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ABSTRACT in demand for high-speed multimedia wireless
services. Advances in channel coding made it
W11 In this treatise we investigate the design alter- feasible to approach Shannon’s capacity limit in
natives of different multiple-input multiple-out- systems equipped with a single antenna [1], but
put schemes while considering the attainable fortunately these capacity limits can be further
diversity gains, multiplexing gains, and beam- extended with the aid of multiple antennas.
W1LAA forming gains. Following a brief classification of Recently, multiple-input multiple-output
Beamformer different MIMO schemes, where the different (MIMO) systems have attracted considerable
MIMO schemes are categorized as diversity research attention and it is considered as one of
techniques, multiplexing schemes, multiple the most significant technical breakthroughs in
AAm access arrangements, and beamforming tech- contemporary communications.
niques, we introduce the family of multifunction- Explicitly, MIMO schemes can be categorized
al MIMOs. These multifunctional MIMOs are as diversity techniques, multiplexing schemes,
AA(Nt-mK) capable of combining the benefits of several multiple access methods, and beamforming as
MIMO schemes and hence attaining improved well as multifunctional MIMO arrangements, as
performance in terms of both their bit error rate shown in Fig. 1. Diversity is the technique where
X as well as throughput. The family of multifunc- the receiver receives several replicas of the same
WN 1 tional MIMOs combines the benefits of both transmitted signal, while assuming that at least
space-time coding and the Bell Labs layered some of them are not severely attenuated. Spa-
The authors space-time scheme as well as those of beam- tial diversity can be attained by employing multi-
forming. We also introduce the idea of layered ple antennas at the transmitter or the receiver.
investigate the steered space-time spreading, which combines Multiple antennas can be used to transmit and
the benefits of space-time spreading, V-BLAST, receive appropriately encoded replicas of the
design alternatives of and beamforming with those of the generalized same information sequence in order to achieve
different multiple- multicarrier direct sequence code-division multi- diversity and hence obtain an improved bit error
ple access concept. Additionally, we compare the rate (BER) performance. On the other hand,
input multiple-output attainable diversity, multiplexing, and beamform- multiplexing techniques were designed in order
ing gains of the different MIMO schemes in to improve the attainable spectral efficiency of
schemes while order to document the advantages of multifunc- the system by transmitting the signals indepen-
tional MIMOs over conventional MIMO dent of each of the transmit antennas. In the
considering the schemes. context of diversity and multiplexing techniques,
the antennas are spaced as far apart as possible
attainable diversity so that the signals transmitted to or received by
gains, multiplexing the different antennas experience independent
MULTIPLE-OUTPUT SYSTEMS fading, and hence we attain the highest possible
gains, and beam- diversity or multiplexing gain. Additionally, mul-
Recently, there has been an urgent demand for tiple antennas can also be used in order to
forming gains. flexible and bandwidth-efficient transceivers improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the
capable of supporting the explosive expansion of receiver or the signal-to-interference-plus-noise
the Internet and the continued dramatic increase ratio (SINR) in a multi-user scenario. This can
be achieved by employing beamforming tech-
niques, where the antenna gain is increased in
The financial support of Vodafone under the auspices of the direction of the desired user, whilst reducing
the Dorothy Hodgkin postgraduate award and that of the the gain towards the interfering users.
European Community under Seventh Framework Pro- A simple spatial diversity technique, which
gramme grant agreement ICT OPTIMIX nINFSO-ICT- does not involve any loss of bandwidth, is consti-
214625 is gratefully acknowledged. tuted by the employmexnt of multiple antennas

IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2010 1536-1284/10/$25.00 © 2010 IEEE 73

