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Society for Music Theory

Studies of Time and Music: A Bibliography

Author(s): Jonathan D. Kramer
Source: Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 7, Time and Rhythm in Music (Spring, 1985), pp. 72-
Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Music Theory
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Studies of Time and Music: A Bibliography

Jonathan D. Kramer

Assembling a bibliography is a matter not only of finding sonal, yet universal ways-the rhythms, pacings, and progres-
and examining relevant sources but also of making decisions on sions of life. Many scholars agree that time is both the essential
the listing's scope. When the subject is not a universally recog- component of musical meaning and the vehicle by which music
nized area of scholarship, making such decisions can be tanta- makes its deepest contact with the human spirit. Yet most theo-
mount to defining the field. As I assembled this bibliography, I rists do not treat time as central to their understanding of mu-
became increasingly aware that implicit in my choices of what sic.
to include was my own understanding of what is (or should be) As readers of this journal surely know, theories of music
encompassed by the discipline. tend instead to be dominated by considerations of pitch. Fur-
Musical time has not been widely recognized as an indepen- thermore, the majority of theoretical works on musical time
dent field of study. The New Grove has no article on time; deal with rhythm and meter and how they are perceived. Yet
RILM has no separate category for time; The Music Index has much lies beyond rhythm, meter, and perception: motion and
only recently begun to list articles under the heading "Time." stasis, continuity and discontinuity, progression, timelessness,
One might conclude from such neglect in indexes and reference pacing, proportion, duration, and tempo. These aspects of mu-
books that the field is small and/or new. Yet the study of musi- sic have indeed been studied, although less systematically than
cal time reasonably ought to consider every musical process rhythm, meter, and perception. Thus I felt it important not to
that takes (place in) time-everything, in fact, inherent in a restrict this bibliography to those areas within the mainstream
piece of music. Therefore titles will be found here that might of theoretical thought.
"properly"(that is, narrowly)be thought of as belonging more The study of time is perhaps the ultimate interdisciplinary
to musicology than to theory, more to music perception than to field. Thus I have found relevant titles concerned with experi-
music theory, more to composers' prescriptions about tech- mental psychology, cognition, sociology, philosophy, criticism
nique than to objective analyses of music. of other temporal arts, and anthropology. I have listed, how-
It is ironic that the study of time is not usually considered a ever, only works from these areas that do treat music in some
subdiscipline of music theory. Music is, after all, a temporal art. substantive manner.
Music is pure temporality-abstract sonorous shapes moving Omissions have been necessary. The process of defining (my
through and creating time. Several writers believe that the view of) this discipline's boundaries has been as much exclu-
manner in which music uses time symbolizes-in complex, per- sionary as inclusionary. Except for sources that are particularly

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Studies of Time and Music: A Bibliography 73

