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WATER LOGGING PROBLEM AT

BAHADDERHAT IN CHITTAGONG

PREPARED BY:

MOHAMMED ALI ASHRAF SIDDIQUI

ID NO: 030-01-07

DEPERTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY BANGLADESH

SUPERVISED BY:

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY BANGLADESH


THIS THESIS PAPER IS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
CIVIL ENGINEERING, SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY BANGLADESH,
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

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CHAPTER–ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

Bangladesh is experiencing environmental degradation due to rapid urbanization,


increase in population, and industrialization. The process of urbanization is
linked with the economic development, which makes an increasingly higher
contribution of the national economy. However, when the growth of urban
population takes place at an exceptionally rapid rate, most cities and towns are
unable to cope with changing situations due to their internal resources
constraints and management limitations (Bari and Hasan, 2001). Provision of
infrastructure services viz., water drainage and sanitation along with waste
disposal are greatest concern to human settlements. Failure to provide these
services adequately results in many of well-known costs of rapid urbanization:
threats to health, loss of urban productivity and environmental quality. On one
hand, pressures for modernization give rise to continuous development
activities, which deplete natural resources. On the other hand, deficiency in the
coverage and delivery of urban infrastructures are seriously affecting the
general environment and reducing urban efficiency with adverse implication to
the national economy.

Chittagong, the port city of Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated
cities. It is located in the south eastern part of the country approximately 22 North
and 92 East and about 220 km from Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh. The city is
situated on a peninsula bounded by Bay of Bengal on the south and river Karnaphuli
on the east Chittagong. Annual rainfall in the city ranges from 2100 mm to 3800 mm
with an average rainfall of about 2950 mm a good quantity of surface runoff is
available in the area during monsoon period. Chittagong experiences about 3000 mm
of mean annual rainfall, of which about 2400 mm falls during the normal monsoon
period.
Due to rapid urbanization process, the city is emerging as a important city
and this trend generates numerous economic and social externalities and social

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cost such as deterioration of environmental quality, increased pollution and
congestion. Chittagong city is beset with a number of socio-environmental
problems. Water logging, traffic congestion, solid waste disposal, air and noise
pollution, pollution of water bodies by industrial discharge, all these are the
regular problem of the city.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT


Bangladesh is located on the extensive floodplains of the Ganges and
Brahmaputra. Therefore, flooding is a natural part of the life of its inhabitants.
Thus water logging in Chittagong City is not a new problem but the frequency
of this problem is increasing day by day. Flooding due to rainfall is also a
severe problem for Chittagong City that is inundated for several days mainly
due to the drainage congestion (Haq and Alam, 2003). Chittagong metropolitan area
has experienced water logging for last couple of years.

The Bahaddarhat area of the port city, including Badurtola, Bakolia,


Shulokbohor, Muradpur, Sholoshahor, go under knee water to waist-deep water
even after medium rainfall. Normal life and economic activities in the port city
are seriously disrupted during every monsoon due to water logging as it
creates great traffic jam and hampers the regular internal communication and
interaction in the city. Due to stagnation of on the road for a long period, the
road surface also gets affected with a large scale which is the main cause of
uncomfortable journey and road accidents.

Water logging in urban areas affects the following sector:

1. The transportation system

2. The normal life of the people living or using that area.

3. Roads are greatly damaged and cause a huge loss of resource.

4. Underground service line damaged.

5. Causing local flood.

6. Spread diseases.

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7. Overall economy of the country.

So improving the drainage condition of road in urban area is very important. That’s
why the study for water logging problem on Bahadderhat road are too much necessary
and reasonable.

1.3 OBJECTIVE

The main objectives of this study are as follows:

 To ascertain the reasons that are responsible for water logging in


Bahadderhat area of Chittagong.
 To investigate the problems of present drainage system.
 To calculate the amount of rainfall that creates water logging problem in
the study area.
 To recommend some water logging mitigation measures.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

During the last years, rapid urbanization has taken place in Chittagong city. As
population and land values increases, the effect of uncontrolled runoff become an
economic burden and posses a serious threat to health and well being of citizens.
Management of runoff from even a minor storm is rapidly becoming an engineering
requirement to help reduce water logging, flooding and stream erosion. To overcome
the water logging problem of Chittagong city, it is necessary to find out the inherent
causes of this problem considering its associated impacts on the human life.

Water logging has become a problem in the urban area of Chittagong and
from previous records, the area of Bahaddarhat can be taken as the typical one
as it gets affected so frequently. If the water logging problem of this area can
be solved or minimized, then the procedure can be applicable for all other
location of the city to minimize the same problem.

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1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE WORK
Some limitations were encountered during the study period to complete
research work according to the selected objectives. These limitations are
described below:
Two types of water logging occurs in Chittagong City that is water logging
due to river flooding and water logging due to heavy rainfall. In this study,
only rainfall induced water logging was tried to emphasize. But sometimes it
was very difficult to differentiate these two types of water logging as they
merged each other due to heavy rain fall. Very few studies were conducted
related to water logging and drainage . As a result, there was no sufficient
literature to enrich the analysis of this study by reviewing their study findings.
There was no sufficient secondary data to collect related to past drainage
system in terms of width, length, depth, capacity, pick flow rate, drainage
coefficient etc. and their layout. Therefore, it was not possible to compare the
capacity of present drainage system to drain out the stagnant water with the
past, which was needed to enrich the recommendations to reduce the problem.
Due to the lack of detailed elevation data, sometimes it was very hard to
measure the actual depth of water logging. The defensive attitude of
responsible authorities related to the problem and their reluctance to provide
relevant data has limited the information. Therefore, in some case it has to
depend on photograph rather than numeric data to illustrate the causes and
effects of the situation.

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1.6 Work Plan

The project is continued by two steps

 Study on water logging problem

 Proposal and management of drainage system

Flow chart of water logging problem

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In this study, the area (Bahadderhat to Muradpur) selected based on water logging
situation during rainy season. To conduct this work there are four types of data
collected to manage an efficient drainage work.

Flow chart for drainage system management

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CHAPTER-TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL

‘Urbanization’, the remotest word of the developing countries like BD, is the
main reason of having severe problems like water logging in urban life. Due to
urbanization, lots of places are getting used for high rise buildings, shopping
malls, city centers, public buildings of various uses due to which, drainage
systems are getting hampered in various ways and water getting stagnated and
becoming unmanageable at a large scale now a days. And after having water
logging in a particular area, the roads are getting hampered and also the
communication system of that area creates problem in a total area linked with
that area. So it is to be notified that, water logging is such a problem which
should be managed in such a way that normal life may continue with regular
activities.

2.2 DRAINAGE HIERARCHY

The drainage system may divided into following categories:


 Open channels like river and khals.
 Primary drains.
 Secondary drains.
 Tertiary drains and
 Plot drains.

2.2.1 OPEN CHANNEL (RIVER & KHAL)


A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean,
a lake, or a sea. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries
up completely at the end of its course, and does not reach another body of
water. Water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage
basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge,
springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snow packs.

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2.2.2 PRIMARY DRAINS
These are constructed drains, often made of brick masonry and or concrete.
Primary drains are the main collector drains of the city. It collects discharges
from the secondary drains. A primary drain discharges its load to a khal like
Chaktai khal or a river like the Karnaphuli. Drain running parallel to a
primary/district distributor road is termed a primary drain in the proposed detail
area plan.

Khals originating in eroding hilly areas carry a high silt load, a phenomenon that is
seriously aggravated by the practice of hill cutting. When the flow reaches the foot of
the hills the velocity is reduced and the larger-grained material is deposited on the bed
of the khals. As the velocity of flow becomes still lower so the filler-grained material
is deposited.

Given the gentle gradients of the low-lying plains it is not possible to design khals
having a self-cleaning velocity. Further, the natural of the material deposited makes it
become such that even flood flows fail to remove most of it. Thus the cross-section of
the khals is reduced and channel cannot carry the runoff from a rainstorm without
overflowing. The drains nare sized keeping a definite relationship with the
adjacent road. The width of a primary drain will be in the range of 10 ft to 20 ft
depending on the width of the road running parallel to it. All primary/district
distributors will have primary drains on both the side of the roads.

2.2.3 SECONDARY DRAINS


A Secondary drain falls into a primary drain. For the purpose of this report,
drain running parallel to a local distributor road is a secondary drain. Secondary
drains, in most cases, are made of masonry and or concrete. Tertiary drains
fall into secondary drains. A secondary drain is smaller in size compared to a
primary drain and bigger in size compared to a tertiary drain. A secondary
drain will have a width of 8 ft and will be built on both the side of a local
distributor road.

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In some areas the man-made secondary channels have not been planned adequately to
drain all future development and these cases new or re-habilitated khals will be
required. Some secondary khals in silt free areas of the city area have been laid
underground in the from of pipes or box culverts.

2.2.4 TERTIARY DRAINS


Tertiary drains rank fourth in the drainage hierarchy. The tertiary system
provides storage of excess storm water in public recreation areas, yard and
roadside swales, and even on the streets. The idea is for water to drain slowly
into community lakes and retention ponds by way of street and yard drainage
grates or culverts, ditches and canals. The water then drains into the secondary
system, and eventually on to the primary. The tertiary system is designed to
absorb and treat storm water by providing temporary storage. Tertiary drains
are constructed drains and run parallel to access roads. A tertiary drain will
have a minimum width of 1.5 ft to 3.5 ft. Tertiary drains also are made of
masonry and or concrete.