HANZO LAYOUT 4/8/10 12:55 PM Page 74

at the receiver, where several techniques can be alize the concept of transmit diversity schemes
employed for combining the independently fad- to more than two transmit antennas, contriving
ing signal replicas. In case of narrowband fre- the generalized concept of orthogonal space-
quency-flat fading, the optimum combining time block codes (OSTBCs). The family of OST-
strategy in terms of maximizing the SNR at the BCs is capable of attaining the same diversity
combiner output is maximum ratio combining gain as space-time trellis codes (STTC) [4] at
(MRC). Additionally, other combining tech- lower decoding complexity when employing the
niques have been proposed in the literature, as same number of transmit antennas. However, a
shown in Fig. 1, including equal gain combining disadvantage of OSTBCs when compared to
(EGC) and selection combining (SC). All three STTCs is that they employ unsophisticated repe-
combining techniques are said to achieve full tition coding and hence provide no coding gain.
diversity order, which is equal to the number of Furthermore, inspired by the philosophy of
receive antennas. STBCs, Hochwald et al. [6] proposed the trans-
On the other hand, several transmit — rather mit diversity concept known as space-time
than receive — diversity techniques have also spreading (STS) for the downlink of wideband
been proposed in the literature [2–5], as shown code-division multiple access (WCDMA) that is
in Fig. 1. In [2] Alamouti proposed a witty trans- capable of achieving the highest possible trans-
mit diversity technique using two transmit anten- mit diversity gain.
nas, the key advantage of which was the Regretfully, the OSTBC and STS designs of
employment of low-complexity single-receive- [3, 6] contrived for more than two transmit
antenna-based detection, which avoids the more antennas result in a reduction of the achievable
complex joint detection of multiple symbols. The throughput per channel use when complex-val-
decoding algorithm proposed in [2] can be gen- ued constellations are used. An alternative idea
eralized to an arbitrary number of receive anten- invoked for constructing full-rate STBCs for
nas using MRC, EGC, or SC. Alamouti’s complex-valued modulation schemes and more
achievement inspired Tarokh et al. [3] to gener- than two antennas was suggested in [7]. Here the
strict constraint of perfect orthogonality was
relaxed in favor of achieving a higher data rate.
The resultant STBCs were referred to as quasi-
MIMO techniques orthogonal STBCs [7].
The OSTBC and STS designs offer — at best
— the same data rate as an uncoded single-
Diversity techniques antenna system, but they provide improved BER
performance compared to the family of single-
Receive diversity antenna-aided systems, since they attain a diver-
Maximum ratio combining (MRC) sity gain. In contrast to this, several high-rate
space-time transmission schemes having a nor-
Equal gain combining (EGC) malized rate higher than unity have been pro-
Selection combining (SC) posed in the literature. For example, high-rate
space-time codes that are linear in both space
Transmit diversity and time, the family of so-called linear disper-
sion codes (LDCs), was proposed in [5]. LDCs
STBC strike a flexible trade-off between emulating
STS space-time coding and/or spatial multiplexing.
STTC The attractive concept of LDCs invokes a matrix-
based linear modulation framework, where each
LDC space-time transmission matrix is generated by a
Quasi-orthogonal STBC linear combination of so-called dispersion matri-
ces, and the weights of the components are
determined by the transmitted symbol vector.
Multiplexing techniques OSTBCs and STTCs are capable of providing
an attractive diversity gain for the sake of
BLAST improving the achievable system performance.
However, this BER performance improvement is
Multiple access techniques often achieved at the expense of a rate loss,
since OSTBCs and STTCs may result in a
throughput loss compared to single-antenna-
Beamforming techniques aided systems. As a design alternative, a specific
class of MIMO systems was designed for improv-
ing the attainable spectral efficiency of the sys-
Beamformers designed for SNR gain
tem by transmitting different parallel signal
Beamformers designed for interference suppression streams independently over each of the transmit
antennas, hence resulting in a multiplexing gain.
Beamforming techniques This class of MIMOs subsumes Bell Labs’ lay-
ered dpace-yime (BLAST) scheme and its rela-
tives [8]. The BLAST scheme aims to increasie
LSSTS the system throughput in terms of the number of
bits per symbol that can be transmitted in a
given bandwidth at a given integrity.
Figure 1. Classification of MIMO techniques. In contrast to the family of BLAST schemes,

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where multiple antennas are activated by a sin-

gle user for increasing the user’s throughput,
space-division multiple access (SDMA) [9]
employs multiple antennas for the sake of sup- W11
porting multiple users. SDMA exploits the
unique user-specific channel impulse responses X
(CIRs) of different users to separate their W1LAA
received signals.
On the other hand, in beamforming arrange- Beamformer DOA

ments [9] typically λ/2-spaced antenna elements Rx1
are used for the sake of creating a spatially

