You are on page 1of 17

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

(A) REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Review of literature of a particular subject is helpful in
understanding the conceptual framework and provides a detailed
account of work, which has been done in the past on that particular
subject. It supports the candidate in deciding the line of action to
complete the research work. Keeping in view this fact, a review of
existing literature in respect of bakery products was made by the
researcher in the following manner:
According to www.bakeryindia.com1, “The present day
consumer looks for new bakery products, better appeal, taste and
convenience from bakery foods. With a population of 1 billion plus,
India has the largest middle-income consumers, who demand varieties
in food, clothing, transport and improved living standards.
Opportunities, in abundance, exist in Bakery cafes and Restaurants.
Those who cater fast foods are another fastest growing section in
India.
This is a new challenge to baker and he needs to update his
information, technology, products and services to meet the changing
needs of the Indian consumer. To meet the new challenges, the
government of India encourages the Small and Medium enterprises
(SME) with very attractive financing schemes, to modernize and
upgrade their units. This has opened up opportunities not only to
SME’s but also to those in the bakery trade to supply the new
technologies.”

1
www. bakeryindia.com
According to www. bakeryindia.com2, “It is a step in this
direction for the buyers and sellers to meet, exchange ideas, improve
the technology and profitability easy accessibility to information at
low cost. It also relates to bakery industry in India, about
Associations, Research and Training Institutions, Suppliers of
Machinery, Accessories, Ingredients, Packing Materials, Food laws,
Regulations, Taxes and much more.
It offers consultancy for setting up bakery plants, solutions to
your bakery problems, promoting your products and services,
software development for your specific needs, mailing list, sale of
used machineries and sick units and many more on demand.”
According to Dublin,3 “Research and Markets have announced
the addition of the Bakery Products in India. The Bakery Products in
India offer a comprehensive guide to the size and shape of the market
at a national level. It provides the latest retail sales data (2003-2008),
allowing you top identify the sectors during growth. It identifies the
leading companies, the leading brands and offers strategic analysis of
key factors influencing the market – be they new product.”
In the words of Irum Khan4, “Food ingredients have
commanded the food industry around the globe making people savor
the food they ear. Food is no more about filling the hungry stomach
but it is actually driving people into an obsession with the taste it
leaves behind.
Ingredients entirely change the way food tastes and appears and
are a product of massive research and experimentation. Food
ingredients (Fi) is one of the nine food and health ingredients

2
Ibid.
3
Dublin, www. researchand markets.com
4
Khan Irum, India Hot Spot for Food Ingredients; Mumbai; Oct 2008.

19
exhibitions held world wide (Fi Europe, Fi Asia, Fi China, Fi India, Fi
South America, Food ingredients Processing, Safety & Services,
Natural ingredients 2008, Health ingredients, Safety and Technology
every years by CMP, a global leader in trade show organisation.
CMP is a worldwide organisation with extensive experience in
organizing B2B exhibitions. CMP organizes 330 shows across 44
countries every year. It brings its high standards and organizational
expertise to this event. CMP manages the infrastructure and logistics
along with bringing in exhibitors and visitors and ensuring that all
their needs are met.
In India the food ingredients industry is still in its infancy but
with a potential for fast growth. Fi India is the only B2B exhibition of
its kind which covers food ingredients.”
According to Irum Khan5, “At the backdrop of the US economy
heading recession, India still has reason to smile with the sectors like
IT, manufacturing, food processing and such others gearing up to
explode in the coming years. The market is shining with optimism as
never before.”
According to Manish Parekh6, “Now and 10 years hence we
will see India making the maximum wealth it ever made in recent
history. Indian cuisine has always been a big part of that economic
success and remains so today. Current ingredient trends such as the
soaring demand for healthier products, increased development in
preservatives & processing and the rise in consumer need for wider
product choice, are all pervading opportunities for creating and
extending business in the Indian food industry. Modern day
consumers are also proving continually more adventurous. This

