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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jappgeo

tunnel space☆

Fei Cheng a, Jiangping Liu a,⁎, Niannian Qu b, Mao Mao a, Liming Zhou c

a

Subsurface Imaging and Sensing Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, 388 Rumo Rd., Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China

b

Guizhou Geology Survey, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550004, China

c

Changjiang River Scientiﬁc Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei, 430010, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In order to increase the safety and efﬁciency in tunnel constructions, there is a need to carry out an effective and

Received 20 July 2013 precise tunnel prediction method to detect unexpected lithological and structural heterogeneities ahead of

Accepted 21 February 2014 tunnel face. Seismic prediction is considered as one correct and efﬁcient method. The assumption, which differs

Available online 28 February 2014

from the reality, taken in most of the current tunnel seismic imaging methods is that the tunnel space is a

homogeneous medium with surrounded layers with the same elastic characters. In this paper, taking into

Keywords:

Advance predication

account the actual situation of tunnel space, we propose some new tunnel geological models that are closer to

Tunnel space the reality using the ﬁrst-order coupled elastic equations of particle velocity and stress, and high order staggered

Reverse time migration grid ﬁnite-difference algorithm to fulﬁll numerical simulation of seismic full-wave ﬁelds in tunnel space. Then for

Multiwave imaging these synthetic simulated records, we utilize reverse time migration operator based on non-conversion wave

equation with decoupled P- and S-waves, and excitation time imaging condition to achieve reliable two

dimensional (2D) reverse time migration imaging (RTM) based on tunnel space effectively. Results demonstrate

that (1) it is able to achieve synthetic simulation and reverse time migration imaging correctly by using a

staggered grid ﬁnite-difference (FD) algorithm with second-order accuracy in time and fourth-order accuracy

in space, and reverse time operator based on non-conversion wave equation with decoupled P- and S-waves;

(2) tunnel-based reverse time migration imaging can effectively suppress mirror artifact occurring in

conventional imaging approaches; and (3) as the dip angle of lithological interface decreases, the energy of

P wave imaging increases while the energy of S wave imaging decreases when shooting and receiving at the

same side of interface, while when the dip angle of interface is 90°, common-source gather with shots near the

tunnel face is beneﬁcial to the imaging of P wave.

© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

relatively more accurate than surface measurements, but is also normal-

Infrastructure construction in urban areas and larger trafﬁc deve- ly restricted to a limited prediction distance which will signiﬁcantly

lopment projects often involve tunnel excavation. Tunnel is an under- delay the construction progress. Hence, to increase the safety and

ground work with many unknown geological conditions such as efﬁciency of tunnel constructions, geophysical exploration ahead of a

fracture zones, faults, caves and aquifers in front of it. Failing to tunnel has become a valuable tool.

recognize and predict these geological conditions ahead of the tunnel Nondestructive geophysical methods are efﬁcient techniques inves-

front represents dangers ranging from construction progress delay tigating and predicting lithological and structural heterogeneities for

and instrument damage to tremendous casualties. Therefore, using distances up to several hundred meters from the tunnel wall. Among

advanced technology to predict these lithological and structural all these methods, seismic imaging is the most effective one because

heterogeneities ahead of a tunnel front is of major importance before of its relatively deep penetration range and high spatial resolution.

excavating tunnels. Surface measurements can provide general Different tunnel seismic prediction systems have been applied since

geological information of the ground, but the data resolution is not the early 1990s in tunneling projects worldwide. The Tunnel Seismic

sufﬁcient to identify lithological boundaries or other geological features Prediction (TSP) software developed by AMT, Switzerland (Dickmann

and Sander, 1996, Bohlen et al., 2007), identiﬁes reﬂections from front

of the tunnel face in the recordings by their traveltime curves and

☆ This is publication of no. 41202223 project funded by the National Natural Science

Foundation of China (NSFC).

their intersection with the tunnel axis derived from depth migration

⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 27 67883525. images. Zeng (Zeng, 1994) proposed the negative apparent velocity

E-mail address: liujp_geop@126.com (J. Liu). method which uses apparent velocity gradient of direct wave and

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2014.02.013

0926-9851/© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

F. Cheng et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 104 (2014) 106–113 107

reﬂected wave to predict faults ahead of tunnel face. OYO, Japan, put for- where ux and uz denote x component and z component, respectively,

ward a method named HSP (Horizontal Seismic Proﬁling) by using a while Vp and Vs are the velocity of P and S waves, respectively. With

source and receiver geometry as in a surface refraction seismic survey introducing:

(Inazaki et al., 1999). NSA Engineering in the United States developed 8 2

the True Ref1ection Tomography (TRT) technology which uses multi- >

< τ p ¼ V p ð∂ux =∂x þ ∂uz =∂zÞ

τ ¼ V s ð∂ux =∂z−∂uz =∂xÞ ; ð2Þ

point shooting and receiving observation system to identify the rock 2

>

: sx

mass conditions ahead of tunnel excavation. The spatial distribution of 2

τ sz ¼ V s ð∂uz =∂x−∂ux =∂zÞ

receivers and sources contributes to obtain sufﬁcient spatial wave ﬁeld in-

formation (Neil et al., 1999). In 1999, a seismic exploration system called Taking the derivative of time on both hand sides of the equations,

the Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) has been developed to ob- the order of Eq. (1) can be reduced to obtain generalized ﬁrst order

tain the knowledge of the upcoming rock conditions during tunneling at stress and velocity non-conversion wave equation (Eq. (3))

the GFZ, Germany (Borm et al., 2001, 2003). In this system, TBM is used

8

to generate wave ﬁeld and three-component geophones situated on the > ∂vx =∂t ¼ ∂τp =∂x þ ∂τ sx =∂z

>

>

side wall are used to register records. Throughout the previous research >

>

< ∂vz =∂t ¼ ∂τp =∂z þ ∂τ sz =∂x

>

the ignorance of tunnel space does not correspond to reality obviously. 2

∂τ p =∂t ¼ V p ð∂vx =∂x þ ∂vz =∂zÞ ; ð3Þ

In recent researches about tunnel prediction using seismic records, >

>

>

>

2

∂τ sx =∂t ¼ V s ð∂vx =∂z−∂vz =∂xÞ

Bohlen (Bohlen et al., 2007) and Stefan (Stefan et al., 2010, 2011) consid- >

>

: 2

ered the impacts of tunnel space and used surface wave along with con- ∂τ sz =∂t ¼ V s ð∂vz =∂x−∂vx =∂zÞ

verted S wave to predict geological structures ahead of tunnel. They

vx and vz are mixed wave ﬁeld including both P wave and S wave. We

discussed the conversion mechanism between these two kinds of waves

need to decouple the wave ﬁeld to obtain independent P and S waves

as well. Petronio (Petronio et al., 2007) used the Tunnel-Seismic While-

for reverse time migration. Setting vx = vpx + vsx,vz = vpz + vsz and

Drilling (TSWD) method to predict geologic interfaces ahead of a tunnel

substituting them into Eq. (3), we calculate the ﬁrst order equation

front. In the research area of seismic imaging for tunnel excavation,

with decoupled P and S waves (Eq. (4))

Rechlin (Rechlin et al., 2009) implemented Kirchhoff migration for

TSWD data. Lüth (Lüth et al., 2008) applied “Kirchhoff Pre-Stack Depth

8

Migration” (KPSDM) to tunnel predication. Furthermore, Tzavaras > ∂v =∂t ¼ ∂τ p =∂x

>

> px

(Tzavaras et al., 2012) applied “Kirchhoff Pre-Stack Depth Migration” >

> ∂vpz =∂t ¼ ∂τ p =∂z

>

>

(KPSDM), “Fresnel Volume Migration” (FVM), and “Reﬂection-Image- >

>

< ∂vsx =∂t ¼ ∂τsx =∂z

>

Spectroscopy” (RIS) to tunnel predication, respectively. However, only a ∂vsz =∂t ¼ ∂τsz =∂x ; ð4Þ

few researches are related to using reverse time migration to tunnel pred- >

> 2

> ∂τ p =∂t ¼ V p ð∂vx =∂x þ ∂vz =∂zÞ

>

>

>

ication. It is known that restricted survey layout and rock mass location af- >

> ∂τ sx =∂t ¼ V 2s ð∂vx =∂z−∂vz =∂xÞ

>

>

fect resolution to different extents. Therefore, it is necessary to consider : 2

∂τ sz =∂t ¼ V s ð∂vz =∂x−∂vx =∂zÞ

the inﬂuence of tunnel space and select an accurate imaging method to

do the prediction of geological conditions in front of the tunnel.

