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4/6/2019 Zemun - Wikipedia

Coordinates: 44°51′N 20°24′E

Zemun
Zemun (Serbian Cyrillic: Земун, pronounced [zěmuːn]) is a municipality of the city of Belgrade.
Zemun was a separate town that was absorbed into Belgrade in 1934. The development of New
Zemun
Земун
Belgrade in the late 20th century affected the expansion of the continuous urban area of Belgrade.
Municipality
According to the 2011 census results, the municipality of Zemun has a population of 168,170
inhabitants.

Contents Flag
Coat of arms
Name
History
Geography
Lagums
Neighbourhoods and suburbs
Demographics
Ethnic groups
Administration
Economy
Transportation
Panoramic views Location of Zemun within the city
of Belgrade
Architecture, culture and education
Coordinates: 44°51′N 20°24′E
Sport
International relations
Country Serbia
Twin towns — Sister cities City Belgrade
Notable residents Settlements 4
See also Government
References • Mayor Dejan Matić
Bibliography (SNS)

External links Area[1]


• Municipality 149.77 km2
(57.83 sq mi)
Name Population
• Municipality 168,170[2]
In ancient times, the Celtic and Roman settlement was known as Taurunum. The Frankish
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
chroniclers of the Crusades mentioned it as Mallevila, a toponym from the 9th century. This was
• Summer (DST) UTC+2
also a period when the Slavic name Zemln was recorded for the first time. Believed to be derived
(CEST)
from the word zemlja, meaning soil, it was a basis for all other future names of the city: modern
Postal code 11080
Serbian Земун (Cyrillic) or Zemun (Latin), Hungarian Zimony and German Semlin.
Area code +381(0)11
Car plates BG
History Website www.zemun
The area of Zemun has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. Baden culture graves and .rs (http://ww
ceramics like bowls and anthropomorphic urns were found in the town.[3] Bosut culture graves
w.zemun.rs)
were found in nearby Asfaltna Baza.[4] The first Celtic settlements in Taurunum area originate from
the 3rd century BC when the Scordisci occupied several Thracian and Dacian areas of the Danube. The Scordisci founded both Taurunum and
Singidunum across the Sava, predecessor of modern Belgrade.[5] The Romans came in the 1st century BC, Taurunum became part of the
Roman province of Pannonia around 15 AD. It had a fortress[6] and served as a harbour for the Pannonian (Roman) fleet of Singidunum
(Belgrade).[7] The pen of Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) was said to be found in Taurunum.[8] After the Great Migrations the area

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was under the authority of various peoples and states,


including the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of the
Gepids and the Bulgarian Empire. The town was
conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th
century and in the 15th century it was given as a
personal possession to the Serbian despot Đurađ
Branković. After the nearby Serbian Despotate fell to the
Ottoman Empire in 1459, Zemun became an important
military outpost. In 1521, the forces of the Kingdom of
Roman Sarcophagus
Hungary, 500 šajkaši (river flotilla troops) led by
Croatian Marko Skoblić, and Serbs[9] fought against the
invading Ottoman army of Suleyman the Magnificent. Despite hard resistance, Zemun fell on July
12[10] and Belgrade soon afterwards.[11] In 1541, Zemun was integrated into the Syrmia sanjak of the
Budin pashaluk.
Relief of a maenad, found in Zemun
Zemun and the southeastern Syrmia were conquered by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1717, after the
Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Peterwardein (5 August 1716) and through the Treaty of Požarevac
(German: Passarowitz) became a property of the Schönborn family. In 1736, Zemun was the site of a peasant revolt. Its strategic location near
the confluence of the Sava and the Danube placed it in the center of the continued border wars between the Habsburg and the Ottoman
empires. The Treaty of Belgrade of 1739 finally fixed the border, the Military Frontier was organized in the region in 1746, and the town of
Zemun was granted the rights of a military commune in 1749. In 1754, the population of Zemun included 1,900 Orthodox Christians, 600
Catholics, 76 Jews, and about 100 Romani. In 1777, the population of Zemun numbered 1,130 houses with 6,800 residents, half of which were
ethnic Serbs, while another half of population was composed of Catholics, Jews, Armenians and Muslims. Among Catholic population, the
largest ethnic group were Germans. From this period originates the increased settlement of Germans and Hungarians in the Zemun.