2.2.5 PLOT DRAINS


Plot drains are meant for draining a developed or undeveloped plot. In a
developed plot these drains are generally made of brick masonry.
Earthen/katcha drains are used in undeveloped plots. Plot drains drain the
surface run off from the plots to the tertiary drains. Plot owners generally
decide the size of these drains. The restrictions on width mentioned above are
applicable to developing areas where city will expand in the future. In the
existing densely populated urban areas, since the primary, secondary and
tertiary drains are already in existence, the width restrictions mentioned above
will not be applicable. Here, the city will try to increase the existing drain
sizes to the aforementioned required level by offering some incentive to the
plot owners, if possible. By utilizing land re-adjustment technique, the city
authorities can implement schemes like widening of roads and drains. In any
case, tertiary drains in the existing dense urban areas should be, at the least,
1.5 ft in width.

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2.3 DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Drainage system is a very important part of the development of a city. It is
required mostly to drain out the storm water and thus to ensure easy disposal.
Two types of drainage system can be provided. They are
 Surface drainage
 Sub-surface drainage.

2.3.1 SURFACE OR OPEN DRAINAGE


Surface drainage is the removal of excess water by using and constructing
open ditches, field drains, land grading and related structure. When level of
water extends in open channels, drainage ditches are necessary to remove
water, required to dispose excess rainfall. The open ditches which are
constructed in order to remove excess storm water, are broad shallow called
shallow surface drains. These carry run-off from the point of entrance to outlet
ditches which are large enough to carry flood and of sufficient depth to
provide outlets for the underground drains. These outlet ditches may called
deep surface drains. Surface drains constructed for removing excess irrigation
water applied to the farm and storm water. They are therefore designed as the
shallow surface drains, land drains, which results in a continuous land slope
towards the field drains, is an important part of a surface drainage system.
Land grading or land leveling is also necessary for surface irrigation. The
shallow surface drains are trapezoidal in cross-section. Strictly speaking they
should be design to carry normal storm water. Many a times, excess irrigation
water is neglected, and these drains are designed only for run-off resulting
from average storms. It is neither economical nor desirable to design these
drains for exceptional storm. Kutter’s and Manning’s equation may be used to
design these drains, keeping the velocity within the limits of critical velocity.
Deep surface drains or outlet ditches carry the seepage water coming from a
sub surface drains etc. except during a storm. They are therefore, designed for
the combined discharge. Generally, a curette is provided in the centre of the
drain bed as to carry seepage water. A steeper slope is given to the curette,
and it is lined so as to withstand higher flow velocities and thus to inhibit
weed growth. The full selection would be operative only during the storm.

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2.3.2 SUB-SURFACE DRAINAGE
Sub-surface drains, are required when surface drains are not sufficient to drain
out too much water at a time. Sub-surface drains, in case of irrigation are
needed for soils with poor internal drainage and a high water table. Tile
drainage is an practice that removes excess water from soil subsurface. While
surface water can be drained via pumping and/or open ditches, tile drainage is
often the best recourse for subsurface water. To get most workability, both the
surface and sub-surface drains are necessary in a city planning.

2.4 DRAINAGE DESIGN


Surface drainage system is suitable for drainage design to remove storm water
from existing area. Open channel helps to drain out water as soon as possible
with its supply ability. Important terms in design open channels are as follows:

2.4.1 DRAINAGE BASIN


A drainage basin is an extent of land where water from rain or snow melt drains
downhill into a body of water, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea or
ocean. The drainage basin includes both the streams and rivers that convey the water
as well as the land surfaces from which water drains into those channels, and is
separated from adjacent basins by a drainage divide.

The drainage basin acts like a funnel, collecting all the water within the area covered
by the basin and channeling it into a waterway. Each drainage basin is separated
topographically from adjacent basins by a geographical barrier such as a ridge, hill or
mountain, which is known as a water divide.

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2.4.2 CHANNEL & CHANNEL TYPES
A channel may defined as a passage through water flows under atmospheric
pressure. In such channels the flow of water takes place with a free surface
which is subjected to atmospheric pressure.

Figure 2.1: Typical section of a channel


(Source: ‘Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structure’; Garg S.K)

Channels may be classified according to different considerations as below:


 On the basis of cross sectional form of the channel it may classified as
natural channel or artificial channel. A natural channel is the one which has
irregular sections of various shapes, which is developed in a natural way.
The examples of natural channels are rivers, streams etc. On the other hand
an artificial is the one which is built artificially for carrying water for
various purposes. Obviously artificial channels have their cross- sectional with
regular geometric shape, which usually remain same throughout the length
of the channel.
 The artificial channels may be further classified according to the shape of
the cross section, rectangular channel, trapezoidal channel, triangular channel,
parabolic channel and circular channel.

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Figure 2.2: Various channel section with velocity distribution
(Source: ‘Open Channel Hydraulics’;Chow Ven Te)

 The channel may also classified as open channels and closed channels. The
channel without any cover at the top are known as open channels. On the
other hand the channels having cover at the top are known as closed
channels. However, the closed channels will always be running partly full
of water, in order that the flow may be a channel flow with atmospheric
pressure prevailing over its entire top surface. Some of the common
examples of closed channels are closed conduits or pipes flowing partly
full of water, underground drains, tunnels etc, not running full of water.
 A channel having same shape of various sections along its length and laid
on a constant bottom is known as prismatic channels, otherwise the
channel is non-prismatic.

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2.5 GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF CHANNEL SECTION
The geometric properties of a channel section can be defined entirely of the
section and the depth of flow. Some of the geometrical properties of basic
important are defined as below:
 The depth of flow Y, is the vertical distance of the lowest point of a
channel section from the free surface.
 The top width T, is the width of the channel section at the free surface.
 The wetted area A, (or area of flow section) is the cross-sectional area of
the flow normal to the direction of flow.
 The wetted perimeter P, is the length of the channel boundary in contact
with the water at any section.
 The hydraulic radius R, (or hydraulic mean depth) is the ratio of the wetted
area to its wetted perimeter, or R=(A/P)
 The hydraulic depth D, is the ratio of the wetted area to the top width T ,
or D=(A/T)
 The section factor for critical flow computation Z, is the product of the
wetted area and the square root of the hydraulic depth,
 Or, Z= A√D= A√(A/T)= (A³/T)½
 The section factor for uniform flow computation AR⅔ is the product of
the wetted area and the hydraulic radius to two-third power.

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Table 2.1: Geometrical elements of channel section
(Source: ‘Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structure’; Garg S.K)

2.6 MOST ECONOMIC OR MOST EFFICIENT TRAPIZOIDAL


SECTION
For a trapezoidal channel section of bottom width B, depth of flow Y, and
side slope Z horizontal to 1 vertical, following expression for wetted area A
and perimeter P can be written.

Figure 2.3: of Most economical trapezoidal section


(Source: ‘Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structure’; Garg S.K)

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CHAPTER-THREE

CASE STUDY

3.1 GENERAL
The study area of Bahaddarhat is surrounded by the area of Shulokbohor,
Muradpur, Badurtola and some portion of Bakolia. During the monsoon rainfall
all these areas go to under water even in medium rainfall. According to the
topographical map, the Bahaddarhat area is containing three major khals and
they are Noa khal, Mirza khal and Chaktai khal. And also many of secondary
and tertiary khals and off road side drains.

3.2 EXISTING LAND USE FEATURES


According to CDA master plan, the Bahaddarhat is a portion of largest
‘Bakolia-Chandgaon’ zone. Belonging to detailed area plan (DAP) for the
Chittagong Metropolitan City, the Bahaddarhat area is the portion which is
classified as the DPZ 04 according to CDA. The existing land use feature of
this zone is as follows:
Existing land use feature list:
Sl. no Land use category Area (Acre) Percentage
1 Agriculture 925 11.45%
2 Commercial 282 3.49%
3 Education and Research 46 0.57%
4 Manufacturing and processing 540 6.69%
5 Mixed use 676 8.37%
6 Office use 44 0.54%
7 Open/Community space 149 1.84%
8 Residential 1015 12.56%
9 Service facilities 29 0.36%
10 Transportation 479 5.93%
11 Vacant land 1982 23.53%
12 Water body 1628 20.15%
13 Miscellaneous 399 4.93%
Total 8092 100%
Source: DAP of CDA
Table 3.1: Existing land use feature

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3.3 TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Topographically this zone is almost flat and gently sloping towards the east.
However. The vast plain area can be divided into at least three morphologic
units, which are alluvial plains, marshy land and mud flats. A wide part in the
west and north is the alluvial plains, which are fringed by relatively low lying
marshy lands. The drainage condition of this marshy land is very poor. The
area along the karnaphuli course is the mud flat, which is criss-crossed by
tidal creeks. Some important khals passing through this area are Chaktai khal
and Chaktai divertion khal, Noa khal. Mirza khal, Rajakhali khal. These khals
are primary tidal in nature and play a vital role in discharging storm water
into Khornaphully.