In this paper, we present a new tunnel seismic prediction method. De-propagation process, an extrapolation of the recorder wave ﬁeld

Taking into account the tunnel space, we build tunnel geological models (seismogram), which is prescribed in the reverse order at the receiver

that are closer to the reality by using a staggered grid ﬁnite-difference location, includes calculating imaging time for each grid point and

(FD) algorithm with second-order accuracy in time and fourth-order ac- applying imaging condition to extrapolated wave ﬁeld in every extrap-

curacy in space to realize numerical simulation of seismic full-wave ﬁeld olation. Reverse time extrapolation is an initial boundary value problem

based on tunnel space (Liu et al., 2012). Then for these simulated re- based on the velocity–stress equation (Eq. (4)). It begins from the

cords from different models, we utilize non-conversion wave equation maximum recorded time of the (x, z) plane and takes seismic record

with decoupled P- and S-waves to achieve reliable reverse time migra- f(x, z = 0, t) as the boundary condition to calculate back through the

tion imaging in tunnel space effectively. At last, we verify and demon- time axis.

strate the effectiveness of this method in ﬁeld tunnel data.

2.2. Imaging condition

2. Methodology

We use the dynamic programming traveltime computation method

2.1. Elastic wave pre-stack reverse time migration proposed by Schneider (Schneider et al., 1992) to calculate imaging

time. This method will accurately determine the ﬁrst arrival traveltime

In wave ﬁeld extrapolation, incidence of seismic wave to the inter- through arbitrary, discrete, and discontinuous velocity distributions. It is

face reproduces converted wave. This converted wave leads to disturbed more stable, needs less calculation time, and is not going to cause any

wave in the imaging process because it does not meet the imaging shaded region.

condition. Therefore it is necessary to develop a non-conversion wave We use excitation time image condition as shown in Eq. (5)

equation and decouple elastic wave ﬁeld to guarantee that P wave and

S wave propagate independently. In 2009, Zhang (2009) put forward ( 0 0

X

T

1 0 0

x ¼ x ; z ¼ z ; t ¼ td x ; z

the non-conversion wave equation with decoupled P- and S-waves. Iðx; zÞ ¼ Rðx; z; T−t Þ f ðx; z; T−t Þ f ðx; z; t Þ ¼ ; ð5Þ

0 other

t¼0

When propagating in inhomogeneous medium in which ρ and μ are

constant while λ is variable, the completely decoupled S and P waves

propagate independently and no converted wave is reproduced. There- where T is the maximum recorded time of wave ﬁeld record. The corre-

fore assuming that ρ and μ are constant, we could obtain the non- sponding wave ﬁeld is picked up from reverse time extrapolation wave

conversion elastic displacement equation as follows (Eq. (1)) ﬁeld R(x, z, t) according to excitation time td(x′, z′).

8

< ∂2 ux =∂t 2 ¼ ∂=∂x V 2p ð∂ux =∂x þ ∂uz =∂zÞ þ ∂=∂z V 2s ð∂ux =∂z−∂uz =∂xÞ

; ð1Þ Absorbing boundary condition around the boundary of models in

: ∂2 u =∂t 2 ¼ ∂=∂z V 2 ð∂u =∂x þ ∂u =∂zÞ þ ∂=∂x V 2 ð∂u =∂x−∂u =∂zÞ

z p x z s x z

the de-propagation process is employed in our models (Cerjan et al.,

108 F. Cheng et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 104 (2014) 106–113

P wave. These models can help us to verify the effectiveness of the

proposed numerical simulation method and to study wave ﬁeld charac-

teristics for different models. ModelI-1 is designed for investigating the

inﬂuence of survey layout and lithological interfaces with large dipping

angles (the angle between interface and tunnel axis) on reverse time

migration imaging. For the purpose of analyzing the variation regulato-

ry of imaging according to the dipping angle of interface, ModelI-2 and

ModelI-3 are designed with an interface with a dipping angle of 75° and

60°, respectively. The normal depth of tunnel face in all of the three

models is 65 m. Model II is the three layer wedge model, which is

designed for studying the imaging of the complicated geology structure.