Zemun prospered as an important road intersection and


a border city. The town had a port on the Danube and
was a major fishing center. It is recorded that in 1793, a
700 kg (1,500 lb) heavy Beluga sturgeon was caught.[12]
In 1816 it was greatly expanded by mass resettlement of
Germans and Serbs in the new town suburbs of
1608 painting of Ottoman Zemun Franzenstal and Gornja Varoš, respectively. In the 19th
century, Zemun reached 7,089 residents and 1,310
houses. Zemun also became important in Serbian
history as the refuge for Karađorđe in 1813 as well as
KK 9 kreuzer stamps cancelled
many other people from the nearby Belgrade and the SEMLIN ca 1850 (Banat Military
rest of Karađorđe's Serbia which fell to the Ottoman Frontier)
rule.

During the Revolution of 1848-1849, Zemun was one of the de facto capitals of Serbian Vojvodina, a
Serbian autonomous region within Habsburg Empire, but in 1849, it was returned under the
administration of the Military Frontier. With the abolishment of the Military Frontier in 1882,
Panoramic view of Zemun, 19th Zemun and the rest of Srem was included into Syrmia County of Croatia-Slavonia, which was an
century autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary. The first railway line that
connected it to the west was built in 1883, and the first railway bridge over the Sava followed shortly
thereafter in 1884.

During World War I, Zemun changed hands between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, finally ending up in Serbia on November 5, 1918. The town
became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The inter-war period was marked by political
struggle between the city gentry (organized into the Radical Party, Democratic Party and the Croatian Peasant Party) and the more socialist
parties supported by the ethnic Germans.

In 1934 two intra-city bus lines were introduced connecting Zemun with the parts of Belgrade, and the general shift of attention towards this
issue was supported by the growing Serbian population of Zemun. The Zemun airbases originally built in 1927 were an important geostrategic
objective in the Axis invasion of April 1941. Following the surrender of Yugoslavia that same month, Zemun, along with the rest of Syrmia, was

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given to the Independent State of Croatia. The city was taken from Axis control in 1944, and since then, it is part of Serbian region known as
Central Serbia. The city is now home of the Air force command building, a monumental edifice, situated at 12 Аvijatičarski Square in Zemun,
Belgrade.

Nocturnal cityscape of Zemun's old town

Geography
The Municipality has an area of 153 square kilometres (59 square miles). It is located in
the eastern Syrmia region, in the central-western section of the Belgrade City area. The
urban section of Zemun is the both most northern and western section of the urban
Belgrade. Zemun borders the province of Vojvodina to the west (municipality of Stara
Pazova), and municipalities of Surčin to the south, Novi Beograd to the south-east and
Palilula and Stari Grad across the Danube.

The core of the city are the neighborhoods of Donji Grad, Gardoš, Ćukovac and Gornji
Grad. To the south, Zemun continues into Novi Beograd with which it makes one
continuous urban area (neighborhood of Tošin Bunar). In the west it extends into the
neighborhoods of Altina and Plavi Horizonti and to the north-west into Galenika, View across Zemun to Belgrade
Zemun Polje and further into Batajnica.

