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Heat Balance Sheet

AIM:- The experiment is conducted to

a) To study and understand the performance characteristics of the engine.
b) To draw Performance curves and compare with standards.
1. 4-stroke 4-cylinder petrol engine.
2. Loading arrangements (Rope Brake dynamometer).
3. Rota meter.

For slow speed engine the indicated power is directly calculated from
the indicator diagram. But in modern high speed engines , it is difficult to
obtain accurate indicator diagram due to inertia forces , and therefore , this method
cannot be applied . In such cases the Morse test can be used to measure the
indicated power and mechanical efficiency of multi cylinder engines. The engines
test is carried out as follows. The engine is run at maximum load at certain speed.
The B.P. is then measured when all cylinders are working.

Then one cylinder is made in operative by cutting off the ignition to that
cylinder. As a result of this the speed of the engine will decrease. Therefore, the
load o n the engine is reduced so that the engine speed is restored to its initial value.
The assumption made on the test is that frictional power is depends on the speed
and not upon the load on the engine.


Break power (BP):

The useful power available at the crank shaft of the engine is called brake
power of the engine. The brake power of the engine are determined by

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1. Rope brake dynamometer.

T = WRe

W = net load
Re = effective radius of the brake drum
2. Prony brake dynamometer

T = WL
W = Load
L = Distance at which the load is applied
3. Hydraulic dynamometer

W = Load
N = Speed in RPM
C = Dynamometer constant
4. Electrical dynamometer

Indicated power (I P):

The power actually developed inside the engine cylinder due to the
combustion of the fuel are called indicated power .
IP = FP + BP; FP = Frictional power
Frictional power (FP):
The power loss due to friction between the moving parts are called as
frictional power .

Mechanical efficiency (ηmech):

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Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ηith):

Brake Thermal Efficiency (ηbth):


1. Give the necessary electrical connections to the panel.

2. Check the lubricating oil level in the engine.

3. Check the fuel level in the tank.

4. Allow the water to flow to the engine and the calorimeter and adjust the flow
rate to 6lpm & 3lpm respectively.

5. Release the load if any on the dynamometer.

6. Open the three-way cock so that fuel flows to the engine.

7. Start the engine by cranking.

8. Allow to attain the steady state.

9. Load the engine by slowly tightening the yoke rod handle of the Rope
brake drum.
10. Note the following readings for particular condition,

a. Engine Speed

b. Time taken for ____cc of petrol consumption

c. Rota meter reading.

d. Manometer readings, in cm of water &

e. Temperatures at different locations.

11. Repeat the experiment for different loads and note down the above

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12. After the completion release the load and then switch of the engine.

13. Allow the water to flow for few minutes and then turn it off.

(1) Brake power B.P =........... KW
(2) Rated Speed N =...........Rpm
(3) Type of loading: =...........
(4) Radius of brake drum: R =........... ‘m’
(5) Radius of Rope r = =........... ‘m’
(6) Number of cylinders = 4
Sl. Time for 10cm Loading Speed BP(kW)
No. fuel consumption W1 W2 W1-W2 Net Load (RMP)
(kg) (kg) (kg) W (N)

Temperature Table:
Sl. No. T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

1. Mass of fuel consumed,
Mf= (Xcc x Specific gravity of the fuel) 1000 x t kg/sec
Sg of Petrol is = 0.739
Xcc is the volume of fuel consumed = 10ml
t is time taken in seconds
2. Heat Input, HI
HI = Mf x Calorific Value of Fuel kW
Where, Calorific value of diesel =44000 kJ/kg
3. Output =Brake Power,

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Heat Balance Sheet Calculations:

C. Credit side:
Heat Input: Hi

D. Debit Side:
e. Heat converted into useful work Hb
Hb = BP x 60 kJ/min
f. Heat carried away by engine cooling water Hw

g. Heat carried away by exhaust gases

He = [Me x Cpg x (T4-T1)] kJ/min
Me= mass flow rate of exhaust gas in Kg/min
Cpg= specific heat of exhaust gas 1.005kJ/KgK
Me= Ma+ TFC in Kg/hr.
h.Un accountable losses:
Hu= [Hi]-{Hb+Hw+He} kJ/min

Assignment Questions
1. Differentiate SFC and TFC.
2. Describe different heat losses in SI engines.
3. Differentiate brake power and indicated power.
4. Explain the heat balancing of Diesel engine.

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