figura 5. Disparo con fuente AC

Figura 4. Corriente y voltaje con carga
For this case the C106D will be used and
to corroborate the mathematical
development data at the end of this report
will be attached its corresponding
1. MATHEMATICAL DESIGN AND datasheet. The data are:
𝑉𝑆 = 200𝑉 ; 𝑉𝐺𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.8𝑉 ; 𝐼𝐺𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑛 =
200𝑚𝐴 ; 𝐼𝐺𝑇𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 500𝑚𝐴 ; 1. PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDS

We assume the value of the capacitor for

this ceramic case of C = 100nF code 104.
The time constant (R1 + R2) C, must be in
the range of 2x 〖10〗 ^ 3 and 30x 〖10
〗 ^ 3 in order to obtain a wide adjustment
range, the time constant must be able to
be adjusted with a large part of This range,
we assimilate the ranges in 2x 〖10〗 ^ 3
and 25x 〖10〗 ^ 3. The minimum
constant of tempo occurs when R2 is
completely 0, in such a way:

To analyze the assembly of the
circuits and their correct operation
the teacher in charge requests to
take measurements of the currents
We clear and get R1.
of enchanche and maintenance of
the circuit with its resistive and
inductive loads.
The maximum time constant (maximum
firing angle) occurs when R2 is at its
maximum value, so we decide that:
- After turning on the scr, it is not
(R2+20)(100𝑋10−9)=25𝑋103 necessary that the gate continue
receiving power because it will
We clear and obtain the value of the continue to drive until the voltage
potentiometer for R2. decreases to such an extent that it
R2=230k is deactivated

. - The scr allow us to control the

passage of current to certain
branches of a circuit preventing
damage and extending the life of
these. - According to the reference
of the scr they can control different
types of returns. - As long as no
voltage is applied to the GATE of
the scr, the conduction does not
start, since this is the key for the
thyristor to remain active.