Zemun originally developed on three hills, Gardoš, Ćukovac and Kalvarija, on the right bank of the Danube, where the widening of the Danube
begins and the Great War Island is formed at the mouth of the Sava river. Actually, these hills are not natural features. Zemun loess plateau is
the former southern shelf of the ancient, now dried, Pannonian Sea. Modern area of Zemun's Donji Grad was regularly flooded by the Danube
and the water would carve canals through the loess. Citizens would then build pathways along those canals and so created the passages, carving
the hills out of the plateau. After massive 1876 floods, local authorities began the construction of the stony levee along the Danube's bank.
Levee, a kilometer long, was finished in 1889. Today it appears that Zemun is built on several hills, with passages between them turned into
modern streets, but the hills are actually manmade.[13]

Loess cliff "Zemun" was protected by the city on 29 November 2013. It consists of the very steep right bank of the Danube and is a typical
example of the dry land loess. There are four distinguished loess horizons and four horizons of the fossil earth. The horizons developed during
the warmer intervals of the glacials.[14]

The Danube bank in the north is mostly marshy, so the settlements are built further from the river (Batajnica) separated from it by hillocks (up
to 114 m). The city of Zemun itself was built right on the bank, 100 meters above sea level. These are points of the Zemun loess plateau, an
extension of the Syrmia loess plateau, which continues into the crescent-shaped Bežanijska Kosa loess hill on the south-east. The yellow loess is
thick up to 40 meters and very fertile, with rich, grass-improved, humus chernozem. The uninhabited river islands of Great War Island and
Little War Island on the Danube, also belong to the municipality Zemun, too.

In September 2018, Belgrade's mayor Zoran Radojičić announced that the construction of a dam on the Danube, in the Zemun-New Belgrade
area, will start soon. The dam should protect the city during the high water levels.[15][16] Such project was never mentioned before, nor it was
clear how and where it will be constructed, or if it's feasible at all. Radojičić clarified after a while that he was referring to the temporary, mobile

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flood wall. The wall will be 50 cm (20 in) high and 5 km (3.1 mi) long, stretching from the Branko's Bridge across the Sava and the
neighborhood of Ušće in New Belgrade, to the Radecki restaurant on the Danube's bank in the Zemun's Gardoš neighborhood. In case of
emergency, the panels will be placed on the existing construction. The construction is scheduled to start in 2019 and to finish in 2020.[17]

Lagums
One of the characteristics of the Zemun's topography are the lagums, artificial underground
corridors which crisscrosses below the loess area of Gardoš, Muhar, Ćukovac and Kalvarija.
This terrain is one of the most active landslide areas in Belgrade. Being cut into for centuries,
the loess in some sections have cliffs vertical up to 90%. The Romans began digging the
lagums at least as early as 1,700 years ago,[18] using them mostly as the food storages, but later
were also used for supply and eventual hiding and evacuation. In the previous centuries,
settlers left many vertical shafts which ventilated the lagums, drying the loess and keeping it
compact.

The loess is quite useful for this purpose. It is strong and durable just as it is easy to be dug
through. However, mixed with water it turns into the sand. The average temperature in the Entry into one of the lagums
lagums is 16 °C (61 °F)[19]

Though used by the local population as the food storages, during the Ottoman period, Turkish administration didn't use them much. After the
Austrians acquired Zemun, they used the underground for storing the ammunition. In this period, the myths of the entire grid of underground
corridors connecting Zemun and Belgrade under the Sava river originated. However, historians dispute this as, though the Austrians held
Zemun permanently from 1717, they held Belgrade only from 1717 to 1739, which was not enough for such a major engineering enterprise, given
the technology of the period. On 31 July 1938, a section of the Zemun's Roman Catholic cemetery collapsed and fell through into the lagum on
which it was built, one of the largest in Zemun. As people tended to label any old objects "Roman" believing that the ROmans built them, up to
this time they still referred to the corridors as the "Roman" ones.[19]

