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The personal performance evaluation system comprises the procedures for evaluating the

performance of individuals, the associated evaluation factors and the evaluation scale. The impact of
personal per-formance on the personal salary element is stipulated in the collective agreement.

The evaluation discussion is an important element in the work of supervisors and staff administration,
and in interaction between individual employees and their supervisors. A successful evaluation discus-
sion requires careful preparation. Individual employees may prepare for it, for example, by evaluating
their own performance in advance. Both parties must set aside time for the discussion away from the
distraction of other duties.

Personal performance evaluation

The personal performance of an employee is evaluated in the course of an evaluation discussion. The
evaluation focuses on the performance of individual employees in the duties assigned in their job de-
scriptions and otherwise by the employer, and on the objectives assigned for the employee in the
previ-ous performance appraisal or in some other corresponding manner.

The job performance of an individual is evaluated on an overall assessment scale of 1-9 with respect
to the three main criteria specified below. Sub-criteria are used for assessing each main criterion, but
are not evaluated independently. The individual performance level is determined as the average of the
evaluation outcomes for the main criteria.

A supervisor will evaluate the employee’s performance. The supervisor records the outcome of the
evaluation and its grounds, and these are communicated to the employee. The supervisor in question
will propose a performance level on the basis of the evaluation. If the outcome of the evaluation does
not accord with the employee’s own view of his or her performance, then the employee will enter his or
her own view and the reasons for it in the evaluation summary. The performance evaluation and per-
formance level will be confirmed by the employer in the light of such factors as the grounds for the per-
formance evaluation, the general evaluation policy and the performance of employees working in
duties of equivalent job requirement.

Reasons shall be given in particular for unusual evaluations of job performance that satisfy the job re-
quirements. If the performance level is 1 or 2, then measures for supporting improved performance
shall be mutually agreed.

The evaluation criteria / factors

The main criteria of personal performance evaluation for other staff are:

1. Vocational competence

Skills, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• overall command of the employee’s duties; knowledge, skills, methods and tools
• maintenance of vocational skills
• ability to focus on essentials

Personal development, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• how the employee responds to new challenges and ideas, and views new duties and practices
• an active role in improving the job
• how the employee improves personal skills

Plurality of skills / special ability, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• whether the employee has skills exceeding the employee’s own basic duties that benefit the
workplace, or some special ability or expertise
• general diversity of the employee’s skills or some special ability that benefits the work-place

2. Responsibility at work and activity in the workplace

Spontaneity, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• how spontaneous the employee is in his/her work


• how the employee takes the initiative in improving working methods and the work-place

Co-operation skills, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• how the employee co-operates at the workplace, and with external parties and stake-holders
• how the employee promotes community and a positive atmosphere
• how the employee deals with conflict

Commitment to work and colleagues/co-workers, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• how the employee participates in improving the workplace


• how the employee adheres to mutually agreed practices
• how the employee is committed to duties and to the aims of the employee’s workplace
• the extent of the employee’s involvement in discharging university community functions

Employees working in supervisory capacities will be evaluated for success and improvement in
supervisory and leadership work (including participation in supervisory and leadership training) and for
supervisory skills in general. The evaluation will consider how the supervisor supports, encourages
and motivates employees to achieve their objectives and how the supervisor fosters a positive,
effective and productive workplace.

3. Quality and performance

Productivity, evaluated with reference to such factors as


• achievement of, for example, quantitative objectives or deadlines imposed on the employee

Quality of work, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• quality of work in relation to the demands and goals of duties

Economy, evaluated with reference to such factors as

• overall economy in discharging duties


• careful use of resources

The evaluation scale

The evaluation scale is as follows:

Level The employee’s performance is excellent and clearly exceeds all job requirements and the
9 quantitative and qualitative objectives assigned to the employee.
Level 8
The employee’s performance satisfies all job requirements very well. The performance ex-
Level 7
ceeds the quantitative and qualitative objectives assigned to the employee in many respects.
Level 6
The employee’s performance satisfies the job requirements and the objectives assigned to
Level 5
the employee well. Performance attains a high quality standard in key fields of duty.
Level 4
The employee’s performance satisfies the basic job requirements and the principal objec-
Level 3 tives assigned to the employee. Some aspects of performance are nevertheless in need of
improvement.
Level 2
Level 1 There is a substantial need for improvement in the employee’s performance.

What is an appraisal?
Performance appraisal is the process of assessing and developing the work performance of an
employee. This topic sets out to describe some general elements of good practice in the appraisal
process.

Many organisations are now calling the appraisal process something different, such as Personal
Development Planning, to foster the idea that this is part of a development process rather than a
judgmental one.