AAm Rx2
selective transmitter/receiver beam, where λ rep- 1

resents the carrier’s wavelength. Beamforming is B

employed for providing angular receiver selectiv-
ity by mitigating the effects of various interfering AA(Nt-mK)
signals, provided that they arrive from sufficient-
ly different angular directions. Additionally, BK RxNr

beamforming is capable of suppressing the X
effects of co-channel interference, hence allow- WNt1
ing the system to support multiple users by angu- AANt
larly separating them. Again, this angular
separation becomes feasible only on condition
that the corresponding users are separable in WNtLAA
terms of the angle of arrival of their beams. Beamformer DOA
Finally, multifunctional MIMOs, as the term
suggests, combine the benefits of several MIMO
schemes including diversity gains, multiplexing Figure 2. Multi-functional MIMO system block diagram.
gains, and beamforming gains. As mentioned
earlier, V-BLAST is capable of achieving the
maximum attainable multiplexing gain, while for attaining the maximum achievable multiplex-
STBC may attain the maximum achievable ing gain equal to the number of transmit anten-
antenna diversity gain facilitated by the number nas. Additionally, beamforming schemes have
of independently fading diversity channels. been designed in order to attain an SNR gain.
Hence, it was proposed in [10] to combine these Therefore, the appealing concept of multifunc-
two techniques in order to provide both antenna tional MIMO schemes designed for combining
diversity and spectral efficiency gains. On the the benefits of STBC, BLAST, and beamforming
other hand, in [11] the authors presented a schemes arises in order to provide diversity, mul-
transmission scheme referred to as double space- tiplexing, and SNR gains.
time transmit diversity (D-STTD), which consists Figure 2 shows the block diagram of a gener-
of two STBC layers at a transmitter equipped al multifunctional MIMO scheme that can com-
with four transmit antennas, while the receiver is bine the benefits of space-time coding (STC),
equipped with two antennas. Furthermore, in BLAST, and beamforming. The system’s archi-
order to achieve additional performance gains, tecture seen in the figure has Nt transmit anten-
beamforming has been combined with both spa- na arrays (AAs) spaced sufficiently far apart in
tial diversity as well as spatial multiplexing tech- order to experience independent fading, and
niques. STBC has been combined with hence achieve transmit diversity and/or multi-
beamforming in order to attain an improved plexing. The L AA number of elements of each
SNR gain in addition to the diversity gain [12, AA is spaced at a distance of λ/2 for the sake of
13]. achieving a beamforming gain. Furthermore, the
This contribution provides a lighthearted per- receiver is equipped with Nr antennas. According
spective on further research advances in the field to Fig. 2, a block of B input information symbols
of multifunctional MIMO systems, and demon- is serial-to-parallel converted to K groups of
strates how diversity, multiplexing, and beam- symbol streams of length B 1, B 2, … , B K, where
forming gains are achieved by multifunctional B1 + B2 + … + BK = B. Each group of Bk sym-
MIMOs. More explicitly, in the next section we bols, k ∈ [1,K], is then encoded by a component
elaborate on the design of multifunctional space-time code STCk associated with mk trans-
MIMO schemes and describe the evolution of mit AAs, where m1 + m2 + … + mK = Nt.
the idea of multifunctional MIMO systems. We The STC employed can be OSTBC, STTC, or
quantify the achievable performance of the dif- STS for the sake of attaining a diversity gain.
ferent MIMO schemes. A comparison of the dif- The data transmitted from each component STC
ferent MIMO schemes expressed in terms of is independent of the data transmitted from all
their diversity, multiplexing, and beamforming the other STCs, which results in a multiplexing
gains is then presented, followed by our conclu- gain, where the throughput of the multifunction-
sions in the final section. al MIMO scheme is K times that of a scheme
employing a single STC. The multiplexing gain is
MULTIFUNCTIONAL MIMO SYSTEMS attained by considering each STC as a layer in a
BLAST scheme. Furthermore, the data is trans-
Space-time codes have been designed for the mitted using antenna arrays that can be used for
sake of attaining the highest possible diversity attaining a beamforming gain.
gain, while the V-BLAST scheme was designed In [10] a dual-functional MIMO scheme was

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One configuration proposed that combines the benefits of V-