3.4 ROAD NETWORKS


Road network of this area is not in a good state and does not follow any
regular pattern. The Karnaphully Bridge approach road is one of the most
important primary roads in the area. Other major roads are Sholashohar-
Muradpur- Bahaddarhat connecting road, Kaptai road from Bahaddarhat circle to
Kalurghat bridge. Rhere are some other roads which are namely as
Shulokbohor road, Badurtola road, Mirzapul road etc. of which alignment and
inter connections are poor. Access roads are very narrow and congested in East
Sholoshahor and West Bakolia. The link roads between the industrial and
commercial areas are narrow, congested and have poor surfacing.

The generalized land use pattern of this area is the unplanned commercial
zone in the south, planned residential area at Chandgaon, sporadic unplanned
housing in between Chaktai and Shah Amanat Bridge approach road, planned
industrial zone in the north and vacant area along the river side.

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3.5 EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
3.5.1 WATER LOGGING
When a land is filled with water in such a way that it becomes log- like or
unmanageable it is said to be water logged. In another word a land is said to be water
logged when its productivity gets affected by the high water table.
An environmental concern in Bahadderhat zone is severe water logging. The
worst affected are the low lands and the main roads of thus area. The main
causes are siltation due to hill cutting and hill erosion in the uplands,
encroachment of khal banks, depressed marshy lands in the south and east,

Figure 3.1: water logging

and artificial obstacles across the drainage system. Excess rainfall or flood will
also cause the increasing in water table; by which water logging occurred.

3.5.2 LOCAL WATER BODIES


A number of water bodies of different sizes are present, mostly near human
settlement. The entire communication use some large ponds. Such ponds play
an important role environmental enhancement.

3.6 Types of water logging


Gupt (2000) mentioned 4 categories. These are—

 Category 1: areas having higher water table within 0.5m depth from soil
surface.

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 Category 2: areas having surface drainage congestion but not having high
water table.

 Category 3: areas having both high water table & surface water drainage
congestion.

 Category 4: coastal areas subjected to periodic inundation by salty sea water.

Luna (1989) classified water logging as follows—

 Water logging condition caused by stragnant water.

 Water logging condition caused by impeded but mobile water.

 Swampy areas.

 Marshy areas & saline muddy areas.

However, water logging can be grouped as following types—

1) Water logging due to permanent submersion of land. Such as ponds, rivers, etc.

2) Water logging from periodical submersion such as coastal & estuarine land
inundation by soil water or runoff of freshwater over lands etc.

3) Temporary water logging by stagnation of water as a result of heavy rainfall.

4) Water logging by coming out of water table to the surface & swampy areas in
valleys are mostly caused by the phenomenon.

5) Water logging from artificial irrigation of agricultural lands in polders areas.

3.7 SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SEASONAL FLOODING AND WATER


LOGGING
During monsoon and high tides a significant portion of land in this area is
inundated. Flood level of this area can be categorized into following sub zones.
 North east of the Karnophully bridge approach road, is undated to a depth
of five feet. Water remains in this zone for few weeks due to unplanned
construction of roads without required provision of culverts for drainage.

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 In the junction of Mirza khal and Chaktai khal water logging happens in
the monsoon season to a depth of four to five feet. Water remain clogged
for a few hours.
 The area of Badurtola, Shulokbohor is inundated during monsoon and tidal
flow to a depth of six feet.
 Among all these environment existing problems, water-logging problem is
the remotest one. As the problem so vast and the area gets affected so
frequently by this in each monsoon and also in other seasons heavy
rainfall, so it is a big deal to find some way out to remove it. Also some
necessary steps, if taken by the community, can help them to come out
of this foremost problem.

3.8 WHY ARE URBAN AREAS DRAINED


When rainfalls on to undeveloped land, most of the water will soak into the topsoil
and slowly migrate through the soil to the nearest watercourses or groundwater. A
small proportion of the rainfall – usually 15 to 20 per cent – becomes direct surface
runoff that usually drains into watercourses slowly because the ground surface is
rough (e.g. because of vegetation). This means that the effects of rainfall are spread
out over a period of several hours. Even short, heavy storms may have little on flow
rates in the receiving waters because much of rainwater may be absorbed into the
ground.
When catchments are developed, the proportion of the land covered by impervious
surface (roads, parking areas, roofs, driveways and pavements) will increase,
preventing the natural infiltration of rainfall into the ground. Often the remaining
open ground cannot accept water as rapidly as it did in its natural state, because
during construction topsoil is removed, compacted or mixed with low-permeability
subsoil. In developed catchments, direct runoff can increase to more than 80 percent
of the rainfall volume. At the same time, because paved surfaces may be less rough
than natural surfaces, water may travel over them faster and as a result runoff will
reach the receiving watercourses more quickly. The flow rates in the receiving waters
are therefore much more sensitive to rainfall intensity and volume than those in
undeveloped catchments.

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Before Urbanization After Urbanization

Figure 3.2: Characteristics of Runoff in Urban Area

Volume and rates of runoff both increase significantly after development. Peak flow
rates can increase by a factor of up to ten, which means that streams and rivers have
to cope with larger and often sudden runoff flows. It also means that drainage is
needed to reduce flood risk within the developed areas.

3.8.1 EXCESSIVE RAINFALL

Bangladesh is a tropical country and is located on the extensive floodplains of the


Ganges and Brahmaputra. The Himalayas stands to the northeast of the country and
the Bay of Bengal lies on the south of the country. As a result heavy downpour occurs
on the country, especially in the monsoon season (May to October). In recent years
the area of Chittagong has been exposed to water logging due to heavy rainfall.

According to survey, 74 percent of the respondent has been mentioned that heavy
rainfall is one of the main reasons for water logging in Chittagong City. Relatively
low intensity of rainfall causes serious water logging problems for certain areas of the
City that are inundated for several days mainly due to the drainage congestion
Rainfall data collected for last three years shows that the average monthly rainfall
during monsoon (January to December) are 212.79mm, 230.67mm and 180 mm for
the year 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively.

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Table 3.2: Monthly highest and Daily highest Rainfall Intensity in Chittagong City
during Monsoon (in mm)

Month/Year 2011 2012 2013


Monthly Daily Monthly Daily Monthly Daily
highest highest Highest highest Highest highest
January 0 0 0 0 0 0
February 0 0 0 0 0 0
March 63 54 43 30 40 23
April 74 47 41 30 283 70
May 260 35 350 63 101 32
June 1013 242 341 50 14 4
July 309 95 541 206 743 120
August 462 87 661 105 313 71
September 55 13 733 180 216 65
October 317 125 18 12 450 113
November 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0
December 0 0 0 0 0 0

Source: Chittagong Hydrological Sub Division, BWDB

3.8.2 DISAPPEARANCE OF NATURAL DRAINAGE SYSTEM

The disappearance of the natural drainage system is one of main causes for water
logging. Rapid population growth and unplanned development, unplanned land filling
to develop new residential areas, uncontrolled and haphazard disposal of solid wastes
and garbage into the existing drainage system, and encroachment on lakes,
khals/canals and rivers with unauthorized construction are the summarized general
man made physical and social activities related to the disappearance of natural
drainage system. 95 percent of the respondent claimed these activities for prime
causes of water logging in Chittagong City.

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3.8.3 WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Waste management system is one of the important factors for water logging in
Chittagong City. The increased congestion of the city area, the high population
density and the rapid growth all around it has made it impossible to clean the street
and drains as fast as the waste thrown onto them. The major sources of solid waste
are residences, streets, market places, commercial establishment, and hospitals. Due
to urban development, population growth, and consumption increase, the volume of
solid waste generation increases every year. The composition of solid waste varies
according to location, standard of living, energy sources and season. The quantity of
waste generation increases during rainy season when many vegetables and fruits,
especially mango and jackfruit, are available. Solid waste mainly consists of food,
grass and plants, brick, dirt, paper and polythene materials. The density of solid waste
depends on its organic and inorganic content. Density values in India and other
developing countries range from 300 to 600 kg/m3.

Moreover, due to resource constraints, lack of available dustbins, shortage of funding,


due to almost no direct user charges as well as in sufficient subsidies, and other
institutional constrains, CCC in general has not been able to effectively collect and
dispose off the waste properly. Most of the waste is visible on the streets and in the
drains and there is almost no sanitary landfill or any other facilities like incineration.
About 400 tons out of average 3,500 tons of solid waste, generated in the city
everyday, remains on the roads, open spaces and in drains (Raziur Rahman, 2003). So
the streets remain unclean after daily sweeping and the drainage ditches and channels
get blocked due to unwanted waste throwing. Rainwater also washed away these
wastes and blockage the surface drains which hampers the natural flow of storm
water and creates water logging in different place of the city. Therefore, in most of
the area in Chittagong City, solid waste has become a serious problem with health
and hygiene consequences for city dwellers.

The nature of solid waste is changing over time and with development. Of the solid
wastes plastic and polyethylene goods also causes problems towards human health,
environment and drainage system. These goods are cheaply and easily available in the
markets. The users do not care to reuse them. They rather throw these things out of

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the door and window. During rain, the storm water did not drain quickly, as one of
the major reasons was due to polyethylene in the draining system.

Considering the water logging and its consequences, there was a growing demand for
a total ban on the manufacture of polyethylene bags already under attack for being
environmentally hazardous. However, due to effective regulation for banning the
polyethylene bags in 2002, this problem has been overcome. But some industries are
still manufacturing polyethylene bags and it is still one of the problems for water
logging in Chittagong City as it is not biodegradable, natural process cannot
decompose it, and remains intact in soil.

