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discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279702004

CRUSHING VALUE (ACV) AND TEN PERCENT

FINES VALUE (TFV) FOR NIGERIAN AGGREGATES

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Bayero University, Kano

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letting you access and read them immediately. Retrieved on: 19 August 2016

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (JET), VOL.6 NO.1&2, pp.126-131.

PERCENT FINES VALUE (TFV) FOR NIGERIAN AGGREGATES

OKOAUCHE@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

This paper reports an experimental investigation carried out to establish a mathematical relationship

between aggregate crushing value (ACV) and ten percent fines aggregate crushing value (TFV) for

some aggregates in Nigeria. Such a mathematical relationship, usually established through regression

modelling on data collected, is useful in saving time and money cost on site through estimating one

variable when another is known. The tests were performed in accordance with BS 812 (1990) part 110

and 111 on crushed granite, all-in-aggregate (or hoggin known locally as “burji”), river gravel and

slag aggregates. The results obtained show that ACV value for aggregates are 25.04%, 22.70%,

36.13%,and 37.89% for crushed granite, slag , hoggin (all-in aggregate), and river gravel respectively.

This show that the ACV test is not favourable in testing weak aggregates as the ACV is more than 30%

for hoggin and river aggregates. This is consistent with BS 812:110 (1990). The TFV values for the

aggregates are 180kN, 150kN, 120kN and 100kN for slag, crushed granite, hoggin and river aggregate

respectively. A regression correlation of ACV and TFV shows that Nigerian aggregates can be related

with an expression: ACV = 59.452 - 0.211TFV. With this relationship ACV values can be estimated for

weaker aggregates than specified in the Nigerian General Specification for Roads and Bridges work.

Hence weaker aggregates in construction industry may be rated accordingly.

SIGNIFICANCE: The model developed for the values can be estimated for wider range of

relationship between aggregate crushing value aggregates than specified in the Nigerian General

(ACV) and ten percent fines aggregate crushing Specification for Road and Bridge works.

test (TFV) is useful in economics and safety KEYWORDS: Aggregate Crushing Value, Ten-

perspective in the sense that time and money cost percent Fine Value, Aggregates, Regression

on site will be saved or minimized as reliable ACV Models

1. INTRODUCTION

Aggregate is a collective term for minerals such as 110(1990) is a relative measure of the resistance of

sand, gravel and crushed stones, that are used with an aggregate to crushing under the applied

a binding medium (water, cement, bitumen, e.t.c) compressive load. In other word is a value which

to form compound material (asphalt concrete and indicates the ability of an aggregate to resist

Portland cement concrete) . Its use considerably crushing. It is used to determine the crushing value

improves both volume stability and durability of of a given road aggregate also it is used to assess

base and sub-base courses for both flexible and the suitability of aggregate for use in different road

rigid pavements. The quality as well as the pavement. This is not a very effective method in

availability becomes of importance in design the case of soft aggregates for which the ten

consideration where aggregates are needed. In percent fines aggregate crushing test (TFV) is

Nigerian the aggregate impact value (AIV) and recommended (TRL-DFID 2002). The ten percent

aggregate crushing value (ACV) are used in fines have been incorporated in both the British

scrutinizing aggregates to determine their Standard (BSI 812, part 111 1990) and South

suitability for use in road constructional work. The Africa Standard (CSRA 1987) systems and can be

ACV test which is prescribed for strong and hard performed for both strong and weak aggregates.

(2011) (2011)

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (JET), VOL.6 NO.1&2, pp.126-131.