Fig. 1. Acquisition geometry. The tunnel is 100 m in length and 12 m in width. 83 receivers

Model III is similar with Model I-3 except that it considers the tunnel as

with 35 in both sides of the side walls respectively and 13 in the tunnel face are located

counterclockwise at 1 m depth. Source1 is 16 m away from the ﬁrst geophone and Source2 a homogeneous medium with same elastic features of surrounded

which is also at 1 m depth is located at the intersection of sidewall and tunnel face. Solid layers. Model III aims at the different results of imaging when not

dots and asterisks represent receivers and sources, respectively. considering tunnel space. Table 1 shows detailed parameters of these

theoretical models.

1985). That means in certain ribbon-like regions at the boundary, the

stress and particle velocity are multiplied by the factor G (Eq. (6))

4. Modeling results

h i

2

G ¼ exp −ð−0:305=ΝÞ ðΝ−iÞ 0≤i ≤Ν ; ð6Þ

4.1. Model I results

where N denotes the number grid of absorbing boundary. Using the reverse time migration method and corresponding bound-

In addition, absorbing boundary condition is also tackled in tunnel ary conditions proposed above, we fulﬁll full wave ﬁeld simulation and

space. Using m × n grid, the damping factor in tunnel space is shown reverse time migration imaging by FORTRAN. Full wave ﬁeld simulation

in Eq. (7) based on tunnel space are achieved in that these records include direct

P wave, Rayleigh wave, reﬂected P wave, reﬂected P–S converted wave,

8 h i

2

>

> exp −ð−0:305=ðn=2ÞÞ ðn=2 þ zÞ 0 ≤x ≤ ðm−n=2Þ−z reﬂected S–P converted wave, and reﬂected S wave (Fig. 3a, b). Fig. 4a

>

< h i −n=2≤ z≤0;

2 0 ≤x ≤ ðm−n=2Þ þ z and b shows the P wave and S wave reverse time migration imaging

G¼ exp −ð−0:305=ðn=2ÞÞ ðn=2−zÞ 0 ≤z≤ n=2; −ði−m þ n=2Þ ≤ z

>

> h i

>

: exp −ð−0:305=ðn=2ÞÞ ðm−xÞ 2 m−n=2≤ x ≤m; proﬁle corresponding to Fig. 3a and b, respectively, Because of the tun-

≤ x−m þ n=2

nel space limitation, the extension of the imaging proﬁle is limited in

ð7Þ that the observation system layout cannot be set extensively like surface

observation system. Nevertheless, Fig. 4a and b can still indicate a con-

centrated and convergent energy group at the depth of 65 m, and it is

3. Survey layout and modeling consistent with the position of the interface. This demonstrates the ef-

fectiveness of the reverse time migration method to fulﬁll geological in-

3.1. Survey layout terface imaging ahead of tunnel. By contrasting Fig. 4a and b, we can see

that the energy of the S wave migration proﬁle (Fig. 4b) is stronger than

Two survey layouts (Fig. 1) are designed to investigate the effects on that of P wave migration proﬁle (Fig. 4a). This illustrates that common-

reverse time migration imaging results from different survey layouts source gather with shots on the side wall is better for S wave imaging.

systems. One of these two systems is a common-receiver gather with We can see that the energy of P wave in Fig. 3c and d is stronger than

shots on the side walls, in which the source is excited at Source1 and that in Fig. 3a and b while the energy of S wave in Fig. 3c and d is weaker

geophones are located along the side wall. The other is a common- than that in Fig. 3a and b. This is because when shooting on the side wall,

source gather with shots on the tunnel face, in which the source is excit- Rayleigh wave converts to S wave at the intersection of side wall and

ed at Source2 and geophones are located along the side wall. tunnel face, then travels back to receivers. This travel time approximates

two-way S wave travel time. So this in-phase stacking strengthens the

3.2. Modeling energy of reﬂected S wave. When it comes to shooting on the tunnel

face, the energy of reﬂected S wave is weaker because there is only

In order to investigate the inﬂuence of survey layout and interface on two-way S wave. Fig. 4c and d shows the P wave and S wave pre-

reverse time migration imaging, 3 theoretical models are designed and stack reverse time migration imaging proﬁle, respectively. The energy

Fig. 2. Theoretical models. (a) An interface with a dipping angle of 90°; (b) an interface with a dipping angle of 75°; (c) an interface with a dipping angle of 60°; (d) a three-layer wedge

model; (e) a two-layer model with an interface with a dipping angle of 60° and considers the tunnel as a homogeneous medium with the same elastic features of surrounded layers. The

asterisks represent the sources.