theoretical or that offer unique insights or viewpoints, I have and prescriptions of recent composers' approaches to time and
not included references dealing with music therapy, popular rhythm; just how recent a composer must be for inclusion and
music, transcription, rhythmic patterning of folk music, peda- just what constitutes the dividing line between such descrip-
gogy, rudiments, music education, music appreciation, rhyth- tions and prescriptions and real analysis (which would be listed
mic abilities, tempo indications, time signatures, eurhythmics, under "Analysis") is difficult to say. Under "Ethnomusicol-
notation, child development, performance practice, or the in- ogy" are found works about music in non-Western cultures, al-
ternal timing of individual notes (e.g., perception of attack rise though particularly theoretical treatments of such music are
times). I have also omitted masters theses. I have included only listed elsewhere. "Aesthetics" and "Phenomenology" might
those book reviews of sufficient scope to offer their own in- suggest one large category, but I have separated them since
sights. phenomenology is emerging as a self-contained subdiscipline of
Some works have been published more than once. When a music theory. "Other Arts" refers to writings on temporal arts
book has reappeared in print long after its original publication, as compared to music. "History" includes studies that are pri-
I have listed the more recent edition and indicated the original marily historical, even if a certain amount of analysis is in-
date of publication. When articles or dissertations have been cluded. The psychology of music is an enormous field, and I
revised or collected into books, I have listed only the author's have therefore divided it into two parts: "Perception" includes
most recent version. When articles appear unchanged in more experimental studies on how we perceive duration and rhythm;
than one place, I have tried to list the more accessible sources. all other appropriate titles are listed under "Psychology."
When only one or two chapters of a book are considered rele- "Tempo" includes theoretical and historical studies but not ar-
vant, I have listed them by chapter title. ticles dealing primarily with performance practice or tempo in-
The bibliography is divided into several categories, which dications. "Proportion" lists sources concerned with the pro-
are no more rigorously defined than the field itself. Categoriza- portions of duration (but not of tempo), whether of individual
tion is difficult, because there are inevitably titles that do not fit notes or of lengthier time-spans. "Rhythm and Meter" includes
the prescribed categories. Listings are grouped more by their studies of either of these two interrelated ideas, in music of any
authors' orientations and methodologies than by the types of period. Theoretical writings not falling under the specific topics
music studied (an exception to this policy, however, is found in "Rhythm and Meter," "Harmonic Rhythm," or "Information
"Ethnomusicology"). Most of the works listed might well fall Theory" appear under "Music Theory." "Science and Tech-
into more than one category. For example, "Analysis" includes nology" should be self-explanatory. "Textbooks" includes
sources that study individual composition(s) from temporal only those texts that present important, interesting, unique, or
viewpoints, while writings that use pieces principally to exem- worthwhile theoretical ideas even in an elementary format.
plify theoretical ideas are listed under "Music Theory" or "Textbooks" is combined with "Bibliography" because both
"Rhythm and Meter": this distinction between analysis and have a small number of titles.
theory can be rather artificial in a number of cases. I have not, I have chosen not to list any sources originally published be-
however, resorted to cross referencing, because of the large fore 1900. I have not, however, included everything published
number of titles that might require multiple listing. since the turn of the century. A rule of thumb has been that the
Under "Contemporary Techniques" are found descriptions older a source is, the more important it must be to warrant inclu-

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74 Music Theory Spectrum

sion. I have made a similar decision regarding writings in lan- trivial or useless articles, I do not want my own view of the disci-
guages other than English. This is primarily an English- pline inordinately to color my judgment of a work's quality.
language bibliography, but I have included foreign sources that Hence I have preferred to err on the side of inclusion.
are particularly important. The farther a source's language is The list contains obscure as well as easy-to-find sources. It
from the expertise of most English-speaking music theorists, has therefore not been possible to examine every item in-
the more important the source must be deemed for it to be in- cluded. Some works are listed on the basis of careful examina-
cluded. Thus there are only a few listings in Russian, Japanese, tion, others because of an abstract or a description in another
or Czech, while there are several in German, French, and Ital- writing, and some simply on the basis of an educated guess.
ian. Titles in languages which do not use the Roman alphabet I would like to acknowledge the assistance of the Informa-
are given in translation, enclosed in brackets. tion Retrieval System of the School of Music at the Ohio State
Naturally a bibliography should list only writings relevant to University, and in particular Helen Brown, in locating titles in
its topic. It is not always easy to decide, however, whether a the "Psychology and Cognition" and "Perception" categories. I
given source is related to the nebulously defined field of musical am also indebted to Lewis Rowell for convincing me to assem-
time. I have tended to be inclusive, choosing to list a source if it ble this bibliography, for several useful suggestions, and for ed-
has any potential relevance. Similarly, while I prefer to exclude itorial assistance.

Bayer, Raymond. "The Essence of Rhythm," trans. Susanne
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Anthony, Donald B. "A General Concept of Musical Time Perspectives of New Music 14, no. 2 and 15, no. 1
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Studies of Time and Music: A Bibliography 75

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