5
Irum Khan, Ibid.
6
Parekh Manish, Director Joychem India

20
combined with an increase in disposable income, means greater
potential than ever before for new and specialist products emerging
within the market.”
According to the Fi India Conference7, “Each year, the Fi India
Conference brings together the most influential Indian and
International speakers to address key topics with in the food
ingredients industry. Organized in co-operation with the Protein
Foods & Nutrition Development Association of India (PFNDAI) the
conference provides a crucial insight into the fundamental issues in
the current climate and looks to highlight new products and solutions
throughout the industry. It’s a must-attend for those interested in the
future of food industry in India, plus provides a vital opportunity for
networking and gaining a glimpse of important upcoming industry
trends.”
According to www. bakeryindia.com8, “The history of bread
and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time
according to ingredient availability, advances in technology,
economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval
guilds) and evolving taste. The earliest breads were unleavened.
Variation in grain, thickness, shape and texture varied from culture to
culture.
Archaeological evidence confirms yeast (both as leaving agent
and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C. Food
historians generally cite this date for the discovery of unleavened
bread and genesis of the brewing industry. There is an alternate
theory regarding the invention of brewing. Some historians believe it

7
Fi India Conference; Mumbai.
8
www. bakeryindia.com

21
is domesticated. Sources generally agree the discovery of the powers
of yeast was accidental.”
According to Kipple F. Kenneth and Orneles Conce
Kriemhild9, “There are scholars who have theorized that a taste for
ale prompted the beginning of agriculture, in which case humans have
been brewing for some 10,000 years. Most archaeological evidence,
however, suggests that fermentation was being used in one manner or
another by around 4000 to 3500 B.C. Some of this evidence – from
an ancient Mesopotamian trading outpost called Godin Tepe in
present day Iran indicates that barley was being fermented at that
location around 3500 B.C. Additional evidence recovered at Hacinegi
Tepe (a similar site in southern Turkey) also suggest that ancient
Mesopotamians were fermenting barley at a very early date. There is
no question that fermentation takes place accidentally, and most
investigators believe that barley was first cultivated in the Fertile
Crescent region of lower Mesopotamia between the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers. Grain is heavy to transport relative to the beer
made from it, so it is not surprising that there may be evidence of ale
in these outposts and not unreasonable to suspect that accidental
fermentation did occur at some point in the ancient Mesopotamian
region, leading to beer making.”
In the opinion of Tannahill10, “Leavening, according to one
theory was discovered when some yeast spores – the air is full of
them, especially in a bake-house that is also a brewery – drifted onto
a dough that had been set aside for a white before baking; the dough
would rise, not very much, perhaps, but enough to make the bread

9
Kipple F. Kenneth and Orneles Conce Kriemhild; Cambridge World History
of Food; Volume I; Cambridge University Press; Cambridge; 2000. p. 619-620.
10
Tannahill; Food in History; Three Rivers Press; New York; 1998.

22
lighter and more appetizing than usual, and afterwards, as so often in
the ancient world, inquiring minds set about the task of reproducing
deliberately a process that had been discovered by accident. But there
is an alternative and even more likely theory that on some occasion
ale instead of water was used to mix the dough. The rise would be
more spectacular than from a few errant spores and the effect would
be easy to explain and equally easy to reproduce.”
According to Elizabeth David11, “Bread baked in pans or tins or
uniform shape and capacity was a late development. Indeed, it seems
to have been mainly a British one, Holland being the only other
European country in which the method is in general use. In France
only soft sandwich loaves and rusk bread are baked in tins, provided
with a sliding cover so that almost crestless tops and perfectly even
shapes are achieved. Before the advent of mass-produced tin-ware
English household bread was either baked in earthenware crocks
glazed on the inside only, or the loaves were hand-moulded and fed
into the oven on wooden peels in the ancient manner, as was our
bakery bread. In the seventeenth century, deep tin or wooden hoops
and, more rarely, round iron cake pans were used for yeast cakes, and
there were earthen-ware dishes for pies, broad tins for gingerbread,
tin patty pans, plates and oven sheets for small cakes, biscuits and
confectionary and occasionally wooden dishes for moulding rolls or
small loaves.”
According to Elizabeth David12, “By the early nineteenth
century domestic cooking methods had already much changed. In the
towns coal range with ovens were being installed in kitchens, so the

11
David, Elizabeth; English Bread and Yeast Cookery; Middlesex; 1979; pp
51 & 52.
12
David, Elizabeth; Ibid. pp 206-209.