F. Cheng et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 104 (2014) 106–113 109

Table 1 that in Fig. 5d. There is another interface on the left of the previously

Parameters of theoretical models. Vp and Vs are P- and S-wave velocities in m/s, respective- discussed interface, which is considered as the result of reﬂected

ly. ρ is density in kg/m3.

P wave reverse time migration. Its forward position is caused by calcu-

Layer number Vp (m/s) Vs (m/s) ρ (kg/m3) lating travel time with the velocity of S wave. This shows, from one as-

① 340.0 0.0 100.0 pect, that lower inclinations are better for P wave imaging.

② 2000.0 1100.0 1500.0

③ 2400.0 1350.0 1650.0 4.2. Model II results

④ 2800.0 1600.0 1800.0

of P wave migration in Fig. 4c is stronger than that in Fig. 4a while the generated by a point source at (100,153), respectively. In Fig. 2, a large

energy of S wave migration in Fig. 4d is weaker than that in Fig. 4b, interface can be found with a dip angle of 60°intersecting the axis of

while all of them can indicate the position of the interface. the tunnel at 165 m and a small interface with a dip angle of 90°

Through the analyses above, it is proved that the proposed pre-stack intersecting the axis of the tunnel at 177 m. Fig. 7c and d shows the P

reverse time migration imaging method can provide the correct image wave and S wave reverse time migration imaging proﬁle, respectively.

of geological interfaces with large dipping angles. For interfaces with Fig. 7c indicates two interfaces, of which one is inclined while the

large dipping angles, common-source gather with shots on the tunnel other is a vertical interface located at 77 m ahead, in front of the tunnel.

face is better for reﬂection P wave imaging while common-receiver It matches the model status. S wave reverse time migration imaging

gather with shots on the side walls can give out a better S-wave imaging (Fig. 7d) includes P wave imaging interference since lower inclinations

result. In the following text, our discussion is based on common-source are better for P wave imaging. Fortunately, this interference can be elim-

gather with shots on the tunnel face. inated by contrasting with P wave reverse time imaging proﬁle (Fig. 7c).

Fig. 5a and b shows the synthetic horizontal (X) and vertical (Z) The analysis reveals that the migration method proposed in this paper

components records for Model I-2 with a point source at (100,153), re- can also image the complicated geology model in tunnels effectively.

spectively. Fig. 5c and d shows the P wave and S wave pre-stack reverse

time migration imaging proﬁle of ModelI-2, respectively. The energy of 4.3. Model III results

P wave migration in Fig. 5c is stronger and more concentrated than that

in Fig. 4c while the energy of S wave migration in Fig. 5d is weaker than Since the tunnel space is relatively limited, all of previous research

that in Fig. 4d. hasn't taken into account the existence of tunnel. Instead, they consider

Fig. 6a and b shows the synthetic horizontal (X) and vertical (Z) it as a homogeneous medium, leading to interferential artifacts of mi-

components records for Model I-3 with a point source at (100,153), re- gration mirrors when imaging dipping interfaces (Chang et al., 2006;

spectively. Fig. 6c and d shows the P wave and S wave pre-stack reverse Gong et al., 2010). We will take P wave imaging to illustrate this phe-

time migration imaging proﬁle of Model I-3, respectively. The energy of nomenon in the following.

P wave migration in Fig. 6c is stronger and more concentrated than that Fig. 8a and b shows the X component and reverse time migration

in Fig. 5c while the energy of S wave migration in Fig. 6d is weaker than imaging proﬁle generated by a point source at (100,153). Without

Fig. 3. Synthetic records of Model I-1. The records are simulated by a ﬁnite difference method. (a) and (b) show the synthetic horizontal (X) and vertical (Z) components records of Model I-

1 with a point source on the side wall at (50,153), respectively. (c) and (d) show the synthetic horizontal (X) and vertical (Z) components records for Model I-1 with a point source in the

side wall at (100,153), respectively. The cell size is 250 × 300 and the space-step length is 1 m. The recording length is 250 ms with a sampling interval of 0.01 ms. Labels P and R represent

direct P wave and Rayleigh wave, respectively; PP, PS, SP and SS represent reﬂected P wave, reﬂected P-S converted wave, reﬂected S-P converted wave, and reﬂected S wave, respectively.

110 F. Cheng et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 104 (2014) 106–113

Fig. 4. Reverse time migration imaging of Model I-1. Where (a), (b), (c) and (d) are the reverse time migration imaging results corresponding to (a), (b), (c) and (d) in Fig. 3, respectively.