After World War II, as the city got rapidly urbanized, the new settlers were unaware of the lagums, especially the largest one, which covered an
area of 450 m2 (4,800 sq ft) on Ćukovac. As there was no sufficient sewage system at that time, they built septic tanks and collected rainwater,
but also as the ventilation shafts in time were covered or filled with garbage, it all made the ground wet in the course of several decades. The
lagums retained the moist and began to collapse. Eventually, the walls and houses became unstable to the point of breaking façades and walls.
In 1988 city authorities finally intervened as the houses began to sink in three streets. Holes were drilled to connect the surface with the largest
lagum. Altogether, 22 drillings were made and 779 m3 (27,500 cu ft) of concrete were poured into the lagum, filling it until the ground was
stabilized, but the lagum was destroyed in the process. Still, the situation is critical after almost every downpour. On 29 September 2011, while
constructing the supporting wall which was to prevent landslide in the section of Kalvarija, the construction workers triggered one which killed
four of them. A 225 m (738 ft) long lagum, which was explored by 2001, is located right below the place where the tragedy happened. So far, 76
long corridors have been discovered, with lots of smaller ones. The longest of them is 96 metres (315 ft) long and the total explored length is
1,925 m (6,316 ft). They cover an area of 4,882 m2 (52,550 sq ft). Many have collapsed during time, as they are not being kept since the
1980s.[20][20][21][22][23]

Still, it is believed that the majority of them haven't been discovered or explored. The walls of those which have, are being covered with bricks
or woods. Some corridors ar dead ends while others are connected. The "Galeb" rowing club uses one of the lagums on the bank of the Danube
to store their kayaks.[19]

There are numerous stories about the Zemun's lagums, their distribution and expansion of the grid. The tales of lagums connecting Zemun
with the bank of the Danube, neighboring Bežanija, the Roman well in the Belgrade Fortress and the other parts of Belgrade across the Sava,
became a commonplace in Zemun's and Belgrade's urban mythology. Older myths even included various monsters dwelling below. Still, there
is a historically confirmed story of the house of Živojin Vukojčić, Interbellum industrialist. His son, Dragi Vukojčić, built the underground
rooms in 1943 as a shelter, but the local myths claimed that he had an entire factory below. Still, when the agents from the Communist security
agency OZNA came to arrest him after the war, Vukojčić asked to let him change his clothes. He fled down the lagum to the Danube, and then
via boat and a plane, escaped to Brazil. Latest stories include criminals from the Zemun Clan, who were allegedly hiding in the lagums during
the police Operation Sabre, after they assassinated prime minister Zoran Đinđić on 12 March 2003. In the 21st century, the stories of mythical
creatures are replaced with those of criminals, smugglers, drug addicts and homeless people.[19]

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The lagums remained an important part of the local Zemun identity, preserving the spirit of the town and personal memories. For generations
of the local boys, descending into the lagums, wandering through them and staying below as long as possible, was sort of a coming of age ritual.
Even the name, Zemun, comes from the words zemlja (earth) or zemunica (dug out)[19]

Neighbourhoods and suburbs


The municipality has only two official settlements: (City of) Zemun, which is part of the urban
Belgrade city proper (uža teritorija grada; statistically it is classified as Belgrade-part) and
the village of Ugrinovci (with two hamlets of Grmovac and Busije). Many of the
neighbourhoods developed in the last few decades (Altina, Plavi Horizonti, Kamendin,
Grmovac, Busije, etc.).

Urban:

Map of Zemun municipality

Map of Urban local communities in


Zemun municipality

13. Maj Crveni Gardoš Kalvarija Mala Nova Sava Veliko Zemun
Altina Barjak Gornji Kamendin Pruga Galenika Kovačević Ratno Bačka
Bački Ćukovac Grad Kolonija Malo Novi Sutjeska Ostrvo Zemun
Ilovik Donji Goveđi Zmaj Ratno Grad Šangaj Vojni Polje
Batajnica Grad Brod Lido Ostrvo Plavi Školsko Put I Zemunski
Galenika Jelovac Meandri Horizonti Dobro Vojni Kej
Muhar Retenzija Put II Železnička
Zemun Kolonija
Suburban:

Busije Grmovac Ugrinovci

Demographics
As Zemun grew into one of the most populous neighborhoods of Belgrade, population of the
municipality had a steady growth since World War II. According to the 2011 census, the urban City of Zemun
population of Zemun was 157,363, while the municipality had 168,170 inhabitants. (present borders after
1948)
Ethnic groups Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1921 18,528 —
The ethnic structure of the municipality, according to 2011 census:[24]
1931 28,074 +4.24%
1948 40,428 +2.17%
1953 49,361 +4.07%
1961 72,896 +4.99%
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Ethnic group Population 1971 109,619 +4.16%