BLAST and OSTBC. The scheme presented in
interference cancellation procedure can be gen-
eralized to arbitrary Nt and K values.
can employ two four- [10] considered transmissions over OSTBCs The proposed scheme is applicable to arbi-
where several parallel OSTBC blocks were capa- trary STCs and an arbitrary number of layers K.
antenna-aided STCs, ble of transmitting independent data. Hence, the For example, for N t = 3 transmit antennas, a
scheme of [10] was capable of attaining the twin-antenna-assisted STC can be employed in
while another diversity gain of the OSTBC as well as the multi- parallel with a single-antenna-aided transmission
plexing gain due to using several independent scheme. On the other hand, for a scheme
configuration may OSTBC layers. However, a drawback of the employing N t = 8 transmit antennas, several
employ four twin- scheme in [10] was that the decoder implement-
ed group successive interference cancellation
configurations can be considered. One configu-
ration can employ two four-antenna-aided STCs,
antenna-aided STCs. (GSIC) that did not take into account the anten- while another configuration may employ four
na-specific received signal power at the different twin-antenna-aided STCs. The favored configu-
The favored OSTBC layers for the sake of ordering the layers ration will depend on the specific application as
before interference cancellation. well as on the required performance and
configuration will On the other hand, dual-functional MIMO throughput.
schemes that combine STBC with beamforming The LSSTC scheme is characterized by a
depend on the were proposed in [12, 13]. These schemes bene- diversity gain, a multiplexing gain, and a beam-
specific application fit from the diversity gain of the STBCs and the
SNR gain of the beamformer. In [12] the authors
forming gain. However, a drawback of the
LSSTC design is the fact that the number of
as well as on the combined conventional transmit beamforming receive antennas Nr should be at least equal to
with OSTBC, assuming that the transmitter has the number of transmit antennas N t for the
required performance partial knowledge of the channel, and derived a interference canceller to work. This condition is
performance criterion for improving the system not very practical for employing shirt-pocket-
and throughput. performance. Furthermore, the scheme present- sized mobile stations (MS) that are limited in
ed in [13] combined the twin-antenna-aided size and complexity. The LSSTC scheme can be
Alamouti STBC with ideal beamforming, where applied in a scenario where two base stations
it was assumed that the transmitter has full (BS) cooperate or a BS is communicating with a
knowledge of the channel as well as the signal’s MIMO-aided laptop. Therefore, in order to
direction of arrival at the receiver in order to allow communication between a BS and an MS
show that the system can attain better perfor- accommodating fewer antennas than the trans-
mance while attaining the maximum achievable mitting BS while employing simple linear
diversity order at a unity rate. receivers, [11] presented a four-transmit two-
Inspired by the performance improvements receive antenna aided scheme that combined the
reported in [10, 12, 13], El-Hajjar et al. proposed benefits of Alamouti’s STBC [2] and V-BLAST
in [14] a trifunctional MIMO scheme that com- [8]. The scheme of [11] was referred to as
bines diversity gain with multiplexing gain and DSTTD and employed a simple linear decoder
beamforming gain. The MIMO scheme of [14] that used fewer antennas than the transmitter.
was referred to as a layered steered space-time The DSTTD receiver employed a two-stage
code (LSSTC), where the parallel data streams decoding algorithm, where the first stage was
were encoded by OSTBC layers, and each layer interference cancellation, in order to cancel any
might have a different OSTBC structure. Addi- interference imposed by each STBC layer on the
tionally, the decoder of the LSSTC scheme other layer. The second decoding stage involved
employed an ordering strategy for decoding the the maximum likelihood decoding of the STBC
different layers in order to improve the achiev- [2].
able performance. Furthermore, in order to allow multiple users
The decoder of the LSSTC scheme may apply to communicate employing a multifunctional
GSIC based on the classic Zero Forcing (ZF) MIMO, the layered steered space-time spread-
algorithm [10] for decoding the received signal. ing (LSSTS) scheme described below can be
The most beneficial decoding order of the STC employed. The LSSTS scheme combines the
layers is determined on the basis of detecting the benefits of V-BLAST, STS, and beamforming
highest-power layer first for the sake of high cor- with generalized multicarrier direct sequence
rect detection probability. For simplicity, let us CDMA (MC DS-CDMA) [15] for the sake of
consider the case of K = 2 OSTBC layers, where achieving a multiplexing gain, a spatial and fre-
layer 1 is detected first, which allows us to elimi- quency diversity gain, and a beamforming gain.
nate the interference caused by the signal of The LSSTS design employs N t = 4 transmit
layer 2. However, the proposed concept is appli- antennas as well as Nr = 2 receive antennas and
cable to arbitrary STCs and to an arbitrary num- a linear receiver to decode the received signal.
ber of layers K. For this reason, the decoder of The system architecture of the LSSTS scheme
layer 1 has to suppress the interference of layer can be seen in Fig. 2 with STS used as the com-
2 originally imposed on layer 1 and generate a ponent STC layers. The LSSTS scheme employs
signal that can be decoded using the STBC two twin-antenna-aided STS layers and N r = 2
detector of [2]. This may be achieved by using receive antennas. The LAA numbers of elements
the GSIC algorithm proposed in [10]. Then the of each AA are spaced at a distance of λ/2 for
decoder subtracts the remodulated contribution the sake of achieving beamforming. The system
of the decoded symbols of layer 1 from the com- can support L users transmitting at the same
posite twin-layer received signal. Finally, the time over the same carrier frequencies, because
decoder applies direct STBC decoding to the they can be differentiated by the user-specific
second layer, since the interference imposed by spreading code —cl, where l ∈ [1,L]. Additionally,
the first layer has been eliminated. This group in the generalized MC DS-CDMA system con-

