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 We know that our bodies built from millions Tues In this cell
there is a center of activity known as the nucleus. There are
chromosomes in the nucleus that contains genes. Gen, this is the
nature of our control. For example it controls whether our hair curly
or not.
 Genes are genes that carry material genetic information.
 Gene located in chromosome. If viewed through a microscope,
chromosomes are structures in the nucleus stranded Tues
 Humans can grow and reproduce because the cell can
divide. Two types of cell division is Mitosis and Meiosis. Mitosis
occurs in the entire body and cause each day we grow. The number
of chromosomes that results remain the same as the original genes
[sometimes called the 'master gene']. Meiosis also occurs in the
testes or ovaries to produce sperm or ovum. Number of
chromosomes in sperm is half the number of cells holding. Human
chromosome 23 has a half from Stem cell chromosomes (46
 There are many differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

 Scientists already know that organisms typically have a pair of
chromosomes that carry a pair of genes. Genes may be different or
the same. There are two types of genes and gene dominant gene
 Gene dominant gene is a strong and able to highlight features
in the organism. Recessive genes are genes that weak. It cannot be
met if the features highlight a dominant gene. Gen.
 Recessive can only highlight the features if he came to the
same pair Recessive genes. Dominant gene will result in a dominant
nature. Based on several examples of genetic research scientist
dominant nature of human nature is such as wavy hair and the
ability to roll tongue. [The ability to roll his tongue].Recessive
properties are properties such as hair is straight and cannot roll
tongue. How these properties can be handed down from parents to
 Human cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs of genes). Sperm
and ovum that results from Meiosis only contain only 23
chromosomes. If the sperm carrying genes that control the nature
of curly hair (dominant) ovum mix that brings nature hair straight,
then the resulting child will be curly-haired.
 Chromosome structure in gamete:

 Chromosomes X and Y chromosome known as the "sex

chromosome". This chromosome determines gender of a person.

Sex Choromosomes

 22 pairs of choromosomes are known as autosomes. The

largest of the autosomes is referred to as chromosome 1,the next
largest as chromosomes 2, and so on, down to the smallest
autosomes , which are chromosomes 21 and 22.The 23rd pair of the
last two chromosomes are known as sex chromosomes. Sex
choromosomes are responsible for determining gender. There are
two types of sex chromosomes:
 X chromosomes
 Y chromosomes

Sex determination

Male chromosomes
 The human male will have a genetic make up of pairs of autosomes and
two types of sex chromosomes X and Y

Female chromosomes
 The human female will have a genetic make up of 22 pairs of
autosomes and only one type of sex chromosomes, XX.

Formation of twins
 Under normal circumstances, one ovum is released in one
menstrual cycle. During fertilision, one ovum will be fertilized by
one sperm to produce one zygote. Therefore, a single baby will be
 There are two types of twins:
 Non- identical twins
 Identical twins

Non-identical twins
 More than one ovum is produced in expectional cases. Each
ovum will be fertilised by different sperms, developing into zygotes

Formation of non-identical twins

Identical twins
 Sometimes, one ovum is fertilised and then divides
immediately into two or more zygotes through division, resulting in
 The zygotes then develop into two embryos.Both embryos
share one placenta with separate amniotic sacs. Babies born in this
wy are known as identical twins
Formation of non-identical

Formation of identical twins

Siamese twin
 In certain cases identical twins are born joined at identical
sides. This happens because the zygote failed to divide completely
into two separate embryos.
 Definition of mutation - Human traits can be altered by sudden
changes in chromosomes or genes. This is known as mutation
 Mutation can happen in somatic or reproductive cells. The
difference is mutation in somatic cells cannot be inherited by the
next generation.
 Mutation that happens in either the sperm or ovum may be
inherited by the next generation although the parents do not
possess these traits.

Type of mutation
There are two types of mutation:
 Chromosome mutation occurs when changes take place in the
structure of the chromosome or to the number of choromosomes.
 Gene mutation occurs when there is a change in the chemocal
structure of a gene.
Examples of mutation:
 Klinefelter's syndrome

Karyotype of an individual with Klinefelter's syndrome

 turner's syndrome

Karyotype of an individual with turner's syndrome

 down's syndrome
Karyotype of an individual with down's syndrome

Non-disjunction in
meiosis I and meiosis II

 is a condition where there is an absence of the melanin
pigment in the skin, hair and iris in human.This condition is caused
by a recessive gene taht affects the production of melanin.
Colour blindness
 Colour blindness is a condition that arises from the mutation of
the gene for colour vision.This causes a person to be unable to
differentiate between the colour green and red.The mutation
produces a recessive gene.