Ten per cent fines load (TFV) and ACV tests are

two well accepted tests for assessing the 𝐴𝐶𝑉 = 38 − 0.08 × 𝑇𝐹𝑉 --- (1)

mechanical properties of aggregates. Both tests are

standardised in the U.K. and carried out in the This model, which is said to be valid in the

same way, on the approximately same amount of strengths of 14 to 30 ACV and 100 to 300 kN

aggregate. As result of inability of ACV test TFV, may not be efficient in Nigerian

method to account for weak /soft aggregates environment.

employed in road construction work, the need to

correlate ACV and TFV test results become 1.2 Justification

necessary. This will also provide for such The only mechanical properties mentioned in the

standards like the Nigerian General Specification Nigerian General Specification for road and bridge

for Road and Bridge works (1997) that has no works (Federal Ministry of Works, 1997) is the

alternate ratings for aggregate strength except the ACV test. This makes the work in this paper

ACV. Shergold and Hosking (1959) showed for a relevant in the Nigerian situation. The requirement

number of materials including two rock types that mentioned in the specification is that the aggregate

the fines versus load relation in the aggregate material to be used for wearing course (top part of

crushing test gave a non-linear relation. They also the surfacing) should have ACV of not more than

suggested that there was a linear relation between 23%. Thus, for the situation where only weak

7.5 to 12.5% fines range, passing through the aggregate which may appear strong to the sight are

coordinates (0 –4) in the fines versus load diagram, available, testing their suitability might pose a

irrespective of rock types. Based on this problem because the ACV test is not suitable for

assumption, they proposed a means of estimating their assessment.

the ten per cent fines load of aggregate from the The aim of this paper is to develop a model of

crushing test. This method was also accepted by relationship between ACV and TFV so that the

the British Standards (BS 812-1975). basis for comparing the strength of aggregate for

The analysis of experimental and published road works may be expanded to include a wider

aggregate test results by Turk and Dearman (1989) range of aggregate than the conventional ACV test

indicate that the fines versus load relation of with its limitation. Embarking on a regression

aggregates is linear and has a varying intercept and modelling exercise presupposes that a major

slope in the fines versus load diagram. Based on hypothesis being tested is that a statically

this concept, a diagram was produced to determine significant relationship exists between the variable

the ACV of aggregates from the ten per cent fines in question. In this work ACV is taken as the

load, or vice versa. In general, an acceptable fit dependent variable and TFV as the independent

was obtained between the best fitting line to the variable. Thus the evaluation of this hypothesis is

test results and the proposed relation except for the based on meeting the level of significance adopted.

ACV greater than 30. Turk and Dearman also What is adopted in this paper is the 5% level,

reported that the proposed relation is not only very which has been described by Osula and Adebisi

simple to apply, but also enables the determination (2001) as the middle of the road approach usually

of any per cent of fines load from a minimum adopted by researchers. The model developed for

number of experiments. Additionally, the proposed the relationship between ACV and ten percent

relation between the ten per cent fines load and the fines aggregate crushing test is useful in

ACV of aggregates increased the applicability of economics and safety perspective in the sense that

the specifications which are often given in terms of time and money cost on site will be saved or

one of the aggregate test results or determination minimized. From such model the relationship in

of an aggregate property from other known ACV can be estimated for weak aggregate than

properties. The British Transport Research specified in the Nigerian General Specification for

Laboratory in its Overseas Road Note 19 (2002) Roads and Bridgeworks for Nigerian aggregate as

proposed a correlation model for ACV and TFV in may be used for low-cost low-quality roads.

the form:

2.1 Materials hoggin(all - in-aggregate). A part from the slag

The aggregate samples used in the laboratory work which was obtained from Nigerian – Spanish Steel

were river gravel, crushed granite, slag and Rolling mill, Sharada Industrial Estate Kano State,

(2011) (2011)

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (JET), VOL.6 NO.1&2, pp.126-131.

Nigeria, all other aggregate were obtained partly aggregate specimen and average calculated and

from dealers and Dantata Quarry sites in Kano, recorded.

NorthWestern Nigeria. The aggregates: hoggin; 2.2.2 Ten Percent Fines (TFV) Test: The

slag; and crushed granite were as defined by Scot apparatus that is used for the ACV test is the same

(1992), Maxlay (1998) and Mohammed (2010) apparatus that is used for the TFV. As with the

respectively. The sample preparation and test were ACV test, the sample was treated in the same

performed in accordance with BS 812, part 110 manner as in the aggregate crushing value test in

and 111 of 1990. The tests carried out were the section 2.2.1. It was placed in a cylindrical mould

ACV and TFV. to a depth of 100mm in 3 layer with each layer

receiving tamping 25 times from a tamping road.