The process provides an opportunity for both you and your employee to discuss development goals
and jointly create a plan for achieving those goals. Thus Coaching is the primary skill required. The
outcome – the development plan – should contribute both to organisational goals and the professional
growth of your employee.
Purpose of the appraisal process
The purpose of appraisal is to achieve better work performance from employees. A good appraisal
process will bring this about by ensuring the following elements are included.

1.Individual job objectives are linked to organisational goals.

2.The organisation’s expectations of an employee’s performance are discussed.

3.Performance is contrasted against objectives, and feedback is provided to the employee.

4.The employee is coached on how to achieve job objectives/requirements.

5.The employee’s strengths and weaknesses are analysed.

6.The types of development activities that might help the employee to make better use of his
skills and thus improve performance in his current job are identified.

7.Performance expectations are clarified for the employee by providing a communications


structure.

8.The employee who has been trying to perform well is given encouragement.

9.Employees are provided with the opportunity to indicate their career aspirations on a formal
basis.

The appraisal process


The performance appraisal process typically consists of several steps:

1.Establishment of a common understanding between manager and employee regarding work


expectations

2.Assessment of work performance against work expectation on an ongoing basis

3.The formal performance and development appraisal discussion

4.Agreement of an individual performance plan, including agreement on how the performance


is to be monitored and measured

5.Formal documentation of the agreements reached at the appraisal

Developing Performance Standards


While performance elements tell employees what they have to do, the standards tell them how well
they have to do it. The first article in this series defined and reviewed the characteristics of critical,
non-critical, and additional performance elements. This article reviews the principles of writing good
standards that can be used effectively to appraise employee performance of those elements.
Definition
A performance standard is a management-approved expression of the performance threshold(s),
requirement(s), or expectation(s) that must be met to be appraised at a particular level of
performance. A Fully Successful (or equivalent) standard must be established for each critical element
and included in the employee performance plan. If other levels of performance are used by the
appraisal program, writing standards for those levels and including tem in the performance plan is not
required by is encouraged so that employees will know what they have to do to meet standards higher
than Fully Successful.
General Measures
Performance standards should be objective, measurable, realistic, and stated clearly in writing (or
otherwise recorded). The standards should be written in terms of specific measurers that will be used
to appraise performance. In order to develop specific measurers, you first must determine the general
measure(s) that are important for each element. General measurers used to measure employee
performance include the following:
Quality address how well the work is performed and/or how accurate or how effective the final
product is. Quality refers to accuracy, appearance, usefulness, or effectiveness.
Quantity addresses how much work is produced. A quantity measure can be expressed as an error
rate, such as number ore percentage of errors allowable per unit of work, or as a general result to be
achieved. When a quality or quantity standard is set, the Fully Successful standard should be high
enough to be challenging but not so high that it is not really achievable.
Timeliness addresses how quickly, when or by what date the work is produced. The most common
error made in setting timeliness standards is to allow no margin for error. As with other standards,
timeliness standards should be set realistically in view of other performance requirements and needs
of the organization.
Cost-Effectiveness addresses dollar savings to the Government or working within a budget.
Standards that address cost-effectiveness should be based on specific resource levels (money,
personnel, or time) that generally can be documented and measured in agencies' annual fiscal year
budgets. Cost-effectiveness standards may include such aspects of performance as maintaining or
reducing unit costs, reducing the time it takes to produce a product or service, or reducing waste.
For each element, decide which of these general measurers are important to the performance of the
element by asking the following questions:
Is quality important? Does the stakeholder or customer care how well the work is done?
Is quantity important? Does the stakeholder or customer care how many are produced?
Is it important that the element be accomplished by a certain time or date?
Is it important that the element be done within certain cost limits?
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Specific Measures
Once you've decided which general measures are important, you can develop specific measurers. It is
these specific measures that will be included in the standard. To develop specific measure(s) for each
element, you must determine how you would measure the quantity, quality, timeliness, and/or cost-
effectiveness of the element. If it can be measured with numbers, clearly define those numbers. If
performance only can be described (i.e., observed and verified), clarify who would be the best judge to
appraise the work and what factors they would look for. (The first-line supervisor is often the best
person to judge performance, but there may be situations, depending on what is being measured,
when a peer or the customer receiving the product or service would be the best judge.)
The following questions may help you determine specific measures. For each general measure, ask:
How could [quality, quantity, timeliness, and/or cost effectiveness] be measured?
Is there some number or percent that could be tracked?
If there is no number, and the element can only be judged, ask:
Who could judge that the element was done well? What factors would they look for?