23
separate bake-house with its special bread baked in tins or crocks was
more satisfactory than the old hand-moulded crusty loaves, the all-
round exposure to high heat in a small space without radiation from
above causing a hard crust to develop before the inner part of the loaf
had properly grown. Inspite of the new tins and the new ovens, which
certainly didn’t become common unit after the middle of the
nineteenth century, most householders continued to make their bread
as they had always done, often taking the prepared dough to a
communal oven or to a local bakery to a bread.”
According to John Ayto13, Pitta (or Pita or Pitah) is a flat,
roughly oval, slightly leavened type of bread characteristic of Greece
and the Middle East. Typically eaten slit open and stuffed with filling,
it became a familiar sight on the supermarket shelves of Britain and
the USA in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The word, a
borrowing from Modern Greek, can perhaps be traced bake ultimately
to classical Greek Peptos, ‘Cooked’ a derivative of the verb pessein,
‘Cook, Bake’.”
According to Alan Davidson14, The Israeli and Western name
for the Arab bread called khubz adi (ordinary bread) or names
meaning Arab, Egyptian, Syrian bread or kumaj (as Turkish loanword
properly meaning a bread cooked in ashes), baked in a brick bread
oven. It is slightly leavened wheat bread, flat, either round or oval,
and variable in size. The name had a common origin with pizza. In
the early centuries of our era, the traditional Greek word for a thin flat
bread or cake, plakous, had become the name of a thicker cake. The
new word that came into use for flat bread was pitta, literally pitch,

13
Ayto, John; An A to Z of Food and Drink; Oxford University Press; Oxford;
2002; p 258.
14
Davidson, Alan; Oxford Companion to Food; Oxford University Press;
Oxford; 1999; p 611.

24
doubtless because pine pitch naturally forms flat layers which many
languages compare to cakes or breads. The word spread to Southern
Italy as the name of thin bread. In Northern Italy dialects pitta became
pizza, now known primarily as the bearer of savory toppling but
essentially still flat bread. Early Arab cookery texts do not refer to
khubz, since it was bought from specialists, not made in the home.
However, it is safe to assume that its history extends far into
antiquity, since flat breads in general, whether leavened or not, are
among the most ancient breads, need no oven or even utensil for their
baking.”
According to K.T. Achaya15, “ Naan is a roti of fine white
maida, leavened, rolled out oval in shape, sprinkled with nigella
(kalonji) seeds and baked in a tandoor or ordinary oven. Small, mud
plastered ovens closely resembling present-day tandoors have been
excavated at kalibangan and Indus valley site. In about AD 1300,
Amir Khusrau notes nann-e-tanuk (light bread) and naan-e-tanuri
(cooked in a tandoor oven) at the imperial court in Delhi. Naan was in
Mughal times a popular breakfast food, accompanied by kheema or
kabab of the humbler Muslims. It is today associated with pujnabis
and is a common restaurant item rather than home-made one, all over
India.”
According to Julia Moskin16, “Artisan (or Artisanal) bread
whetted mainstream American tastes in the 1990’s. Ancient products
for modern gourmets, Commercial bakers producing pre-baked loaves
put these products in supermarkets and wholesale food outlets.

15
Achaya, K.T.; A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food; Oxford University
Press; Delhi; 1988; p 170.
16
Moskin, Julia; Taking the Artisan Out of Artisanal: Good Bread Goes
Commercial; New York Times; March 20, 2004; P F5.

25
Until the advent of the large scale commercial baking in the late
19th century, all American bread was artisanal: mixed and shaped by
hand, then baked under the eye of a professional baker or home cook.
But when soft, sweet, snow-white commercial bread appeared on
grocery shelves in the 1930’s, coarse-grained, hand-made loaves lost
their appeal. And then came the wonder Bread years, when packaged
slice bread became virtually synonymous with American food. In the
1970’s the health food movement enthusiastically embraced whole
grains and home-baked bread, a hallmark of counter-culture cuisine.
By the 1990’s artisanal bread was swept up in the wave of gourmet
appreciation that brought extra virgin olive oil, dark-roast coffee and
European cheese to stores. The wide appeal of artisanal bread first
became clear about 10 years ago when bakers in many; areas
persuaded supermarket managers to stock their products. Ms.
Silverton of La Brea first tried parbaking for the Southern California
market four years ago.”
In the words of Frances Chamberlin17, “Bread is such a basic
part of our diet that we scarcely think about it. We eat it everyday and
for some of us raised in the postwar days of ‘batter whipped’, we
assume it should be soft, spongy white stuff. Not necessarily at all.
Witness the resurgence of interest in bread- all kinds of bread, but
particularly hearty, whole-grain, substantial loaves. Bread making
basically skipped a generation. In the prewar era, that is what you
had….people in their 70’s are coming in and saying they haven’t had
this kind of bread in 50 years. Others are discovering it: it’s a lost art,
the way bread had been and should be.”