1981 135,313 +2.13%
Serbs 147,810
1991 141,952 +0.48%
Romani 5,599 2002 145,632 +0.23%
Croats 1,411 2011 157,363 +0.86%
Source: [2]
Yugoslavs 995
Montenegrins 748
Macedonians 557
Municipality of Zemun
Muslims 496
(present borders)
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
Gorani 383
1948 42,197 —
Hungarians 205 1953 51,089 +3.90%
Slovaks 170 1961 74,791 +4.88%
Bosniaks 170 1971 111,877 +4.11%
1981 138,591 +2.16%
Albanians 165
1991 146,056 +0.53%
Slovenians 156 2002 152,831 +0.41%
Russians 107 2011 168,170 +1.07%
Source: [2]
Germans 98
Ukrainians 85
Bulgarians 81
Romanians 64
Others 8,870
Total 168,170

Administration
The municipality of Zemun became part of the Belgrade City Area (Teritorija grada Beograda) with the division of Yugoslavia into banovinas
by king Alexander I on October 3, 1929. On April 1, 1934, the municipality itself was absorbed into the municipality of Belgrade, so the post of
the president of the municipality of Zemun was abolished and "Zemun section administrator" was appointed to the Belgrade's city government.

Between 1941 and 1944 it was occupied by the German army as part of the East Syrmia Occupation Zone (Okupationsgebiet Ostsyrmien).
Germany technically recognised Zemun and surroundings as part of the Independent State of Croatia puppet regime, but Zemun remained
under direct German rule. During this time the Sajmište concentration camp was established, where over 20000 Jews, Romani and opponents
of the Nazi regime died.

After 1945 Zemun was administratively divided into the City of Zemun and Zemun district (srez), unlike rest of Belgrade which was divided
into raions. In 1955 both City of Zemun and most of the Zemun district were incorporated into Belgrade again. In the 1950s and 1960s,
municipalities of Boljevci and Dobanovci were annexed to the municipality of Surčin while Batajnica was annexed to Zemun itself. In 1965
Surčin was annexed to the municipality of Zemun which marked the largest territorial expansion of Zemun (438 km²). However, on November
24, 2003 Belgrade City assembly voted to re-create the municipality of Surčin, but it remained under the administration of Zemun until
November 3, 2004, when separate municipal government was established after the local elections. A motion for Batajnica to split from Zemun
too was active for a while in the early 2000s (see List of former and proposed municipalities of Belgrade).

Presidents of the municipality:

October 3, 1929 – June 20, 1930: Petar S. Marković


June 20, 1930 – December 8, 1931: Svetislav Popović
December 9, 1931 – March 31, 1934: Miloš Đorić
Administrator of the Zemun section:

1934–April 12, 1941: Nikola Folger


German mayors:

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April 13, 1941–July 1941: Johannes Moser (d. 1980)


July 1941–December 1941: Stefan Seifert
December 1941–October 1944: Johannes Moser (d. 1980)
Partisan military administrator:

October 22, 1944 – October 26, 1944: Milan Žeželj (1917–1995)


Presidents of the municipal assembly:

October 26, 1944 – July 8, 1945: Ljubomir Milovanović


July 8, 1945 – 1947: Dimitrije Anokić
1947–1949: Milenko Jovanović
1949–1950: Božidar Tomić (b. 1914)
1950: Lazar Popov (acting)
1950–1955: Stojan Svilarić (b. 1920)
1955–1958: Branko Pešić (1922–1986)
1958–1962: Aleksandar S. Jovanović
1962–1967: Čedomir Jovićević
1967–1971: Svetozar Papić
1971–1973: Radojko Filipović
1973–1974: Pavle Ilić (acting)
1974–1978: Branko S. Radivojević (b. 1932)
1978–1982: Ilija Kragović
1982–1986: Novak Rodić
1986–1989: Petar Stolica
1989: Dobrivoje Perović
1989–1992: Živko Davidović (b. 1935)
1992–December 1996: Nenad Ribar
December 1996–April 1998: Vojislav Šešelj (b. 1954)
April 1998–October 17, 2000: Stevo Dragišić (b. 1971)
October 17, 2000 – November 4, 2004: Vladan Janićijević (b. 1934)
Presidents of the municipality:

November 4, 2004 – June 4, 2008: Gordana Pop-Lazić (b. 1956)


June 4, 2008 – March 5, 2009: Slavko Jerković (b. 1959)
March 5, 2009 – July 23, 2009: Zdravko Stanković (acting)
July 23, 2009 – July 4, 2013: Branislav Prostran (b. 1976)
July 4, 2013–present: Dejan Matić (b. 1969)

Economy
Zemun is one of the most developed municipalities of Belgrade, with developed industries in almost every branch. Zemun has two large and
still growing industrial zones, one located along the highway and the other one along the road to Batajnica and further to Novi Sad (Galenika,
Goveđi Brod, etc.). Industries include: heavy agricultural machines and appliances (Zmaj), precise and optical instruments and automatized
appliances (Teleoptik), clocks (INSA), busses and other heavy vehicles (Ikarbus), pharmaceuticals (Galenika), plastics (Grmeč), shoes (Obuća
Beograd), textile (TIZ, Zekstra), food, candies and chocolate (Soko Štark), metals (IMPA, Intersilver), wood and furniture (Gaj, Reprek),
recycling (INOS metali and INOS papir), beverages (Coca-Cola, Navip), chemicals (Roma), building materials (DIA), electronics, leather, etc.
In addition to this dozens of halls, and warehouses are built throughout both industrial zones.

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[25]

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Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 288
Mining 13
Processing industry 10,135
Distribution of power, gas and water 583
Distribution of water and water waste management 328
Construction 2,796
Wholesale and retail, repair 15,279
Traffic, storage and communication 4,909
Hotels and restaurants 2,141
Media and telecommunications 1,323
Finance and insurance 495
Property stock and charter 231
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 2,950
Administrative and other services 1,683
Administration and social assurance 1,116
Education 4,446
Healthcare and social work 4,607
Art, leisure and recreation 1,053
Other services 921
Total 55,300

Transportation

Several important roads of Serbia run through the municipality. The Railways in Zemun municipality
Belgrade-Zagreb highway, the old (Batajnički drum) and new
(highway) road Belgrade-Novi Sad, the still in construction starting to Nova Pazova
Stara Pazova
point (Batajnica-Dobanovci) of the future Belgrade beltway Zemun
(Batajnica-Bubanj Potok), Belgrade-Novi Sad railway, etc. Until
Batajnica
Zemun
Surčin industrial sidings
2014, Zemun had no bridges, apart from the seasonal pontoon bridge
freight bypass to Surčin
which connects the mainland with the Great War Island during
viaduct
summer. The first bridge over the Danube, Pupin Bridge which
connected Zemun to Borča, was completed in 2014. 13. maj
airstrip Kamendin (proposed)
Slobodana
In 1928, building company "Šumadija" proposed the construction of Bajića St.
the cable car, which they called "air tram". The project was planned Zemun Polje
Altina (proposed)
to connect Zemun to Kalemegdan on Belgrade Fortress, via Great
War Island. The interval of the cabins was set at 2 minutes and the to Dobanovci
intchg. TPS Zemun depot
entire route was supposed to last 5 minutes. The project never
viaducts over Expressway
realized.[26]