5 Effective Performance Appraisal Methods


1. Management By Objective

It is a process in which a manager identifies the desired objectives to be achieved and gives each
individual a major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected from him/her and use these
measures as a guide to access the contribution of each individual employee.
It is less time consuming and cost effective compared to other performance appraisal methods. With
this method you can easily find out whether the stated objective is achieved or not in a given time
period.
2. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

This method has been developed recently and is claimed to be one of the effective methods among all
the appraisal methods listed. It is a combination of traditional essay evaluation and rating scale. It is
more expensive than other methods and guarantees precise results.
In this method the employee’s behavior and performance are analyzed and used for evaluating overall
performance of an employee. HR department is involved in this process. Based on the performance
and behavior of an employee, they are anchored as good, average, or poor.
3. Critical Incident Method

In this method the employer or manager evaluates an employee on the basis of “certain events”
known as critical incidents where the employee did something really great or something not so great
things.
The evaluator should maintain a digital or physical journal to store the information of different
incidents. This method is extremely useful for the growth of an employee since it gives detailed
information unlike other performance appraisal methods.
4. 360 Degree Feedback

This is somewhat time consuming method since there are multiple raters involved in evaluating the
performance. But it’s worth a try. In this method the feedback of the employee is collected by the
people who interact with him in the organization including his superiors, peers, subordinates, and also
from customers. The feedback is usually taken by a questionnaire designed for this purpose. This
method is very useful for the startups. Take a look at this detailed info-graphic on 360 degree
performance appraisal process
5. Forced Choice Method

In this method evaluator rates an employee based on the group of statements. These statements are
combination of both negative and positive statements. You need to identify the most descriptive
statements of an employee and evaluate him. Such as:
1.Can be dependent to complete the project or task
2.Is reliable and trustworthy.

Problems
Performance Appraisals Are Annual
Start with the fact that performance appraisals are usually annual. Employees need feedback and goal
planning much more frequently than annually.

Employees need weekly, even daily, performance feedback. This feedback keeps them focused on
their most important goals. It also provides them with developmental coaching to help them increase
their ability to contribute. The feedback also recognizes them for their contributions.

Employees need and respond best to clear expectations from their manager. Feedback and goal
setting annually just doesn't cut it in the modern work environment. In this environment, goals are
constantly changing. Work is under constant evaluation for relevance, importance, and contribution.

Customer needs change with such frequency that only the nimble respond in a timely manner. It is
what performance feedback needs to do—respond nimbly and with serious responsiveness in a timely
manner.

Performance Appraisal as a Lecture


Managers, who don't know any better, make performance appraisals into a one-way lecture about how
the employee did well this year and how the employee can improve. In one example, employees
reported to HR that they thought that the performance development planning meeting was supposed
to be a conversation.

Their manager was using 55 of the 60 minutes to lecture his reporting staff members about their
performance—both good and bad. The employees' feedback was relegated to less than five minutes.
It is not the point of a performance appraisal discussion.

Additionally, once a manager tells an employee about problems with their work or a failure in their
performance, employees tend not to hear anything else the manager has to say that is positive about
their performance. So, the feedback sandwich in which managers praise an employee, then give the
employee negative feedback that is followed, once again, by positive feedback is an ineffective
approach to providing needed feedback.

So, it’s a combination problem. The best performance appraisals are a two-way discussion and focus
on the employee assessing his or her own performance and setting his or her own goals for
improvement.

Performance Appraisal and Employee Development


Performance appraisals rarely focus on developing the employee’s skills and abilities. They do not
provide commitments of time and resources from the organization about how they will encourage
employees to develop their skills in areas of interest to the employee.

The purpose of performance evaluation is to provide developmental feedback that will help the
employee continue to grow in their skills and ability to contribute to the organization. It is the
manager's opportunity to hold a clear exchange about what the organization expects and most wants
and needs from the employee. What a lost opportunity if a manager uses the meeting in any other
way.

Performance Appraisals and Pay


In a fourth way that performance appraisals often go astray, employers connect performance
appraisals with the amount of pay raise an employee will receive. When the appraisal is a deciding
factor in employee raises, it loses its ability to help employees learn and grow.

You will train employees to hide and cover up problems. They will set their manager up to be
blindsided by problems or an issue in the future. They will bring only positives to the appraisal meeting
if they are a normal employee.

Don’t ever expect an honest discussion about improving an employee's performance if the outcome of
the discussion will affect the employee’s income. Doesn't this make perfect sense? You know it does,
so why go there? It should be one component of your salary setting system.

Let your employees know that you will base raises on a wide range of factors—and tell them what the
factors are in your company annually. Employees have short memories, and you need to remind them
every year about how you will make your decisions about merit increases.

If your company has a company-wide approach—and many companies do these days—even better.
You will have support and backup as all employees will receive the same message. Your job will be to
reinforce the message during the performance appraisal meeting.
Connecting the appraisal to an employee's opportunity for a salary increase negates the most
important component of the process—the goal of helping the employee grow and develop as a result
of the feedback and discussion at the performance appraisal meeting.

If you can influence these four big problems in performance appraisal, you will go a long way toward
having a useful, developmental system in which the employee's voice plays a prominent role. It is the
right way to approach performance appraisal.