3.8.4 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND MAINTENANCE OF


DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

Poor performance of operation and maintenance of drainage system is responsible for


water logging. Many problems associated with the operation of storm water drainage
systems are linked to water logging in Chittagong City. Inadequate maintenance of
existing natural drains due to lack of comprehensive and planned maintenance
program, equipments, adequate budget, staffing, proper monitoring program and
institutional set up to effectively operate and maintain the drainage network. Poor
solid waste management is the main problem to maintain the storm water drainage.
Municipal agencies (CCC in Chittagong City area) responsible for solid waste
management lack sufficient resources and equipment for drain cleaning. There is
often poor communication and co-ordination between the different urban authorities
responsible for operating and maintaining the various components of the drainage
network.

3.8.5 DEVELOPMENT WORK DURING RAINY SEASON


Development works like construction of roads, sewerage, underground telephone and
electricity lines etc. during rainy season are very common practice in the City as well
as in Bangladesh. Some officials of CWASA and CCC says that, the development
budget is the main reason for such tendency as it is passed in June month and the
authorities has to start the development works depending on the budget. “But without
putting a dependable drainage network and co-ordination with the concerned

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authorities, they go for frequent digging and sometimes are forced to cut roads and
drains,” says the officials. These activities create unwanted obstacles into the
drainage networks and hamper the smooth flow of storm water, therefore create water
logging in the city area.

Most of the people are bound to construct the buildings covering the whole plots and
sometimes without following the building by-laws. Therefore, they used to storage
the building construction materials like bricks, rods, sands, stones etc. beside the
nearby roads due to lack of enough space in and around the plots. This construction
materials blockage the surface drains directly and or sometimes washed out by the
rainfall. 37 per cent respondents mentioned this causes, which contributes to the water
logging in Chittagong City.

3.8.6 SILTATION
Siltation in natural drainage system as a problem for water logging. Rain water carry
out different construction materials like bricks, sands, and stones; leaves; household
wastes; street sweepings etc. therefore increased impervious surface of storm water
drainage and created favourable condition for water logging by reducing the runoff
capacity of the drainage system.

Figure 3.3: Siltation in Natural Drainage System


A significant siltation in the khals and rivers in and around the City has taken place
due to expansion of the Chittagong Metropolitan area. The flood control embankment
and sluice gate across the rivers and canals has created siltation problem as riverbed
has been raised and reduced the carrying capacity.

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3.8.7 LACK OF PUBLIC AWARENESS AND EDUCATION
In general, there is serious lacking of public awareness about the necessity of natural
drainage. People don’t understand the effect of drainage blocking and filling of
natural drainage, low lands, wetlands etc. Therefore, they don’t hesitate to throw solid
waste on to the roads and drains and their poverty encourage them to fill the natural
water bodies as well as destroy the ecological habitats. Not only the general people

Figure 3.4: Disposal of polythene and solid waste

Authority sometimes occupies the wet lands, retention areas, khals etc to save the
cost of land acquisition for developments works like roads and so on. Thus, lack of
public awareness and education contributing the water logging problem. Through
public awareness and education programs, it is possible to maintain the drainage
systems properly, therefore, reduce the water logging problem and improve the
environmental situation.

3.8.8 LACK OF POLICY GUIDELINES AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION


Lack of regulation; weakness in the existing regulations for development control,
waste disposal, encroachment; negligence of the authorities for its implementation;
and poor motivation and communal awareness to make the users responsible against
clogging of the drains and encroachment of low lands, wetlands, khals and rivers by
individuals are the major reasons for failure of urban authority to preserve the right of
way over the existing natural drainage channels. On the other hand, the laws and
regulations for planning and development are very old and in most cases outdated in
terms of present development, control and needs (Islam, 2001).

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CHAPTER- FOUR

EFFECTS OF WATER LOGGING

4.1 INTRODUCTION
Urban runoff causes problems. These become obvious when a constructed drainage
system fails. Urbanization disrupts natural drainage patterns; natural watercourses are
destroyed; natural retention of runoff by plants and soil is removed and the creation of
impervious surfaces increases the amount of runoff. This runoff becomes polluted as
solid waste, silt and contaminants are washed off roads. The increase in volume and
rate of runoff causes erosion and siltation. Therefore, it becomes a burden for the
inhabitants of the city, leading to water logging and creating adviser social, physical,
economical as well as environmental impacts.

A field survey as questionnaire survey, informal interview and open discussion


has been conducted with inhabitants of Chittagong City to know the problem faces
due to water logging. The total sample was 100 in different parts of the city including
authorities of different concerned organizations, experts and general people and their
summarized opinions about the problem faces due to water logging are as follows:

Table4.1: Types of Problems Faced due to Water Logging in Chittagong


City

Problems Percentage
Disruption of traffic movement 88

Disruption of normal life 93

Damage of roads 70

Damage of katcha houses 77

Damage of substructure of the pucca houses 62

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Problem Percentage

Damage of household goods 65

Damage of underground service lines 56

Water pollution 95

Water born diseases 84

Increase mosquito 88

Damage of trees and vegetation 48

Increase of construction and maintenance cost 58

Death of fish 55

Source: Field survey, 2003-04

4.2 ASSOCIATED PROBLEM OF WATER LOGGING

The associated problems due to water logging and its chain effects on human life are
as follows:

4.2.1 SOCIAL PROBLEM

4.2.1.1 DISRUPTION OF TRAFFIC MOVEMENT

Disruption of traffic movement is an important identified impact due to the traditional


water logging problem. Normal traffic movement is hampered during rainfall over 25
mm, creating traffic jam in the city area and people lose their valuable time. Where
the storm water cannot drain out, puddles will form. This is not just inconvenience for

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pedestrians but also dangerous for road users. Following pictures illustrates that the
heavy rainfall in September 2013 disrupted traffic movement in Muradpur area.

Figure 4.1: Disruption of Traffic Movement due to Water Logging in Muradpur Area

4.2.1.2 DISRUPTION OF NORMAL LIFE

Water logging seriously disrupts normal life and it has direct impacts on the poor, as
they often live on unsuitable, low-lying and flood prone or steep, and unstable sites,
have high-density housing (increasing the impermeability of the ground), poor urban
planning and control and lack of investment in urban infrastructure. Water logging
hamper daily life of the city dwellers. The more affluent members of society have the

Figure 4.2: Stagnant Water due to Heavy Down Pour Disrupt the Normal Life of
Chittagong City

option to move to less flood prone or less polluted areas or flood-proof their homes,
e.g. through raising the ground level. But the poor bear the brunt of bad drainage,
through direct flood damage, pollution of water supplies and the aquatic environment,
the breeding of vectors and soil erosion, leading to direct financial costs, loss of
income potential, as the home may also be the workplace, and adverse health impacts.

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Sometimes, they don’t have access to potable water and so had to rely on surface or
shallow groundwater sources that are polluted.

4.2.2 PHYSICAL PROBLEMS

4.2.2.1 DAMAGE OF INFRASTRUCTURE

Water logging of the ground contributes to ground heave, subsidence, dampness and
other damage of property. Water logging causes the damage to roads (both pucca and
katcha) in the rainy season every year leading to the movement problem and
interrupts the journey.

Figure 4.3: Damage of Roads in Chittagong City due to Water Logging

On the other hand, metalloid pipes of various underground utility services such as
water, telephone, sewerage etc. are damaged and they lose their longevity due to
water logging.

4.2.2.2 DAMAGE OF STRUCTURES

The substructure of the pucca houses in the low laying areas remains underwater due
to water logging. The brick foundations losses its longevity by being affected with
corrosive effect of salinity and damping is the aftereffect. At the same time people
also faces the problem of damage of katcha houses. In slums and low income areas,
most of the people are used to live in katcha and vulnerable houses. These houses
become badly damaged during the period of water logging. Water enters into houses
and the floor and walls remain wetted for a long period. Sometimes they can’t live in
the houses and had to shift their living areas, which again creates an economic burden
for the poor people. This water logging decreases the longevity of katcha houses.

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4.2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

4.2.3.1 WATER POLLUTION

Theoretically, Chittagong WASA maintains two separate sewer systems: one for
domestic wastewater and another for storm water. However, in reality storm sewers
also receive domestic wastewater, which causes unwanted deterioration of the storm
water discharges. These discharges in turn pollute the receiving water bodies
including the lakes, rivers and detention areas. The storm water of Chittagong City
becomes polluted as it is mix with solid waste, clinical waste, silt, contaminants,
domestic waste water and other human activities, which contaminated ground water
as well as the receiving water bodies.

Figure 4.4: Pollution of Water Mixing with Solid Waste, Clinical Waste and Toxic
Sewage

Deposited sediment contained various materials other than soil. Open surface drains
contained higher percentages of deposited materials other than soil. Samples collected
from the residential areas had higher percentages of coarser particles compared with
the samples from the commercial areas. The D5 values of the samples varied from
0.20 to 0.28 mm in commercial areas and from 0.43 to 0.63 mm in residential areas.

Storm water generated from the catchments areas carry significant amount of
pollutants. The level of pollution in the storm water and in the receiving water bodies
is generally a matter of concern.