2.2 Methods The top was levelled with the plunger by slight

The sample was sieved through 14 mm and rotation of the plunger while placed on aggregate

retained on 10 mm BS sieve sizes. The aggregate in the mould. The sample, in the mould with

collected on 10 mm was the material of plunger, was placed in the compression testing

importance. These were oven dried at a machine and an arbitrary force value between 100

temperature of 110 degree for a period of 4 hours. – 500 kN was applied. The rate of application was

2.2.1 Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV) Test: controlled so that the maximum force value was

The sample was placed in a cylindrical mould to a achieved in 10 minutes The load was released after

depth of 100 mm in 3 layers, with each layer been this times and the sample passed over the 2.36 mm

tamped 25 times with tamping road. The top was sieve. The weight of the sample passing and

levelled with the plunger by slight rotation of the retained on the sieve were determined and

plunger while placed on aggregate in the mould. recorded. The amount of fines produced was

The sample, in the mould with the plunger was determined by expressing weight of sample

placed in the compression testing machine and passing the sieve as a percentage of the original

compressed at a uniform rate till a force of 400kN mass of sample. The arbitrary value was varied

was applied such that this force was achieved in 10 until such a point when the amount of fines

minutes. The load was released after this time and produced was 10%. The force producing this

the sample was sieved through 2.36mm sieve. The amount of fines was noted as the TFV. Also as

weight of material passing through sieve and that with the ACV tests, three tests were performed for

retained were determined and recorded. This each aggregate specimen, the average recorded as

weight was expressed as a percentage of the the required value for the aggregate concerned.

original mass to give aggregate crushing value

(ACV). This test was performed 3 times for each

The results of the ACV and TFV on each of the ACV reduces with increasing TFV. Thus

the aggregate samples are as shown in Table 1. the aggregate if graded on a strength basis

From the result presented in Table 1, it can be using either the ACV or TFV, will show the

seen that comparatively that the aggregate same result provided the gradation for one is

crushing value test and ten percent aggregate reversed.

crushing test show an inverse relationship as

Value (ACV), % (TFV), kN

River Gravel 37.89 100

Hoggin 36.13 120

Crushed Aggregate 25.04 150

Slag 22.70 180

(2011) (2011)

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (JET), VOL.6 NO.1&2, pp.126-131.

represented in Figure 1, which shows that the

inverse relationship is more or less linear. Where: a - regression constant and b - regression

Thus, a relation between ACV and TFV can be coefficient.

assumed and estimated to be of the form.

40

36.13

ACV %

TFV (kN)

Figure 1: Variation of Aggregate Crushing Value(ACV) with Ten percent Fine

30 Value(TFV)

Mean

25.04

20

The model is evaluated as in Table 2 using the

𝑌 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑋 ---- (3) least square method of linear regression modelling

as detailed in Ang and Tang (1975).

Where: TFV is now X and ACV is now Y,

Y X XY X2

37.89 100.00 3789.0 10,000

36.13 120.00 4335.6 14400

25.04 150.00 3756.0 22500

22.70 180.00 4086.0 32400

∑Y = 121.76 ∑X = 550.00 ∑XY = 15916.6 ∑X2 = 79300

But regression coefficient, b, is determined from The coefficient of determination of the model is

𝑛 𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥 𝑦 given as:

the relation 𝑏 = = -0.211, while

𝑛 𝑥2− 𝑥 2

the regression constant, a, is then determined from R 2 = 0.925 --- (5)

the relation 𝑎 = 𝑦 − 𝑏𝑥 = 59.452. Thus, the model

established would be of the form The pair wise correlation coefficient between ACV

and TFV is given as 0.038. Since the model is a

ACV = 59.452 – 0.211(TFV) --- (4) simple linear regression model, it means that the

level of significance is 3.8% less than the usually

accepted middle of the road value of F = 24.525

(2011) (2011)

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (JET), VOL.6 NO.1&2, pp.126-131.