In March 2016, mayor of Belgrade Siniša Mali announced the IPM Zmaj
massive reconstruction of the Old Sava Bridge.[27][28] However, in Zemun
May 2017, after the project papers were publicized, it was obvious Bežanija tunnel Navip
Zemun N. grad (abandoned)
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that the city actually wanted to demolish the bridge completely and
Zemun
build a new one. Citizens protested while the experts rejected the New Belgrade branch to former Zemun station
reasons named by the authorities, adding that it is a mere money to Tošin bunar to Belgrade
throwing on the unnecessary project.[27][29] Mali said that the old
bridge will not be demolished but moved, and that citizens will decide where, but he gave an idea to move it to Zemun, as the permanent
pedestrian bridge to the Great War Island. In an article "Cloud over the Great War Island", Aleksandar Milenković, member of the Academy of
Architecture of Serbia, opposed the motion. He expressed fear that having in mind the "synchronous ad hoc decisions of the administration",
the reaction should be prompt as the seemingly benign idea is actually a strategically disastrous enterprise (concerning the protected wildlife
on the island). He also suspects that the administration in this case, just as in all previous ones, will neglect the numerous theoretical and
empirical guidelines.[30]

Batajnica Airbase with a limited civil traffic is also located in the municipality, near the Batajnica settlement.

Gradual moving of trains from the Belgrade Main railway station to the new, Prokop station began in the early 2016. In December 2017, all but
two national trains were dislocated to "Belgrade Center".[31] In the scopes of dislocation, a new, central Belgrade freight station is planned in
Zemun. But, the problems arose immediately. The Prokop is still not finished, has no station building and a proper access road and public
transportation connections with the rest of the city. Additionally, it has no facilities for loading and unloading cars from the auto trains nor was
ever planned top have one and this facility is to be a part of the Zemun freight station. Still, in January 2018 it was announced that the Main
station will be completely closed for traffic on 1 July 2018, even though none of the projects needed for a complete dislocation of the railway
traffic are finished. The Prokop is incomplete, a projected main freight station in Zemun is not being adapted at all while there is even no
project on a Belgrade railway beltway.[32]

A series of temporary solutions will have to be applied. One is a defunct and deteriorated Topčider station, which will be revitalized and
adapted for auto trains, until the Zemun station becomes operational. Freight station in Zemun will be located between the already existing
stations Zemun and Zemun Polje, on the area of 35 ha (86 acres). Revitalization of the existing 6 km (3.7 mi) of tracks and 14,500 m2
(156,000 sq ft) of buildings will be followed by the construction of the 17 km (11 mi) of new tracks and additional 18,800 m2 (202,000 sq ft) of
edifices. Deadline is also 2 years, but the works will start at the end of 2018. This means that the planned Belgrade railway junction won't be
finished before 2021, at best. However, minister for transportation, Zorana Mihajlović, in December 2017 gave conflicting deadlines. For the
Zemun station, she said that it should be finished by the end of 2018, even though, as of January 2018, non of the works have started.[32]

Panoramic views

View of the Danube, seen from Zemun quay

Architecture, culture and education


White Bear Tavern is a former kafana in the neighborhood of Ćukovac. First mentioned in 1658, it is the oldest surviving edifice on the urban
territory of modern Belgrade, not counting the Belgrade Fortress.[33] However, Zemun developed completely independently from Belgrade for
centuries and for the most part during the history two towns belonged to two different states. Zemun became part of the same administrative
unit as Belgrade on 4 October 1929,[34] lost a separate town status to Belgrade in 1934[35] and made a continuous built-up area with Belgrade
only since the 1950s. Hence, the House at 10 Cara Dušana Street in Belgrade's downtown neighborhood of Dorćol is usually named as the
oldest house in Belgrade,[36][37] while the White Bear Tavern is titled as the oldest house in Zemun.[38]

The faculty of agriculture of the Belgrade University is located in Zemun, as well as many other important higher schools (Internal affairs,
Economics, Technics and machines, Medicine, Zemun gymnasium) and institutes (Institute for agriculture and forestry, Institute for mining,
world-famous Institute for corn in Zemun Polje, Institute for livestock, Institute for the implementation of the nuclear energy in agriculture,
Institute for physics). Zemun has a Homeland museum and Madlenianum Opera and Theatre.

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Two of Belgrade's major hospitals-clinical centers are located in


Zemun: KBC Zemun and KBC Bežanijska Kosa, as is the retirement
home Bežanijska Kosa, the largest one in Belgrade. Churches
include the Gardoš cemetery church and the Hariš chapel, Saint
Nicholas, Saint Archangel Gabriel and two Roman Catholic
churches.