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4.2.3.2 INCREASE OF WATER BORN DISEASES

In urban areas, the most adverse impact of water logging is incidents and prevalence
of various diseases. The stagnant storm water increases the diseases as it becomes
polluted in different ways. In poorly drained areas, urban runoff mixes with sewage
from overflowing latrines and sewers, causing pollution and a wide range of problems
associated with waterborne diseases. Sometimes, the poor people had to rely on
surface or shallow groundwater sources that are polluted, as they don’t have access to
portable water during the period of monsoon. Malaria, Dangu fever, respiratory
problems, eye and skin disease are the worst impacts. Moreover, contamination of
ground water also leads to such adverse health impacts.

On the other hand, solid waste blocks the drainage system and creates flooding in the
streets resulting in increases mosquitoes, bad odor, and inconvenience. Solid waste,
industrial waste, tanning waste as well as clinical waste in the streets and drains
multiplies the health impacts and miseries. Most of the child mortality is related with
this problem, as contaminated ground water and malaria are the major causes for this
mortality.

4.2.3.3 DAMAGE OF VEGETATION AND REDUCE AQUATIC HABITATS

Water logging is the after effect of improper drainage management. Stagnant water
for a long time and continuous release of wastewater damages the trees and
vegetation in and around the city areas. Litter, sediment build-up and oil sheens on
the water surface are common visible effects of urban pollution on surface water,
which result in a reduction in the numbers of aquatic plants and animals. The
increased flows resulted from traditional drainage systems cause streams to scour
deeper and wider channels, adversely affecting aquatic habitats. Eroded sediments are
deposited downstream in slower moving reaches of the river, damaging aquatic
habitats in these areas and increasing sedimentation in wetlands.

The International Center for Diarrhea Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDRB)


tested a sample of storm water from the natural drainage system. The results show the
level of free carbon dioxide at 2.91, up from standard level of 0.6 and conductivity at
259 Micro S/cm, down from the acceptable limit between 800 and 1000 Micro S/cm

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for fishing water. High concentration of free carbon dioxide is harmful not only to
fish but to flora and fauna as well.

4.2.4 ECONOMIC PROBLEM

4.2.4.1 INCREASE OF CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE COST

Urban drainage system is decreasing day by day due to uncontrolled rapid


urbanization and water logging is the ultimate effect of not only the physical, social
and environmental problem, it is an economic burden as well. Water logging
increases the construction and maintenance cost. As it is mentioned earlier that water
logging reduces the life span and damage to roads (both pucca and katcha) and
metalloid pipes of various underground utility services such as water, telephone,
sewerage etc. It needs a huge cost to replace these facilities and increases the
maintenance cost for the authority. Damage to substructure, brick foundations, katcha
houses in slums and low-income areas due to water logging means the huge economic
losses for the inhabitants.

4.2.4.2 SHORTAGE OF WATER

Water logging due to the increase of impermeable urban areas also leads to a
lowering of the ground water table under a construction site by reducing the surface
water recharged to the ground. This has not only environmental impact but also
economic impacts, as it contributes to water shortage, and cause soil subsidence and
consolidation problems.

4.2.4.3 LOSS OF INCOME OF POTENTIAL

Sometimes, water enters into houses and the floor and wall remains wetted for a long
period and it damages the household goods, stored food grains etc. is impact of water
logging. The effects of water logging also leads to direct financial costs, loss of
income potential, as the poor people may use their home for workplace. Water
logging hamper traffic movements; therefore, creates an obstacle for communication
and timely supply of goods, which means the loss of time, reduced production and
economic losses.

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When a constructed drainage system fails to evacuate the surface runoff, urban runoff
causes economic problems. Therefore drainage overflow is common phenomena
during rainy season. Usually the ponds, ditch, lakes, rivers in the city area are used
for fish culture. The toxic storm water due to mix up with sewerage, solid waste, oils
and trace metals associated with motor vehicles submerge the receiving water bodies
and cause a huge death of fish and the owners lose incomes.

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CHAPTER- FIVE

EXISTING DRAINAGE CONDITION

5.1 GENERAL
Water logging in urban areas is an inevitable problem for many cities in Asia. In
Bangladesh, Chittagong has serious problems related to water logging. The situation
was highlighted when residences experienced ankle to knee-deep water on the streets.
Daily activities in parts of the city were nearly paralysed and heavy traffic jams
occurred due to stagnant water on the streets.

.5.2 EXISTING SYSTEM OF DRAINAGE AREA

To investigate the drainage situation CDA divide the whole Chittagong city into 12
drainage area.

1.Drainage Area No.1 :Firingee Bazar

60 hectares of land drained by three separate khals flowing with a reasonable slope
southwords directly into the Karnafuli.There is some flooding during rain caused by
tertiary drain not being cleaned.Bank erosion in the three primaries has occurred near
the outfall.

2.Drainage Area No. 2 :Sadarghat

The area is about 80 hectares is heavily built up and includes the Reazuddin bazar and
the railway station.Flooding occures in Reazuddin bazar and Jubilee road due to
rubbish in the main khal and also due to poor layout.

3.Drainage Area No. 3 :Agrabad Commercial Area

This area occupies about 192 hectares.It includes Agrabad C/A,Pathantuli and less
developed hilly area.Agrabad commercial area and Chittagong trunk lane area are
prone to flooding.

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4.Drainage Area No.4a :Nasir khal

This area 325 hactares includes Sheikh Mujib Road,Karnafuli market,Halishahar road,
Bangladesh Bank Colony and Agrabad CDA R/A etc. At present 30% of the area is
subjected to flooding from rainstorms.

5.Drainage Area No. 4b :Mohesh khal

This area includes 3046 hectares of land Fakirhat,Saltgola,Rampura,Halishahar


Housing Estate,Nasirabad,Pahartali,Foy’s Lake and Foujderhat etc.There are six main
khals draining the area.Most of these khals have inadequate cross section and this
results in annual flooding.

6.Drainage Area No.5a :Chaktai khal

This area include 500 hectares of land consitutes the south western part of the Chaktai
system and includes the Chaktai khal itself together with the Chatteswari khal,Jamal
khan khal and other secondaries from the west.There are a number of local problem
areas whare the flooding due to rainstorms is a regular phenomenon.

7.Drainage Area No.5b: Mirza and Bakalia Khal,

This area comprises 2180 hectares of land include Chaktai Diversion Khal, Rajakhali
Khal, Karnaphuli Bridge Road, CDA Avenue, part of Nasirabad Industrial Area,
Chittagong Girls College and Sholukbahar Road etc. Bahadderhat cross road and east
Nasirabad are regularly flooded during the normal monsoon due to blockage by
siltation and rubbish.

8.Drainage Area No.6 :Patenga

This area of 2240 hectares of land whole area between FM sowdagar Road and
Seamen Hostel,New Mooring in the north to the southern tip of Patenga.Flooding due
to rainfall occures in the south and west of the area.

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9. Drainage Area No.7: Shital Jhorna Chhara and Noa khal

This area of 2264 hectares of land includes Part of Nasirabad Industrial Area,Bayezid
Bostami Shrine,Khawza Road,Chandgoan R/A, Abdul Karim Road and Bakalia.10%
of this area is flooded during rainy season.

10. Drainage Area No.8:

Part of the left bank area of Karnafuly River covers nearly 8000 hectares.Some
flooding due to rainfall occures along the banks of primary khals.

11. Drainage Area No.9:

This area comprise with hilly land in the west with a plain sloping gently towards thr
river at the eastern end.In thid area there are problem of local flooding.

12. Drainage Area No.10:

This area of 1680 hectares contains the western side of the hills and a plain about 1.5
km wide along the coast.This area drained by natural khals to the sea.

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Fig 5.1:Drainage areas(source: CDA master plan)

5.3 EXISTING PRIMARY AND SECONDARY KHALS

The primary khals which drain the city includes two main systems :

(a) Mirza, Chaktai, Dhomkhali and Noahkhals, drainage areas 5a, 5b and 7
southwards and eastwards into Karnafuli.
(b) Nasir and Moheshkhali khals, drainage areas 4a and 4b southwards into the
Karnafuli westwards to the sea.

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In addition other parts of the city are drained as follows:

(c) Areas 1, 2 and 3 drain parts of the city southwards into the Karnafuli, along
relatively short khals.
(d) Area 6, the southern peninsula, is drained by short khals eastwards and
southwards into the Karnafuli and westward into the Bay Bengal.
(e) Areas 9 and 10, the east and west side of the watershed formed by the hills, are
drained into the Karnafuli and Halda and into the Bay of Bengal.
(f) Area 8, the left bank, drains into Karnafuli.

5.4 PROPOSED MASTER PLAN

The master plan comprises a number of solutions applied as appropriate. Some of


these solutions are to be applied universally while others may be appropriate in some
locations.

The proposals that are given by CDA to improve drainage system are following:

 Assurance of regular maintenance


 Construction of silt traps
 Improvement of local drainage
 Rehabilitation of existing drain
 Construction of new or enlarged khals
 Raising land levels
 Construction of flood storage

CDA master plan describe new drainage system in 9 of 12 drainage areas. The three
other areas i.e. drainage areas 8, 9 and 10 comprise the mainly rural fringes of the city
and their drainage system are expected to be similar to those in areas 6 and 7.

