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Diesel engine management Diesel : Distributor Fuel-Injection Pumps Edition 94/95 Technical Instruction BOSCH t Diesel Distributor Fuel-Injection pumps VE the “green-house effect 9 lower than for the the. past few years to. Suey ower the particulate emissions which though, would have been impossible. Goer died «i te ve ‘pump in’ passenger-car applications, th engine responds immediately the finest change in accelerator-pedal setting, All points. which the sophisticated handling qualities of amodem-day autome The Electronic Diesel Control. (EDO) also plays a decisive role in the overall. improvement of the —diese-engine passenger ‘The following pages will deal with the design and construction of the VE distributor pump, and how it adapts injected fuel quantity, sta and duration of injection to the different engine operating conditions. sel engine i the ~ passenger car Combustion in the diesel engine The diesel engine 2 Distributor injection pumps VE Fuel-injection systems, fuel-injection technology 4 Fuel supply and delivery 8 Mechanical engine-speed control (governing) 18 Injection timing 25 ‘Add-on modules and shutoff devices 28 Testing and calibration at Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) _42 Peripheral equipment for diesel fuel-injection systems Nozzles and nozzle holders 48 Auxiliary starting devices for diesel engines (starting aids 54 Combustion in the diesel ‘engine Combustion in the diesel engine The diesel engine Diesel combustion principle The diesel engine is a compression- ignition (Cl) engine. Being as Cl engines only draw in ait, they are able to compress this to a level which is considerably higher than that in the sparicignition (SI) engine using an air- fuel mixture. In addition, the SI engine is also sensitive to knock. With its overall efficiency figure, the diesel engine rates fas the most efficient combustion engine (CE). Large, slow-running models can have efficiency figures of as much as 50% or even more. The resulting ow fuel consumption, coupled with the low level of pollutants in the exhaust gas and the considerably reduced level of noise, all serve to underline the diesel engine's significance. The diesel engine can utilise either the 4 or 2-stroke principle. In automotive applications though, diesels are practically always of the 4-stroke type (Fig. 1) Working cycle (4-stroke) During the first stroke, the downward movement of the piston draws. in unthrottied air through the open intake valve, During the second stroke, the so-called compression stroke, the air trapped in the cylinder is compressed by the piston which is now moving upwards. Com- pression ratios are between 14:1 and 24:1. In the process, the air heats up to temperatures around 800°C. At the end of the compression stroke the nozzle injects fuel into the heated air at press- ures of up to 1500 bar. Following the ignition delay, at the be- ginning of the third stroke the finely atomized fuel ignites as a result of auto- ignition and bums almost completely. ‘The cylinder charge heats up even fur- ther and the cylinder pressure increases again. The energy released by the igni- tion is applied to the piston. The piston is forced downwards and the combustion energy is transformed into ‘mechanical energy. In the fourth stroke, Fig. 1: 4-stroke diesel engine 1 2 {induction soko, 2 Compression stroke, 9 Working stroke, 4 Exhaust stroke. 2 ‘