 is a disease where the blood fails to clot.As a result severe sufferers
can bleed to death without treatment .Even if with treatment, internal
bleeding in the joints is the most problematic complication since it leads to
paintful arthritis.This disease is an example of a sex-linked disease which is
caused by a recessive allele on the X chromosome.
Haemophoilia man married to a normal female

A normal man married to a carrier female

Causes of mutation
 Some mutations are induced and others are spontaneous.
 Mutation is more likely to occur as a result of exposure to
mutagens.Mutagens are factors that cause mutation.Among the
known mutgens are nuclear radiations,harmful rays and certain
chemicals called carcinogens.
 Nuclear radiations will penetrate the nucleus of the cell and
change the structure of the genes and chromosomes in the nucleus.
 Harmful rays are also mutagens
 Chemical - There are many hundreds of known chemical
mutagens such as
benzene,fungicides,herbicides,insecticides,pesticides and dioxins

Advantages and disadvantages of mutation

Advantages of mutation
 mutation is one of the sources for the creation of new species.
 mutation may lead to variation .Variation is the difference in
traits between individual of the same species.
 If no mutation occurs,evolution could not have taken place.In
other words mutation is a precursor of the evolution process.
Disadvantages of mutation
 The disadvantages of mutation to humans can be grouped into:
 Physical deformities - is a type of physical deformity as a result of
mutation.Suffers have extra fingers or toes on both hands or feet.
 Genetic diseases - Gene mutation many cause genetic diseases
such as colour-blindness and albanism.

Effects of Genetic Research on Human Life

Distributions of gebe

 Amniocentesis is a test perfomed between 16 and 18 weeks of

a woman's pregnancy.The drawn fluid is then analysed.This fluid
can be tested not only to check for genetic problems but also to
determine the sex of an unborn baby.
 In gene therapy, a detective gene in unhealthy cells will be
replaced with a new and healthy gene by using a type of virus called
Selective breeding
 Selective breeding is a technique which involves the choosing
and breeding of animals or plants with desirable traits to ensure
that these traits are inherited by the next generation.
 Oil palm is the highest yielding oil crop.Selective breeding
between the oil palm species Pisifera and Dura to produce a new
species called Tenera is a good example.This is shown in Figure
3.32.The oil palm is continually being improved through breeding.

 Table shows comparison between Pisifera, Dura and Tenera

Advantages and disadvantages of genetic research

 Vaccines and better medicines are produced in medicine and
healthcare through genetic research.
 The quality of crops and livestock have been improved by
genetic research.
 Crops can be affected by many different diseases.Transgenic
plants which are resistant to certain diseases are produced to solve
this problem

 Genetic research may lead to exitinction of species since new varieties
replace them.
 Cloning or genetic engineering, especially on human beings may give
rise to moral, ethical and religious problems.
 Genetically modified food may be harmful to human health.
 Ecosystem can also be threatened by genetic technology.
Variation Among Living Things

Definition of variation
 Variation is the difference in trais of an organism of the same species
which can be passed on from one generation to another.
Variation in humans
 Human differ from each other in terms of
 Physical characteristics
 Physiologically
 There are two types of variation
 Continuous variation - differences in traits which are not very
distict or discrete.This type of variation tend to be quantitative.
 controlled by genetic factors and is often significantly affected by
environmental influences.
 Discontinuous variation - is variation which deals with clear-cut
differences in traits. Discontinuous variation is completely controlled by
genetic factors and is not effected at all by environmental factors.

Factors that cause variation

 There are two factors that lead to variation:
 Genetic factors
 Variation that is controlled by genetic factors can be inherited.
 Crossing-over occurs at the start of Prophase I during meiosis.
 Chromosome separate randomly in gamete formation
 Random fertilisation
 Environmental factors
 environmental factors which cause variation include
climate.light, moisture,oxygen,pressure,soil
fertility,temperature,type of food and lifestyle.
The importance of variation
 The emergence of traits which can adapt well to changes in the
environment enables the organism to survive, breed and inherit new
 Variation ensures the survival of a species. Variation may encourage
the formation of new species, a process called speciation
 There will be no diversity in organisms without variation.

Family tree
 Pedigree analysis is another term for the construction of a
family tree.
 Pedigree analysis is a schematic chart that shows the flow of a
certain trait from parents to the next generation and other related
members in a family through inheritance.
 Table shows a list of symbols commonly used in a human
pedigree analysis.