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STORMWATER DRAINAGE AND FLOOD CONTROL MASTER PLAN (1995 - 2015)

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s a r i pa r a R o ad
Coastal Embankment
Drainage Area Boundary
A
Silt Trap
Flood Storage
Tidal Regulator

1 0 1 2 Kilometers Navigation Gate

0.5 0 0.5 1 Kilometers M Flood Defence Reference Point


5a Drainage Area Number
R.F 1:12,000

Fig 5.2: Drainage areas with Primary Khals and Secondary Khals (Source: CDA
master plan)

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5.5 EXISTING DRAINAGE SYSTEM OF STUDY AREA

According to the dividation of drainage zones of Chittagong City done by CDA our
study area lies in drainage area no. 5b.

This area of 2180 ha is mostly developed to low density, and includes an few amount
of industry. This area with hills at the west end, slopes gently towards the east and the
primary khals generally flow in that direction to the Karnafully. There is a
considerable amount of rural land, especially in the west, where low lying land has
formed by accretion as the river has slowly moved it course eastwards.

This area is drained by three khals, the Hizra, the Mirza and the Chaktai. Of these, the
first two arise in the hills, wheares the Chaktai originally started in the flat eastern part
but now has diverted to the Hizra and Chaktai at Bahadderhat cross road. Flodding
due to rainstorms covers about 10% of the area, mainly in low lying areas of the urban
fringe of the city.

Fig 5.1 Existing Primary and Secondary Khals of study area

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5.6 PROPOSED MASTER PLAN OF CDA ON STUDY AREA

 The removal of inundation of this area, the proposals are taken by CDA are
following
 A 554 long and 7m wide Pacca Chaktai Connection khal with a silt trap be
excavated from Mirza Khal to Bahadderhat along with CDA avenue.
 Connection of new Khal to a 400m long and 4.3m wide with a secondary Khal
from Shulokbahar.
 Widening of Hizra Khal from 3.2m to 7m and linning of secondary khal
along with the Hizra khal through widening.
.
 Connection of new secondary khal with the Tripurachara (Noah khal) khal by
North side parallel to rail line near from Sholashahar Madrasa. A secondary
khal of 150m long and 4m wide will be excavated along with Nasirabad CDA
avenue.
 Connection of Noa khal to 220m long and 2m wide Mirza khal at the North of
Bahadderhat and a secondary pacca khal will be built.
 Silt trap will be provided for silting at different places of Mirza khal and Hizra
khal.
 Connection of Farida para to Noa para through 490m long and 3.7m wide
pacca secondary khal.

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CHAPTER - SIX
METHODOLOGY

6.1 GENERAL
The study area Bahaddarhat of Chandgaon thana is a populated area. The
population of this area is about 3,00,000. The total study area is provided with
enough drainage facilities, but due to lack of consciousness among the
community, most of the drains are filled up with garbage and other dusts for
what water logging happens in this area within a duration of rainfall with
moderate intensity.

6.2 WATER LOGGING PROBLEM INVESTIGATION


To fulfill the objective of the study both primary and secondary data were
needed. All the necessary data has been collected from various sources. For the
purpose of the study different types of maps have been collected. Rainfall data
and the storm water drainage system data were needed for the study.

6.2.1 AMOUNT OF TOTAL AREA


The total area of the study zone is taken from collected GIS map and with
the help of ‘Chittagong Metropolitan Master Plan’ collected from CDA.
According to this, the total study area was taken as 1650acre (approx) from
Sholoshahar- Muradpur- Bahaddarhat Circle to Bahaddarhat terminal and Chaktai
khal.

6.2.2 AMOUNT OF DRAINAGE AREA


Here about 20% of the total area is calculated as the drainage area of the
study zone. And also by using penetrometer on the map of the study zone, it
is found as about 322 acre (approx.).

6.2.3 EXISTANCE OF KHALS IN THE STUDY ZONE


From the topographic map of Bahaddarhat zone, there are three khals
available. They are- Mirza khal, Noa khal and most important Chaktai khal.

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The Noa khal and Mirza khal meets at Muradpur- Bahaddarhat joining point
where a culvert exists. And the flow through these superimposed khals
continue through the drains along the Bahaddarhat and at last falls in Chaktai
khal.
6.2.4 LOCATION OF SIDE DRAINS
Existence of side drains is available and maximum of these drains through
Bahaddarhat zone are wide enough and also the depth. From the field data, the
average depth of these drains is found as 15 to 22 feet. And the width is
minimum 10 feet. But in some places the depth and width are reduced to a
lower value. In some places of Shulokbohor and Badurtola, the width of side
drains are maximum 2 feet and depth are so negligible.
6.2.5 LEVEL OF ROAD SURFACE
The road surface condition is too poor in this area. In most of the place,
uneven leveling of roads is found. Somewhere it is found that the road level is
lower than the position of culvert for which when water level increase in the
drain, the road gets flooded with the overflow of drains, Undulation of road
surface is found after the logged water gets removed and also the stripping of
bitumen is seen. Also the pot holes create due to water logging on the road
surface.

6.3 SURFACE DRAINAGE DESIGN


The design of surface drainage may be divided into two phases:

1. Hydrologic analysis
2. Hydraulic analysis

6.3.1 HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS

The main objective of hydrologic analysis is to estimate the maximum quantity of


water expected to reach the element of the drainage system under consideration. A
portion of the precipitation during the rainfall infiltrates into the ground as ground
water and a small portion get evaporated. The remaining portion of the water which
flows over the surface is termed as run-off. Varies factors affecting runoff are rate of
rainfall, type of soil and moisture condition, topography of the area, type of ground
cover like vegetation etc.

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Runoff estimation

Rational formula is widely used to estimate the peak runoff water for highway
drainage. The rational formula in its simplest form is given by:

Q = CIA…………………(1)

Where, Q = Peak discharge (m3/s)

C = Runoff coefficient, expressed as a ratio of runoff to rate of rainfall


which depends on the type of area, soil condition, soil cover, storage, depression etc.

i = Intensity of rainfall (mm/s)

A = Catchment area (m2)

Description of Area C
Business Downtown area 0.70-0.95
Neighborhood area 0.50-0.70

Residential(urban) Single-family area 0.30-0.50


Multi-units, detached 0.40-0.60
Multi- units, attached 0.60-0.75
Residential(sub-urban) 0.25-0.40
Apartment area 0.50-0.70
Industrial area Heavy 0.60-0.90
Light 0.50-0.80
Parkland 0.10-0.25

Table 6.1– Runoff coefficients for various surfaces

When the drainage area consists of several types of area with runoff co-
efficient C1, C2, C3 with their respective areas A1, A2, A3 the weighted value of
runoff co-efiicients C is determined from:

C=( A1C1+A2C2+A3C3+……….)/( A1+A2+A3+………)…………(2)

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6.3.2 HYDRAULIC DESIGN

If Q is the quantity of surface water to be removed by a side drain and V is the


allowable velocity of flow on the side drain, the area of cross section A of the channel
is found from the relation:

Q = AV

The velocity of unlined channel must be high enough to prevent silting and it should
not be too high as to cause erosion. The allowable velocity of flow depends on the soil
type; for sand and silt it is .3 to .5 m/sec, loom .6 to .9, clay .9 to 1.5, and gravel 1.2 to
1.5 m/sec. Assuming uniform and steady flow through channel of uniform cross
section and slope, Manning’s formula is used for determining the velocity of flow or
the longitudinal slope which is given by:

V = 1/n R2/3S1/2

Here V = Average velocity, m/s

n = Manning’s roughness coefficient

R = Hydraulic radius, m

S = Longitudinal slope of channel

The roughness co-efficient values depend on the type of soil in unlined channels and
in lined channels it depends on the type of lining.

6.4 Specification of Drainage

Various provisions for drainage system are given below:

According to AASHTO

AASHTO gives the following specification for drainage.

 Width 1V:3H drainage width is 1.2 to 2.4


 Width 1V:4H drainage width is 3m

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The key points to consider of drainage according to RHD, Bangladesh are given
below:

 Drain design should prevent silt deposition and excessive scour.


 The side slope next to the road should be flat enough to reduce the risk of
errant vehicles overturning (5 horizontal to 1 vertical).
 Open lines drains should be in the form of shallow dishes rather than steep
sided U or V sections.
 In built-up areas channel drains deeper than 250mm should be covered for the
safety.

The drain should be capable of being clean and maintained easily.

6.5 SHAPE OF DRAINAGE SECTION

 The conveyance of a channel section of a given area increases with a decrease


in its perimeter. Hence a channel section having the minimum perimeter for a
given area of flow provides the maximum value of the conveyance and
decrease roughness co-efficient.
 With the slope, roughness co –efficient and area of flow fixed, a minimum
perimeter section will represent the hydraulically efficient section as it
conveys the maximum discharge. This channel is also called the best section.
 Since the perimeter of the trapezoidal section is small and friction through the
section is also low, so the trapezoidal section is most efficient.
 In this project, as the slope of the trapezoidal section is very steep because of
the limitation of the road width. So it almost considering rectangular section.

So a rectangular section may be chosen.