17
Chamberlin, Frances; When Bread is Taken Seriously; New York Times;
April 12; 1998; p CT1.

26
According to Elizabeth David18, “Brioches originated as soft
and light white loaves, enriched with butter and eggs, much less so
than those we know today. They were baked without moulds.
Looking at children’s beautiful paintings of brioches you can see that
he has quite clearly defined the notches round the base of his cottage-
loaf shaped confections, which are handsome and tall but not tidy like
a moulded cake. So I think that in the eighteenth century and at the
time of that poor, foolish Marie Antionette is supposed to have said,
when told that the people of Paaris were rioting for bread, quils
manget de al brioche, the composition of the cake must have been
simply that of an enriched bread much like that of our own Bathbuns
and Sally Lunns, so made at that period without benefit of moulds or
tins, although paper bands were sometimes wrapped round them for
baking. Certainly it would not be possible to bake today’s liquid
brioche mixture or crust for a fillet of beef or a large sausage then the
brioche mixture is made with fewer eggs and less butter, or it would
be impossible to handle.”
As per the opinion of Larousse Gastronomique19, “Brioche, a
soft loaf or roll made from a yeast dough enriched with butter and
eggs. The word brioche first appeared in 1404, and for a long time its
etymology was the subject of controversy. Some maintained that the
Pastry originated in Brie, and Alexandre Dumas claimed that the
dough was originally kneaded with cheese and Brie. It is now
considered that brioche is derived from the verb ‘brier’, and old
Norman form of the verb broyuer meaning ‘to pound’ (this is found in
pain brie, a specialty of Normady). This explanation is all the more

18
Opcit. P. 497.
19
Gastronomique Larousse, Lang Harvey Jenifer; Crown; New York; 1988;
p. 147.

27
likely since the brioches from Gournay and Gisors in Normady have
always been highly regarded.”
According to Alan Davidson20, “The word which has been in
use since at least the 15th century, is derived from the verb ‘broyer’
meaning to break up, and refers to the prolonged kneading of the
dough. The brioche may have originated in Normady. In support of
this theory is the fact that the quality of the butter is what determines
the quality of a brioche and that Normady has been famed for its
butter since the Middle Ages. Whatever the truth, the brioche arrived
in Paris in the 17th century. Since some time in the 19th century it has
been customary to bake a briche in a deep, round, flutted tin, narrow
at the base and flaring widely at the top. Brioche is usually eaten at
breakfast or tea time, with coffee or hot chocolate; and in its modern
form it constitutes a delicacy, slightly closer in British eyes to cake
then to bread. However, ‘Quils mangent de la brioche’ (usually
translated into English as ‘let them eat cake’), the statement attributed
to Marie Antoilnette on being told that the people of Paris were
rioting because they had no bread, has achieved more notoriety than it
deserves. Eighteenth century brioche was only lightly enriched (by
modest quantities of butter and eggs) and not very far removed from a
good white loaf of bread.”
According to John Ayto21, “Sally Lunns are large buns or tea
cakes made with a yeast dough including cream, eggs and spice. They
are generally supposed to take their name from a late eighteenth
century baker, Sally Lunn, who according to W.J. France in up-to-
date Bread making (1968) had a pastry cook’s shop in Lilliput Alley
in Bath. The earliest source of the story seems to be William Hone’s

20
Opcit. ; p 107.
21
Opcit.; pp 296-297.

28
Everyday Book (1827): The bun called the Sally Lunn originated with
a young woman of that name in Bath, about 30 years ago. She first
dried them Dalmer, a respectable baker and musician, noticed her,
bought a business, and made a song in behalf of Sally Lunn. Although
the 30 years seems to be an understatement, this is not inconsistent
with the first two recorded reference to the word: in Philip thicknesses
Valetudinarian’s Bath Guide (1780) and the Gentleman’s Magazine
(1978). However, there exists a French cake of Alsatian origin called
solilem or solimem which is fairly similar to the Sally Lunn and it
may be that both Sally Lunn and Solimem derive ultimately from
French Soleil lune, sun and moon (cake), golden on top over a paler
base. In the southern states of the USA, the term Sally Lunn stands
for a variety of yeast and soda breads.”
According to www.bakeryindia.com22, “Cinnamon and bread
(rolls) are ancient foods. When they were first combined? Where?
What did this first product taste like? Was it any thing like the
delicious, gooey Philaddphia – style sticky buns we know today?
Food historians have spent much time pondering origins. What do we
know? These items are ‘Old World’ gifts likely originating in
Northern Europe.
According to food historians, cinnamon originated in Sri Lanka.
The early history of this spice is unclear. It is generally agreed that
this spice was known to the ancient Greek and Roman people. It was
highly valued. The earliest uses seem to be as incense and flavouring
in wine. The ancient Roman recipes recorded by Apiaceous for sweet
bread products do not include cinnamon; they were spiced with
pepper. Ancient Egyptian breads were sweetened with honey and
flavoured with nuts.”
22
Opcit.