The dotted line indicates the tunnel axis; the solid line denotes the interface position.

considering tunnel space, the relatively simple records only include di- from reality. No consideration of tunnel space also causes the problem

rect P wave, reﬂected P wave (PP), and reﬂected P–S converted wave that the wave ﬁeld records become symmetrical and the travel time is

(PS) as shown in Fig. 8a. Comparing with Fig. 6a, since the records centered in source point symmetrically as shown in Fig. 8a. This

here do not contain wave ﬁeld, the results are relatively further different problem leads to a concentrated group, namely artifact, appearing

Fig. 5. Simulated records and reverse time migration imaging proﬁle of Model I-2. (a) The horizontal component (X) record. (b) The vertical component (Z) record. (c) and (d) are the

reverse time migration imaging results corresponding to (a) and (b), respectively.

F. Cheng et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 104 (2014) 106–113 111

Fig. 6. Simulated records and reverse time migration imaging proﬁle of Model I-3. (a) The horizontal component (X) record. (b) The vertical component (Z) record. (c) and (d) are the

reverse time migration imaging results corresponding to (a) and (b), respectively.

in the mirror position as the tunnel for axis (Fig. 8b). Obviously, it is conclude that tunnel-based reverse time migration imaging can not

not reasonable to interpret this artifact as interface. In Fig. 6c, this only realize interface imaging correctly but also effectively suppress

shortage is overcome by taking into account tunnel space. So we can mirror artifact.

Fig. 7. Simulated records and reverse time migration imaging proﬁle of Model II. (a) The horizontal component (X) record. (b) The vertical component (Z) record. (c) and (d) are the re-

verse time migration imaging results corresponding to (a) and (b), respectively.

112 F. Cheng et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 104 (2014) 106–113

Fig. 8. Simulated records and reverse time migration imaging proﬁle of Model III. (a) The horizontal component (X) record. (b) is the reverse time migration imaging result corresponding

to (a). Label P represents direct P wave. PP and PS represent reﬂected P wave, reﬂected P–S converted wave, respectively. Reﬂection indicates the actual reﬂected interface; the Artifact

indicates mirror artifact.

To verify practicability of the migration method proposed in this Taking into account the tunnel space, more realistic tunnel geologi-

paper, ﬁeld data acquired from one highway in China is used for reverse cal models are developed by using the ﬁrst-order coupled elastic

time migration. This area belongs to sedimentary region and layered equations of particle velocity and stress, and high order staggered grid

shale is dominated. The rock mass quality in this working area is poor. ﬁnite-difference algorithm to realize numerical simulation of seismic

Fig. 9 shows the sketch map of the tunnel observation system. full-wave ﬁelds in tunnel space. Then for simulated records, we utilize

The data shown in Fig. 10a are the original P wave component record reverse time operator based on non-conversion wave equation with

with shot point at the 15th receiver. There are four very developed decoupled P- and S-waves, and excitation time imaging condition to

events in this record (label A, B, C and D, Fig. 10a). At the same time, achieve reliable two dimensional (2D) reverse time migration imaging

we take the P-wave velocity in the surface layer (about 2000 m/s) sur- in tunnel space effectively. Besides, we verify and demonstrate avail-

veyed in the actual test based on the tunnel space as P-wave velocity ability of this method in tunnel ﬁeld data.

in full-space reverse time migration; after migration and high frequency Since conventional imaging approaches do not consider the impact

noise suppression, we get the proﬁle (Fig. 10b) which indicates four of tunnel space in imaging, wave-ﬁeld records accorded with reality

events with strong energy (label A, B, C and D, Fig. 10a). are not able to be obtained. Even worse, when it comes to dipping

By calculating the theoretical model, we can see that, under the con-

dition of achieving the velocity in the surface layer, if we use the uni-

form velocity to do migration in the entire space, each energy arc

achieved is corresponded to an interface of physical property, so it can

determine the number and zone of interface. In addition, the position

and dip of ﬁrst physical interface are relatively accurate, but other inter-

faces of physical properties have some differences in the position and

dip. However, if we can obtain the accurate velocity structure, the mi-

gration method proposed in this paper is able to achieve accurate re-

sults, such as the imaging result of model II in the paper.