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6.6 Calculation of waste water and maximum runoff

Rainfall water

I =15 mm/hr

Types of area Area(km2) Value of C Discharge(m3/sec)

Q =CIA
Commercial 2.25 0.7 6.5

Industrial 0.075 0.65 1.2

Institution 1.72 0.8 6.2

Low rise 1.11 0.35 2.2

Single 1.84 0.3 3.32

Duplex 1.32 0.6 3.5

Mixed 1.72 0.3 2.17

Total 25.09

Table 6.2: Waste water collection from Bagmoniramhat

Types of Area Population Waste Flow Flow(m3/ Peaking Total flow


area (km2) water (m3/h day) factor (m3/day)
flow day)
(l/c/d)
Commercial 0.55 - - 35 1925 3 5775
Low rise 0.225 56250 220 - 12375 2.7 33415
Single 0.96 225000 380 - 85500 2.1 179550
Mixed 0.4 93750 250 - 23440 2.5 58600
Total 277340

Table 6.3: Waste water collection from Bagmoniramhat = 3.21m3/sec

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Types of Area Population Waste Flow(m3/h Flow Peaking Total flow
area (km2) water day) (m3/day) factor (m3/day)
flow(l/c/d)
Commercial 0.5 - - 30 1500 3 4500
Institution 1.375 - - - 400 3.4 1360
Low rise 0.625 130000 220 - 28600 2.5 71500
Single 0.625 130000 380 - 49400 2.3 113620
Duplex 0.937 195000 300 - 58500 2.2 128700
Mixed 0.937 195000 250 - 48750 2.3 112125
Total 431805

Total waste water flow from Sulok Bahar = 5.0m3/sec

Table 6.4: Waste water collection from Sulok Bahar

Types of Area Population Waste water Flow(m3/ Flow(m3 Peaking Total flow

Area (km2) flow (l/c/d) hac/day) /day) factor (m3/day)

Commercial 1.2 - 30 - 3600 2.6 9360

Low rise 0.16 113000 - 220 24860 2.5 62150

Single 0.16 113000 - 380 42940 2.3 98762

Duplex 0.24 169000 - 300 50700 2.2 111540

Mixed 0.24 169000 - 250 42250 2.3 97175

Total 278987

Total waste water flow from Paschim Sholoshahar = 3.25 m3/sec

Table 6.5: Waste water collection from Paschim Sholoshahar

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Types of Area(km2) Population Waste water Flow(m3/ha Flow(m3/ Peaking Total

area flow(l/c/d) .day) day) factor Flow(m3/day)

Institution 0.045 - - - 400 3.5 1400

Low rise 0.021 70000 - 220 15400 2.6 40000

Single 0.021 70000 - 380 26600 2.5 66500

Duplex 0.0315 105000 - 300 31500 2.4 75600

Mixed 0.0315 105000 - 250 26250 2.6 68250

Total 251750

Total waste water flow from Panchlaish = 2.90 m3/sec

Table6.6: Waste water collection from Panchlaish

Types of Area(km2) Population Waste water Flow(m3/ha. Flow(m3 Peaking Total

area flow(l/c/d) day) /day) factor Flow(m3/day)

Industrial 0.075 - 40 - 300 3.8 1140

Institution 0.3 - - - 400 3.5 1400

Low rise 0.075 40000 - 220 8800 2.75 33000

Single 0.075 40000 - 380 11200 2.75 30800

Duplex 0.1125 60000 - 300 18000 2.65 47700

Mixed 0.1125 60000 - 250 15000 2.4 36000

Total 141240

Total waste water flow from Purbo Sholoshahar = 1.6 m3/sec

Table 6.7 : Waste water collection from Purbo Sholoshahar

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6.7 MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITY OF EXISTING DRAIN AND KHAL

6.7.1 CAPACITY OF LARGE DRAIN NEAR AT BAHADDERHAT MOOR

Section of drain =7.5*3.5 m

velocity of flow =1 m/sec

Capacity =7.5*3.5*1 (From equation 1)

= 27 m3/sec

6.7.2 CAPACITY OF PROPOSED DRAINAGE SYSTEM

I =15 mm/hr

From table 6.2

Runoff, Q1 =25 m3/sec

From table (6.3-6.7)

Flow from waste water, Q2 =16 m3/sec

Total Q = Q1 + Q2

= 25 +16 m3/sec

=41 m3/sec

Chosen a section 3*3 m for one side drain

Assume velocity of flow =1 m/sec

Capacity = 3*3*1 m3/sec

= 9 m3/sec

Total capacity in both side drain =9+9 m3/sec

=18 m3/sec

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6.7.3 Capacity of Mirza Khal
Cross section of Mirza khal =7*3 m

Velocity =1 m/sec

Capacity =A*V (From equation 4)

=7*3*1 m3/sec

= 21 m3/sec

6.8 Conclusive Remarks

It is clear from the above discussion that

 The drainage condition of the study area is no longer being useful.


 Man made reasons are mostly liable for poor drainage system and now it is
nearly unmanageable.
 An alternate underground drain should be provided for instant removing of
stagnated water at heavy rainfall.
 Another way is to prevent water logging at Bahadderhat Moor is water coming
from the Purbo Sholoshahar and Paschim Sholoshahar are totally pass into the
Mirza khal at different slopes.

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CHAPTER- SEVEN

REMEDIAL MEASURES

7.1 GENERAL

To eradicate the drainage problem in study area proper remedial measures should be
applied. Remedial measures should be chosen according to the present drainage
condition and existing problems. The remedial measures of study area have been
discussed below.

7.2 REMEDIES

As this area is high water logging prone area, so the water logging problem of this
area should be solved as soon as possible. The solution includes:

7.2.1 ACTIVATION OF INACTIVE DRAIN

 The drainage system from Bahadderhat to Muradpur should be repaired


completely.
 In which side drains are totally inactive those must repair pre-excavated and
must back them to action.
 The huge amount of wastes which damped by shops and restaurants to the
drains must be restricted by providing legislative measure and the alternative
dumping place should be created.
 The illegal shops which make the drainage system completely inactive should
be removed.
 The concrete drain should be constructed in which the drains are not present
and should be connected with regular drain.
 The adequate road slope should be provided.

7.2.2 PROVIDING UNDERGROUND DRAIN

 New automatic underground drainage system should be constructed at


Bahadderhat to Muradpur as no water can be stagnated for a long time due to
heavy rainfall.

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 Self cleaning velocity should be provided at increasing rate for de-silting and
removing garbage through the drain.
 Such material with water should not allowed which create silting or blockage
into the drain.
 Inlet should be provided at different points of drain.

Proposed Underground Drain

Existing Drain

Proposed Drain
To Chaktai

Fig 7.1: Proposed Drainage Layout

7.2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING DRAIN AT BAHADDERHAT MOOR

 The drain near at Bahadderhat should be re-excavated for de-silting which


increase the water carring capacity.
 Adequate slope should be provided along the Chaktai to free flow at
downstream side
 Construction a new drainage line by the side of existing drain which directly
connected with Chaktai khal.
 Drain should be maintained properly.

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7.2.4 IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING KHALS

 The Hizra khal should be dredged properly so that the effective depth of khal
is increased.
 The branch of Mirza khal at the near of Bahadderhat moor must be dredged to
increase the water carrying capacity and the major portion of water from from
Muradpur to Bahadderhat road can be drained out by that branch and fall into
the Mirza khal. Hence the water logging problem can be fully removed in this
region.
 In the bending portion of khal concrete boundary can be constructed to prevent
erosion of the bank of khal in which soil fall into the khal.

7.3 Overall remedies

By studying the above remedial measures and overall glimpses can be listed as
follows:

 All road side drains emptying into water courses should be provided with
sufficient fall and free flow as far as possible.
 The major water courses like “Mirza Khal” should be provided with a side
road of 4 m for playing of machinery and equipment for de-silting.
 The frequency of de-silting program for water courses should be 3 times area.
 Similarly all roadside drains (specially the drain around the Bahadderhat
moor) should be cleaned at 3 times a year.
 No engineering solution will be effective until entry of domestic and other
solid wastes into the water course is totally stopped.
 CDA or CCC should float and awareness program with the help of suitable
NGO’s to prevail upon all the public in general not to dump the solid wastes
into the water courses road side drains.
 CCC should prepare and implement a plan for collection, treatment and
disposal of solid wastes.
 Most of the areas of drainage system which are blocked by siltation throwing
garbage in the study area should be removed immediately.

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 Box culverts which are constructed on different canals or water bodies are also
remain clogged for lack of cleaning and its also contributing to water logging
at “Bahadderhat moor”. These should be dredged and repaired thus they can
back into work.
 A proper drainage system does not only mean having a few sewerage lines and
drains, it means building up a network that connects the drains and sewerage
lines with natural water bodies such as “Chaktai khal”, “Karnafuli River” etc.
 Most of the drains in the study area have no covers and have been filled up
with dust and garbage. These are need of immediate cleaning to restore
drainage of waste and rain water.
 The drainage system must be regularly maintained to keep it clean, free of silt
and in a state of good repair.
 A sluice gate may be provided of the mouth of the Karnafully. It should be
closed during rainfall and should be opened during when rainfall does not
exist for cleaning of drain.

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CHAPTER - EIGHT

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

7.1 RECOMMENDATIONS
Rapid population growth and its growing demand for housing in Chittagong City are
encouraging the real state business and private developers to grab and encroach of
wetlands, low lands, water bodies and natural drainage system for housing, roads and
commercial activities. Due to such activities, the natural drainage pattern and flood
retention areas are destructed and creating the unprecedented water logging.
Therefore, the concerned authorities need to take appropriate measures immediately
to overcome the situation. Following steps of measures can help the authorities for
comprehensive management of storm water and minimize the suffering of the city
dwellers from physical, social, economical and environmental point of view.