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sidered, the subcarrier frequencies are arranged

to guarantee that the same STS signal is spread (1Tx, 1Rx) V-BLAST (4Tx, 4Rx)
to and hence transmitted by the specific subcar- STBC (2Tx, 1Rx) LSSTC (4Tx, 4Rx)
1 STBC (4Tx, 4Rx)
riers having the maximum possible frequency LAA=1
separation so that they experience independent LAA=4
fading and achieve the maximum attainable fre- LSSTS (4Tx, 2Rx)
quency diversity. 10-1 LAA=1
The LSSTS system employs the generalized V=4
MC DS-CDMA scheme of [15], where the input
data is serial-to-parallel converted to two paral- 10-2

lel streams that are transmitted using twin-
antenna-aided STS [6]. The transmitted signal is
spread to the two transmit antennas with the aid 10-3
of the orthogonal spreading codes of {c—l,1 —cl,2}, l
= 1, 2, …, L. The spreading codes —c l,1 and —c l,2
are generated from the same user-specific 10-4
spreading code —cl as in [6].
The output of the two STS blocks modulate a
group of subcarriers, where the subcarrier sig-
10-5 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
nals are superimposed on each other in order to
form the complex-valued modulated signal for Eb/N0 [dB]
transmission. Finally, according to the lth user’s
channel information, the signal of the lth user is Figure 3. BER performance comparison of the SISO, STBC, V-BLAST,
weighted by the transmit beamformer weight LSSTC, and LSSTS schemes, while communicating over a correlated
vector determined for each subcarrier of the lth Rayleigh fading channel associated with a normalized Doppler frequency of
user, which is generated for the nth AA. Assum- fd = 0.01.
ing that the system employs a modulation
scheme transmitting D b/symbol, the bandwidth
efficiency of the LSSTS aided generalized MC lar, which suggests that V-BLAST does not attain
DS-CDMA system is given by 2D b/channel use. a high diversity gain, but is capable of attaining a
Assuming that the K users’ data are transmit- high multiplexing gain. Additionally, Fig. 3 shows
ted synchronously over a dispersive Rayleigh that the STBC system employing (Nt,Nr) = (2,1)
fading channel, decoding is carried out in two attains better BER performance than the SISO
steps. First, interference cancellation is per- and V-BLAST schemes due to the diversity gain
formed according to [11], followed by the STS attained by the STBC. Further diversity gain can
decoding procedure of [6]. Finally, after combin- be attained by the four-antenna-aided STBC
ing the l = 1st user’s identical replicas of the employing four receive antennas, which results in
same signal transmitted by spreading over the a diversity order of 16. As shown in Fig. 3, the
number of subcarriers, the decision variables four-antenna-aided STBC scheme employing
corresponding to the symbols PV transmitted in four receive antennas is capable of attaining
each subblock can be expressed as ~x1 = ∑Vv=1 ~x1,v, around 15 dB gain at a BER of 10 –5 over the
where V is the number of subcarriers employed twin-transmit-antenna-aided STBC system using
by the generalized MC DS-CDMA. Therefore, Nr = 1. However, a drawback of the four-anten-
the decoded signal has a diversity order of 2V. na-aided system, while employing complex-valued
More explicitly, second order spatial diversity is constellations, is that it results in a throughput
attained from the STS operation, and a diversity loss where four symbols are transmitted in eight
order of V is achieved as a benefit of spreading time slots, resulting in a rate of 1/2.
by the generalized MC DS-CDMA scheme, Observe in Fig. 3 that the LSSTS scheme
where the subcarrier frequencies are arranged in employing (N t ,N r ) = (4,2) and V = 1 attains
such a way as to guarantee that the same STS identical BER performance to that of the twin-
signal is spread to and hence transmitted by the transmit-antenna-aided STBC system. This
specific V number of subcarriers having the max- means that the LSSTS scheme employing V = 1
imum possible frequency separation, so they has a diversity order of 2 similar to the twin-
experience as independent fading as possible. antenna-aided STBC. On the other hand, the
LSSTS scheme attains twice the throughput of
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION the twin-transmit-antenna- aided STBC scheme.
In this section we compare the BER perfor- Additionally, when V is increased from 1 to 4,
mance of the different MIMO schemes to that the achievable BER performance improves due
of the classic single-input single-output (SISO) to the additional frequency diversity gain
system. We compare binary phase shift keying attained.
(BPSK) modulated systems, while considering A further performance improvement is
transmissions over correlated Rayleigh fading attained by the LSSTC scheme in conjunction
channels associated with a normalized Doppler with (N t ,N r ) = (4,4) compared to the LSSTS
frequency of 0.01. scheme. The LSSTC scheme employs more
According to Fig. 3, the V-BLAST system antennas than the LSSTS scheme and hence
employing (Nt,Nr) = (4,4) antennas has slightly attains both a higher diversity order as well as
better BER performance than the SISO system, better BER performance. Furthermore, Fig. 3
despite its quadrupled throughput. Also observe shows the performance improvements attained
in Fig. 3 that the slope of the BER curves of by beamforming, where the LSSTC scheme
both the V-BLAST and SISO systems are simi- employing LAA = 4 attains around 6 dB perfor-