29
In the words of John Ayto23, “The practice of serving bite –
sized snacks (tea-cakes, tea-sandwiches) at tea came about gradually.
The menu grew with the Victorian era. Many different cakes were
served at tea including crumpets and scones, ‘English Muffins and
Victoria Sandwich Cakes’. Tea cakes are a distinct recipe with several
variations.
‘Tea-cake’. The day of the teacake, a large flat round sweet yeast
– raised bun, often containing currants, is passing. In the 1960’s it
was still quite a common teatime treat, typically tasted and spread
with butter, but since then it has rather faded from the scene.
Tea breads and tea cakes, collective terms of which the first is
the more general. It applies to all the yeast – leavened baked goods
considered suitable for afternoon tea or high tea in Britain, including
many spiced, fruited, and enriched breads and buns. The latter term is
applied especially to flat buns often fruited and lightly enriched with
butter and egg; these are usually split, toasted and spread with butter.”
According to H.D. Renner24, “The flavour of bread can be
reviewed to some extent by re-warming and even new flavours are
created in toasting. This is very true, but leaves the most important
part unsaid. It is surely the smell of toast that makes it so enticing and
enticement which the actuality rarely lives up to. In this it is likely
freshly roasted coffee, like sizzling bacon – all those early morning
smells of an intensity and deliciousness which create for more than
those new flavours, since they create hunger and appetite where note
existed. ‘Village life’, Renner continues, makes stale bread so
common that toasting has become a national habit restricted to the

23
Opcit. p 340.
24
Renner, H.D.; English Bread and Yeast Cookery; American Edition; New
York; 1988; pp 540 &541.

30
British Isles and those countries which have been colonized by
Britain. I wonder if our open fires and coal ranges were not more
responsible than the high incidence of stale bread for the popularity of
toast in all classes of English household. For toasting bread in front of
the fire and the bars of the coal-burning range there were dozens of
different devices. Buttered toast is, then, or was, so peculiarly English
a delicacy.”
The review of literature regarding the history of bakery products,
production process of bakery products has been made from the
different internet websites. After studying the views of different
eminent authorities it has been concluded that the bakery industry is
passing from the revolutionary age in the field of producing various
products. With the development of new technologies in production
processes, the quality of finished products is improving day-by-day
and it will establish the new dimensions with the passing of time.

31
HYPOTHESIS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY

The present research study is based on the following


presumptions:

1. Bakery Industry is one of the important businesses of Meerut


Region.

2. Production processes of bakery products are traditional in the


study area.

3. Generally the cost of production works out very high for


different bakery products in the study area.

4. Marketing charges are found very high in case of bakery


products in the study area.

5. A number of factors leave their direct and indirect influence on


the production costs and marketing margins in case of bakery
products.

6. To increase the profits and to reduce the costs, mixing of


inferior quality raw materials is done in bakery industry in the
study areas, which is totally illegal and detrimental to health.

32
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The following research methodology was adopted to conduct


the present research study:

Selection of Area: Meerut Region was taken for the purpose of


survey because this Region has a prominent place in the field of
manufacturing and marketing of bakery products and here Bakery
Industry is growing rapidly.

Selection of Sample Units: For the purpose of survey 100 bakeries,


manufacturing different types of products were selected keeping in
view that these were from different places and of different sizes of the
region so that these might represent the whole Region.

Period of Study: The present research work was conducted at micro


level so for conducting an intensive survey the period was taken only
one year i.e. 2008-09.

Collection of Data and Information: Both the primary and


secondary data were used in this research study. For primary data two
detailed questionnaires were prepared and pre-tested. The first
questionnaire was for Bakers and the second one for distributors and
retailers. After that required corrections were made in them where
seemed necessary. Secondary data were collected from the records of
the selected bakery units in the area of the study.

Tabulation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data and Information:


The collected data were arranged in tabular form and were analysed
using required statistical tools. After completing analysis work the
results were interpreted in a systematic manner.

33
Conclusion and Suggestions: In the end findings of the research
study were given with appropriate suggestions so as to reduce the
production and marketing costs of bakery products in the area of the
study.

* * *

34