(constant for road construction ) also occurring at equation (1.4) as compared to those using the

3.8% level of significance. Thus it can be said that model reported in overseas road note 19, equation

the model (relation) established from this work is are presented in Table 3.

credible. The output of the model developed,

EQN(1) EQN(4)

River gravel 100 37.89 30.00 [7.89] 38.35 [-0.46]

Hoggin 120 36.13 28.40 [7.73] 34.13 [2.00]

Crushed granite 150 25.04 26.00 [-0.96] 27.80 [-2.76]

Slag 180 22.70 23.60 [-0.9] 21.47 [1.23]

The actual ACV data (the third column of Table This confirms the range for which equation (1) is

(3) and those computed using equation (1) and (4) recommended and also the fact that the TFV is

appear in the square bracket in the fourth and fifth suitable for weaker aggregates for which as seen in

column, respectively. While the output of equation the Table 3 is for River gravel and Hoggin whose

(1.4) can be seen to be numerically different from result were replicated better by equation (4). The

those of equation (1) a direct comparison of the implication of the results of the work carried out in

output of the two model reveals that equation (1) this paper is that reliable ACV can be estimated for

performed better for ACV below 30% while weaker aggregate for roads and bridge work for

equation (4) performed better for ACV greater Nigerian aggregate as may be used for low cost

than 30%. low quality road.

4. CONCLUSION.

From the results of the investigation, the 3. The aggregate crushing value (ACV) and

following conclusions are deducted. ten percent fines value (TFV) have inverse

1. Crushed granite, river gravel, slag and linear relationship as shown in the

hoggin aggregates used in Nigerian regression model of ACV = 59.452 –

construction industry have aggregate 0.211(TFV).

crushing value (ACV) of 25.04%, 37.89%, 4. Slag and crushed granite aggregates with

22.70% and 36.13% respectively. ACV values of 22.70% and 25.04%

2. Also the values of ten percent fines (TFV) respectively can be used as wearing

for Nigerian aggregates used in course material since the values are within

construction work are 100 kN, 120 kN, 20-30% as prescribed by BS 812: part 110

150 kN and 180 kN for river gravel, (1990), whereas hoggin and river gravels

Hoggin, Crushed granite and slag with ACV values higher than 30%, may

respectively. be used for sub-base materials

5. .

REFERENCES

Probability Concept in Engineering Institution, Linfordwood, Milton

Planning and Design. Vol. 1: Basic Keyes, MK146LE, U K.

Principles. John Wiley, New York. 4. BS 812: 111(1990): Method for

2. BS 812 (1975): Sampling and Testing Determination of Ten Percent Fines

of Aggregates, Sand and Fillers, His Value (TFV), British Standard

Majesty Stationery Office, London. Institution, Linfordwood, Milton

3. BS 812: Part 110 (1990): Method for keyes, MK146LE, U K.

Determination of Aggregate Crushing 5. Committee of South Road Authorities

(2011) (2011)

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (JET), VOL.6 NO.1&2, pp.126-131.

Design of Hot–Mix Surfacing for Transpn. Engrg. Div., ASCE.127 (2):

Highways, Pretoria, South Africa. 167-174

6. Muhammad, I.G (2010): Regression 10. Scott, J.S. (1967): Civil Engineering

Studies of Aggregate Crushing Value Dictionary, Chapman and Hall,

and Ten percent Fines for Nigerian London

Aggregates, Unpublished B.Eng. 11. Transport Research Laboratory

Thesis, Department of Civil (2002): A Guide to the Design of Hot-

Engineering Bayero University, Kano. Mix Asphalt in Tropical and Sub –

7. Millard, R.S. (2002): Road Building Tropical Countries. Overseas Road

in the Tropics. Transport Research Note No. 9. TRL Limited,

Laboratory, State of the Art Review. Crowthorne, Berkshire R G 456 AU

9, HMSO, London London

8. Nigerian General Specification 12. Turk, N and Dearman, W.R (1989):

(1997): Specification for Bridge and An Investigation of the Relationship

Roadwork, Federal Ministry of Works between Ten Percent Fines Load and

and Housing H/Q Abuja, Nigeria Crushing Value Tests of Aggregates

Vol.2 (Revised). in UK, Bulletin of the International

9. Osula. D.O.A and Adebisi, O. (2001): Association of Geology. No 39, Paris.

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