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The design of the Nt Nr LAA V

Number Diversity Multiplexing Beamforming
of layers order order gain
MIMO scheme will 2 Nr 1 1 1 2 × Nr 1 1

depend on the OSTBC 4 Nr 1 1 1 4 × Nr 1/2 1

application 8 Nr 1 1 1 8 × Nr 1/2 1
considered and on
2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
the number of V-BLAST
4 4 1 1 4 1 4 1
antennas that can be ZF-SIC
afforded on the 8 8 1 1 8 1 8 1

transmitter and 4 4 LAA 1 2 4 2 LAA

receiver. LSSTC 8 8 LAA 1 2 16 1 LAA

8 8 LAA 1 4 4 4 LAA

LSSTS 4 2 LAA V 2 2×V 2 LAA

Table 1. Comparison of the gains achieved by various MIMO schemes.

mance improvement at a BER of 10 –5 over its Table 1 compares the diversity, multiplexing,
counterpart employing L AA = 1, provided that and beamforming gains of the different MIMO
the direction of arrival (DOA) is perfectly schemes for different configurations. In Table 1
known. Finally, a comparison between the STBC Nt and Nr stand for the number of transmit and
and LSSTC schemes using (Nt,Nr) = (4,4) reveals receive antennas, respectively, while LAA repre-
that the STBC arrangement attains better per- sents the number of elements per transmit AA
formance than the LSSTC scheme employing and V denotes the number of subcarriers
L AA = 1. This is due to the fact that the STBC employed by the generalized MC DS-CDMA sys-
scheme has a higher diversity gain, while the tem. Additionally, the number of layers repre-
LSSTC scheme attains a throughput four times sents the number of antenna layers used for
that of its STBC counterpart. transmitting different data symbols at the same
Therefore, the design of the multifunctional time for the sake of attaining a multiplexing gain.
MIMO scheme will depend on the application As shown in Table 1, the OSTBC schemes
considered and the number of antennas that can are capable of attaining a full diversity order of
be afforded on the transmitter and receiver. For (N t × N r ), while achieving no multiplexing or
example, as mentioned previously, for a hand- beamforming gain. In contrast, in the case of
held device the LSSTC scheme is not a practical four- and eight-antenna-aided OSTBC schemes
choice due to the limited size and complexity of employing complex-valued constellations, the
the small device. On the other hand, the LSSTS multiplexing gain is 1/2, resulting in half the
scheme can be considered a good choice for a throughput of the SISO scheme. For example, in
system with a small-sized receiver that requires the four-antenna-aided OSTBC scheme, four
high robustness and throughput. symbols are transmitted in eight time slots; simi-
larly for the eight-antenna aided STBC scheme,
eight complex-valued symbols are transmitted in
DIVERSITY AND MULTIPLEXING OF 16 time slots. On the other hand, as shown in
MIMO SYSTEMS Table 1, the V-BLAST scheme can attain a mul-
tiplexing gain of Nt, since the different antennas
According to our previous discussions, different transmit different symbols in the same time slot.
MIMO schemes have different structures and For example, for the V-BLAST scheme employ-
hence different BER as well as throughput per- ing (N t ,N r ) = (4,4), the transmitter transmits
formance. Explicitly, the OSTBC scheme is four different symbols from the four different
capable of attaining the highest possible spatial antennas in the same time slot, which results in a
diversity gain while having no multiplexing gain; quadrupled multiplexing gain in comparison to
in fact, some STBC structures result in through- that of the SISO scheme. Observe in Table 1
put loss. On the other hand, the V-BLAST that the diversity order of V-BLAST employing
scheme is capable of achieving the maximum ZF-SIC is 1 for different (Nt,Nr) configurations.
possible multiplexing gain while attaining low The diversity order of the V-BLAST scheme
diversity gain, depending on the choice of V- employing ZF-SIC is (Nr – Nt + 1).
BLAST decoder employed. Furthermore, several The LSSTC scheme combines the benefits of
multifunctional MIMO schemes that can attain a STBC, V-BLAST, and beamforming, as dis-
combination of diversity, multiplexing, and cussed earlier. This becomes clear in Table 1,
beamforming gains have been introduced. where it is shown that the LSSTC scheme attains