According to this, we can do the following semi-quantitative inter-

pretation. In view of the centralized location of energy and strength of

energy, we can see that in Fig. 1(c), there are two relatively strong ener-

gy arcs and the long extension of interface at B and D; hence, we can de-

duce the presence of two relatively large-scale geological interfaces

existing in front of the tunnel face and oblique to the tunnel axis. Energy

arcs A and C are weak and have lower concentration level, which indi-

cates the presence of two small-scale geological interfaces.

Fig. 9. Sketch map of the tunnel observation system. 32 simple component vertical re- Fig. 10. Practical record and reverse time migration imaging. (a) Practical seismic wave

ceivers were set alone the side wall. The receiver intervals are both 1.5 m. The explosive record. The recording length is 400 ms with a sampling interval of 0.0625 ms. (b) Practical

source depth is 1.5 m. reverse time migration imaging.

F. Cheng et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 104 (2014) 106–113 113

interface imaging, mirrored artifacts will come out to affect interpreta- Cerjan, C., Kosloff, D., Kosloff, R., Reshef, M., 1985. A nonreﬂecting boundary condition for

discrete acoustic and elastic wave equations. Geophysics 50 (4), 705–708.

tion. Tunnel-based reverse time migration imaging can not only realize Chang, X., Liu, Y., Gui, Z., 2006. Zero-offset reverse time migration for prediction ahead of

interface imaging correctly, but also effectively suppress mirror artifact. tunnel face. Chin. J. Geophys. 49 (5), 1482–1488.

The proposed pre-stack reverse time migration imaging method can Dickmann, T., Sander, B., 1996. Drivage concurrent tunnel seismic prediction. Felsbau-

Rock and Soil Engineering 14, 406–411.

fulﬁll the correct image of models including geological interfaces with Gong, X., Han, L., Niu, J., Zhang, X., Wang, D., Du, L., 2010. Combined migration velocity

vertical or large dipping angles (≈90°) ahead of tunnel. When consider- model-building and its application in tunnel seismic prediction. Appl. Geophys. 7

ing tunnel space, common-source gather with shots near the tunnel (3), 265–271.

Inazaki, T., Isahai, H., Kawamura, S., Kurahashi, T., Hayashi, H., 1999. Stepwise application

face is better for reﬂection P wave imaging while common-receiver

of horizontal seismic proﬁling for tunnel prediction ahead of the face. Lead. Edge 18

gather with shots on the side walls is better for S wave imaging. For (12), 1429–1431.

common-receiver gather with shots on the tunnel face, the energy of Liu, J., Cheng, F., Fan, C., Cao, J., 2012. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of tunnel-

based seismic full-wave ﬁelds. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 34 (9), 1705–1711.

P wave imaging increases while the energy of S wave imaging decreases

Lüth, S., Giese, R., Otto, P., Krüger, K., Mielitz, S., Bohlen, T., Dickmann, T., 2008. Seismic in-

as the dip angle of geology interfaces decreases. Namely, interface with vestigations of the Piora Basin using S-wave conversions at the tunnel face of the

large dip angle is beneﬁcial to the image of S wave while one with small Piora adit (Gotthard Base Tunnel). Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 45 (1), 86–93.

dip angle is beneﬁcial to the image of P wave. Neil, D., Haramy, K., Hanson, D., Descour, J., 1999. Tomography to evaluate site conditions

during tunneling. 3rd National Conference of the Geo-Institute. American Society of

Civil Engineers, Geotechnical Special Publication, 89, pp. 13–17.

Acknowledgment Petronio, L., Poletto, F., Schleifer, A., 2007. Interface prediction ahead of the excavation

front by the tunnel-seismic-while-drilling (TSWD) method. Geophysics 72 (4),

G39–G44.

We thank anonymous reviewers and editors for their detailed Rechlin, A.J., Lüth, S., Giese, R., 2009. OnSITE: integrated seismic imaging and interpreta-

and constructive comments and editing. This research is supported tion for tunnel excavation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Rock Joints

and Jointed Rock Masses, pp. 1–7.

by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), under

Schneider, W.A., Ranzinger, K.A., Balch, A.H., Kruse, C., 1992. A dynamic programming ap-

Grant No. 41202223. proach to ﬁrst arrival traveltime computation in media with arbitrarily distributed

velocities. Geophysics 57 (1), 39–50.

Stefan, J., Thomas, B., Denise, D., 2010. On the propagation characteristics of tunnel

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