Zemun is known for many squares, though almost all of them are
small in size: Magistratski, Senjski, Veliki, Branka Radičevića, View of Belgrade
Karađorđev, Masarikov, etc. On one of them, the Zemun open
green market is located. The bank of the Danube is turned into
Zemunski Kej, a kilometers long promenade, with various entertainment facilities along it, including barges-
cafés, amusement park and especially formerly largest hotel in Belgrade, Hotel Jugoslavija.

Gardoš Tower The remnants of the old town which existed during battles between Kingdom of Hungary and Byzantine
Empire in the 12th century are known as Zemunski Grad (Zemun Town). Today visible ruins however are of
the medieval fortress (angular towers and parts of the defending wall) of the 1521 Ottoman siege. The Kula
Sibinjanin Janka (The tower of Janos Hunyadi) or the Millennium tower was built and officially opened on August 20, 1896 to celebrate a
thousand years of Hungarian settlement in the Pannonian plain. The tower was built as a combination of various styles, mostly influenced by
the Roman elements. Being a natural lookout, it was used by Zemun's firemen for decades. Today, the tower is better known after the Janos
Hunyadi, who actually died in the old fortress four and a half centuries before the tower was built. In general, Gardoš is today the most
recognizable symbol of Zemun. For the most part, the neighborhood preserved its old looks, with narrow, still mostly cobblestoned streets
unsuitable for modern vehicles, and individual residential houses.

Zemun is not rich in parks. The largest one is the City park (Gradski park, opened in 1886) and another one is Jelovac in Kalvarija. A small
park on the quay was renovated in November 2007.[39]

Sport
The most popular football club in Zemun is FK Zemun, which plays currently in the Serbian League Belgrade, and Teleoptik Zemun, which
plays currently in the Serbian First league, the second tier of Serbian football league system. Teleoptik is nowadays generally considered
Partizan Belgrade's farm team, with many of Partizan's youth players playing there to gain experience before being promoted to the first team.
The municipality has several smaller stadiums, including those of FK Zemun, the Zemun Stadium. One of Belgrade's major sports halls, the
Pinki Hall, which is Named after Boško Palkovljević Pinki, is also located in Zemun.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities


Zemun is twinned with:[40]

ar-Ram, State of Palestine Corfu, Greece Puteaux, France[41]


Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina Tower Hamlets, United Kingdom Rif Dimashq, Syria
Bitola, North Macedonia Mödling, Austria Tilburg, Netherlands
Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg Offenbach am Main, Germany Velletri, Italy
Herceg Novi, Montenegro Ohrid, North Macedonia Veroia, Greece
Kranj, Slovenia Osijek, Croatia

Notable residents
Judah Alkalai
Dejan Čurović
Ivan Dudić
Aleksandar Karakašević
Saša Kovačević
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Mladen Lazarević
Ljubomir Magaš
Goran Milošević
Zoran Modli
Vladica Popović
Jovan Prokopljević
Ivan Pudar
Radovan Radaković
Slavko Radovanović
Đorđe Simić

See also
Zemun monastery
Subdivisions of Belgrade
List of Belgrade neighborhoods and suburbs

References
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40. "Archived copy" (https://web.archive.org/web/20070927021247/http://www.skgo.org/php/opstine/detalji.php?Id=105&IdSvojstva=MO).
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Bibliography
Mala Enciklopedija Prosveta, Third edition (1985); Prosveta; ISBN 86-07-00001-2
Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije; Svjetlost-Sarajevo; ISBN 86-01-02651-6

External links
Official website (https://zemun.org.rs)
Zemun (http://www.zemunskenovine.rs)
Gardoš Zemun (http://www.360vr.rs/bg-vodic/gardos-zemun.php) 360 Virtual tour
Osnovna škola Gornja Varoš Zemun (http://www.gornjavaros.edu.rs)

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