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[5] B. Hassibi and B. M. Hochwald, “High-Rate Codes that

a diversity gain, a multiplexing gain, and a beam-
forming gain. In the case of the (Nt,Nr) = (4,4) Are Linear in Space and Time,” IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, A comparison
vol. 48, July 2002, pp. 1804–24.
configuration, two twin-antenna STBC layers are [6] B. Hochwald, T. L. Marzetta, and C. B. Papadias, “A between the BER
implemented, which results in a diversity order Transmitter Diversity Scheme for Wideband CDMA Sys-
of 4 and a multiplexing order of 2. This is due to tems Based on Space-Time Spreading,” IEEE JSAC, vol.
19, no. 1, 2001, pp. 48–60.
performance as well
the fact that four symbols are transmitted from
the four transmit antennas in two time slots.
[7] H. Jafarkhani, “A Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block
Code,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 1, 2001, pp. 1–4.
as the diversity,
Additionally, when L AA elements are used per [8] P.W. Wolniansky et al., “V-BLAST: An Architecture for
AA, a beamforming gain can be attained. In the Realizing Very High Data Rates over the Rich-Scattering multiplexing, and
Wireless Channel,” Int’l. Symp. Signals, Sys., Electronics,
(N t ,N r ) = (8,8) configuration, two different
schemes can be implemented. The first scheme
Pisa, Italy, Sept. 1998, pp. 295–300. beamforming gains
[9] L. Hanzo, J. Blogh, and S. Ni, 3G, HSPA and FDD versus
is a two-layer one with each layer consisting of a TDD Networking: Smart Antennas and Adaptive Modu-
lation, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2008.
of the different
four-antenna STBC scheme. The other configu-
ration employs four layers of the twin-antenna [10] V. Tarokh et al., “Combined Array Processing and
Space-Time Coding,” IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 45,
MIMO schemes
STBC scheme. The two configurations result in no. 4, 1999, pp. 1121–28.
the different diversity and multiplexing gains [11] E. N. Onggosanusi, A. G. Dabak, and T. A. Schmidl, reveals that multi-
shown in Table 1. “High Rate Space-Time Block Coded Scheme: Perfor-
Finally, in the LSSTS scheme four transmit mance and Improvement in Correlated Fading Chan- functional MIMOs
nels,” IEEE WCNC, vol. 1, Mar. 2002, pp. 194–99.
and two receive antennas are employed, where
the transmit antennas are separated into two
[12] G. Jongren, M. Skoglund, and B. Ottersten, “Combin-
ing Beamforming and Orthogonal Space-Time Block
are capable of
STS layers. The diversity order achieved by the Coding,” IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 48, Mar. 2002,
pp. 611–27.
attaining an improved
LSSTS scheme is (2 × V) as discussed earlier. [13] J. Liu and E. Gunawan, “Combining Ideal Beamform-
The multiplexing order of the LSSTS scheme is ing and Alamouti Space-Time Block Codes,” Elect. Lett., performance over
2, since four symbols are transmitted in two time vol. 39, Aug. 2003, pp. 1258–59.
slots. Moreover, the LSSTS scheme is capable of [14] L. Hanzo et al., Near-Capacity Multi-Functional MIMO the now classic
Systems: Sphere-Packing, Iterative Detection and Coop-
attaining a beamforming gain when LAA > 1 ele-
ments per AA are used.
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[15] L.-L. Yang and L. Hanzo, “Performance of Generalized
stand-alone STBC
Multicarrier DS-CDMA over Nakagami-m Fading Channels,”
CONCLUSION IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, June 2002, pp. 956–66.