 First of all, CDA will have to stop giving permission of constructing buildings
on low lands and wetlands.
 There should be a clear definition of the water body, which could be filled, or
not.
 The CDA should be followed for the development activities to take place.
 The flood retention areas, which are clearly marked in CDA plan, should
leave for its respective uses.
 Many khals and lakes are still being retained with strict measure taken to
maintain the natural drainage system regularly to keep theme useable for
drainage.
 The authority can apply laws and the Wetland Conservation Act as a legal
instrument in this regard and take action against the violators of the laws. The
act should be amended if necessary.

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8.1.2 WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Local governments of both the developed and developing countries are concerned
with the environmental consequences of waste disposal. Until recently in the
developing country like Bangladesh the collection and disposal of solid waste was
taken as one sided responsibility on the part of the municipal authorities burdened
with financial and management problems. The increased congestion of the city area,
the high population density and the rapid growth all around it has made it impossible
to clean the street and drains as fast as the waste thrown onto them. Away from the
other parts of the SWM system like transportation and disposal; the collection system
is the primary challenge for conservancy department.

8.1.2.1 LAWS AND REGULATIONS RELATED TO WASTE MANAGEMENT

The Municipal Ordinance 1983 (amended in 1999) and the Bangladesh


Environmental Conservation Act 1995 are the legal foundations on solid waste
management. This Ordinance is the only local law that gives some idea on disposal of
municipal waste. These foundations, however, do not cover the solid waste operation
comprehensively.

Therefore, a comprehensive new legislation for solid waste management is urgently


needed, which should cover,

 Collection and disposal of all categories of waste.


 Categorize all wastes in terms of danger to environment.
 Correct procedure in SWM, its enforcement and to ensure proper
management.

8.1.2.2 COMMUNITY BASED WASTE MANAGEMENT

Due to limited resources and organizational capacity, CCC is unable to ensure


efficient and appropriate delivery of solid waste collection and disposal services to
the entire city population. Therefore, community based waste management system
can be a better alternative solution to cope with the situation. CCC should encourage
community-based organizations and local Non Government Organizations (NGOs) to

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organize and carry out community waste management programs (mainly house to
house collection and disposal at roadside bins) in all areas of the city. Moreover,

 Convenient local collection points and more efficient removal services should
be provided.
 New dwelling should have at least one garbage collection room.
 CCC should remove solid waste from demountable containers regularly.
 Different waste disposal system like incineration should be introduced instead
of covering wetland and encroachment of water bodies as disposal areas.
 As the capacity of landfill area is coming to a saturation point in the near
future, the materials should be separated for recycling, thereby relieving the
pressure on the landfill.
 A separate management system should be introduced for toxic and hazardous
wastes.
 Existing community projects should be given a legal status.
 Public awareness should be raised. This could be done by CCC in
collaboration with ward commissioners and NGOs through local meetings,
group discussion, and the mass media.
 CCC should concentrate on formulating policies for overall solid waste
management, which requires substantial funding and legislation.
 Coordination and cooperation among different divisions of CCC involved
with the waste management should be improved.

8.1.3 DRAINAGE CAPACITY ADJUSTMENT

Following urbanization, it is necessary to adjust drainage capacity in the watershed to


take into account the “basin development factor (BDF)” in order to accommodate the
extra runoff that results due to urbanization. The amount of adjustment in the carrying
capacity of natural streams following urbanization depends on the degree of BDF. For
an increase of the amount of impervious surface by 10% in a watershed, a 23%
increase in the drainage capacity by dredging or deepening of streams is suggested by
Sauer et al. (1983).

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8.1.4 COMPREHENSIVE DRAINAGE DEVELOPMENT PLAN
There should be a comprehensive storm water drainage improvement plan to
overcome the water logging problem as well as its environmental consequences. The
entire drainage system of the city will have to be overhauled to mitigate the plight of
the residents and should be properly linked through a scientific network. CCC should
execute the comprehensive drainage improvement project as implementing agency. If
CCC is lacking in planning and detailed design works for implementation and
management of this project, it will need the assistance and supports of local
consultants. With the involvement of professional development organizations, it can
be managed in a more sustainable fashion. This will develop the skill of manpower of
CCC through transfer of technology and training.

The proposed comprehensive drainage improvement plan should be exchanged with


other utility organization to avoid overlapping and duplication. As such, a high degree
of close coordination with WASA, BWDB, LGED and other utility organization
should be maintained during the project implementation stage.

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8.1.5 IMPROVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION THROUGH
DRAINAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Water logging and its environmental consequences are the result of insufficient storm
water drainage and lack of proper drainage management system. Storm water
becomes polluted as solid waste, silt and contaminants are washed off roads. The
runoff mixes with domestic wastewater and dumping of wastes beside the road, near
the receiving water bodies and open surface drain causes significant increase in the
level of pollution in storm water.

Improvement in the drainage system will improve the environmental situation in the
water logged areas by eliminating stagnant water and associated problems like odors
from decaying solid wastes, insects, scams and disease vectors as well as the
incidence of local flooding due to rainfall. Therefore, especial emphasis on drainage
development works will have to be considered and undertaken in the severely
waterlogged areas to reduce the spreading of diseases and damage to public and
private properties.

 The schemes and programs proposed in the DAP to reduce the incidences of
drainage blocking and water logging through provision of improved drainage
system, environmental
 Measures and services including sanitation, drainage and solid waste disposal
will have to be implemented with prior consideration.
 Faulty sewerage networks will have to be identified and repair it to protect the
contamination of domestic wastewater with storm water.
 A long range program to reduce the “source” of intrusion of sludge, silt,
garbage, effluent into the drainage system, thereby reducing the cost of the
long term maintenance operation will have to be undertaken.
 Public information campaign will have to be introduced to make people more
aware of the problems, hazards and unacceptable practices.
 The outlet of drains will have to be protected by providing oil and silt traps as
necessary and trash racks and sumps in the drainage system to facilitate
collection of silts and floating garbage’s therefore, to reduce cost of routine
cleaning and maintenance work.

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8.1.6 AWARENESS DEVELOPMENT AGAINST CLOSING OF DRAINS

The natural drainage and water bodies and its surrounded lands are day by day
occupied by the people living nearby. Most people of our country are illiterate and
they even don’t know the after-effect of the filling of natural drainage and water
bodies. Therefore, the concerned development authority should take steps for
awareness development about the necessity of natural canals and if necessary they
can involve NGOs for this purpose.

8.1.7 LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

Legal instruments play a vital role towards the changes in behavioral attitude of the
people in a democratic society. There are a set of acts, rules, and policies in the
country to deal with the problems of environment. Some laws are century-old and
cannot cater to the need of the day. Some are new that need amendment to
accommodate the existing environmental scenario. Though a single issue,
environment encompasses different ministries in respect of preventing pollution.
Consolidation of all environment laws into a single law and arrangement of all
environmental activities under one umbrella may bring good result towards
conservation and improvement of environment.

8.2 CONCLUSION

Water logging in Chittagong City is the consequence of unplanned development. Due


to rapid urbanization with unplanned construction, most of the storm water drainage
have been encroached, filled up, diverted and caused obstruction to the smooth flow
of water to the outfall-rivers, creating severe water-logging in the city every year
during monsoon incurring huge loss in terms of adverse social, physical, economic
and environmental costs. The most recent heavy rainfall that brought Bahadderhat to
a virtual standstill demanded the urgent need for long term planning to overcome
water logging problem. We understand the exceptionality of the deluge and that the
government and development authorities have no control over the weather.

Nevertheless, the devastating impact of the downpour that paralyzed Chittagong is a


salutary reminder of the severity of the problem, and the necessity for the government

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to take counteractive measures on a priority basis. Chittagong City could hurtle
towards an ecological disaster if destruction of the natural drainage and water bodies
isn't stopped and an effective management of urban drainage system isn't set up.

Planning, design, operation and maintenance of urban drainage systems is a challenge


for urban authorities because of unplanned development activities, and the
effectiveness of storm water management systems can be directly linked to the
efficacy of urban management. Therefore, for urban drainage systems to be managed
effectively and operationally sustainable, greater emphasis needs to be placed upon:

 Co-ordination between urban authorities and agencies those are


responsible for different aspects of urban infrastructure provision and
management;
 Collaboration between government and nongovernmental
organizations and promotion of effective partnership with civil
society and the private sector;
 Training and human resource development for improved planning,
design, and operation of Urban drainage systems.

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REFERENCE

1. Causes and effects of Water logging in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.


TREITA-LWR Master Thesis, Department of Land and Water Resource
Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.

2. Chow Ven Te ‘Open Channel Hydraulics’


McGraw Hill International Editions.

3. Garg S.K ‘Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structure’


1st Edition, 1976; Revised Edition,2008;
Khanna publishers, Delhi.

4. ‘Water logging problem at Bahadderhat in Chittagong’.


Courtesy: Department of Civil Engineering, Chittagong University of
Engineering & Technology,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drainage

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tile_drainage

http://enotesweekly.blogspot.com/search/label/civil

http://www.broward.org/KNOWTHEFLOW/pages/systems/Tertiary.aspx

http://www.ilo.org/oshene/part_vii/environment_health_hazards/item/497_ind
ustrial_pollutions_in_developing_countries

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