In this article a brief classification of the family
of MIMO schemes is presented based on their MOHAMMED EL-HAJJAR received his B.Eng. degree (with dis-
tinction) in electrical engineering from the American Uni-
attainable diversity, multiplexing, and beamform- versity of Beirut (AUB), Lebanon, and an M.Sc. degree
ing gains. We also investigate the design of the (with distinction) in radio frequency communication sys-
novel class of multifunctional MIMO schemes tems from the University of Southampton, United King-
that are capable of combining the benefits of dom. Since October 2005 he has been working toward his
Ph.D. degree with the Communications Group, School of
several MIMO schemes and hence attaining Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southamp-
diversity, multiplexing, and beamforming gains. ton. He is the recipient of several academic awards from
More explicitly, we introduce the dual-functional AUB as well as the University of Southampton. His research
MIMO scheme of [10] followed by the LSSTC interests include sphere packing modulation, space-time
coding, differential space-time spreading, adaptive
scheme that combines the benefits of STBC, V- transceiver design, and cooperative communications. In
BLAST, and beamforming. Then we discuss the 2008 he completed his Ph.D. thesis and joined Ensigma in
design of the DSTTD followed by the LSSTS Chepstow, Wales, United Kingdom as a wireless system
arrangement that combines the advantages of architect.
STS, V-BLAST, and beamforming with those of LAJOS HANZO [F] (, FREng, FIET, received
generalized MC DS-CDMA while supporting his degree in electronics in 1976, his doctorate in 1983,
multiple users. Finally, a comparison between and his D.Sc. degree in 2004. During his 34-year career in
the BER performance as well as the diversity, telecommunications he has held various research and aca-
demic posts in Hungary, Germany, and the United King-
multiplexing, and beamforming gains of the dif- dom. Since 1986 he has been with the School of Electronics
ferent MIMO schemes reveals that multifunc- and Computer Science, University of Southampton, where
tional MIMOs are capable of attaining improved he holds the chair in telecommunications. He has co-
performance over the now classic standalone authored 19 Wiley-IEEE Press books on mobile radio com-
munications totaling in excess of 10,000 pages, published
STBC and V-BLAST schemes. 684 research papers at IEEE Xplore, acted as TPC Chair of
IEEE conferences, presented keynote lectures, and been
REFERENCES awarded a number of distinctions. Currently he is directing
[1] L. Hanzo, T. H. Liew, and B. L. Yeap, Turbo Coding, an academic research team working on a range of research
Turbo Equalisation and Space Time Coding for Trans- projects in the field of wireless multimedia communica-
mission over Fading Channels, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2002. tions sponsored by industry, the Engineering and Physical
[2] S. M. Alamouti, “A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) United Kingdom, the
for Wireless Communications,” IEEE JSAC, vol. 16, no. European IST Program, and the Mobile Virtual Centre of
8, 1998, pp. 1451–58. Excellence (VCE), United Kgindom. He is an enthusiastic
[3] V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space- supporter of industrial and academic liaison, and he offers
time Block Codes from Orthogonal Designs,” IEEE a range of industrial courses. He is also an IEEE Distin-
Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 45, no. 5, 1999, pp. 1456–67. guished Lecturer as well as a Governor of both the IEEE
[4] V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-Time Communications Society and the VTS. He is the acting Edi-
Codes for High Data Rate Wireless Communication: Perfor- tor-in-Chief of IEEE Press. For further information on
mance Criterion and Code Construction,” IEEE Trans. Info. research in progress and associated publications please
Theory, vol. 44, Mar. 1998, pp. 744–65. refer to

IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2010 79