Submitted by: TARANJEET SINGH Enrollment no.12919103910 MBA 1st SEM


It’s an opportunity to acknowledge the Mrs. Sandeepa Kaur. She is the one who provided me continues source of information under her great guidelines and support. I had tried to make the project possible and desirable as she wanted.

I am very thankfull for her kind support.


We are not doing a favour to a consumer by giving him an opportunity. of late. In this context. "A consumer is the most important visitor on our premises. it is the duty of the government to confer some rights on consumers to safeguard their interests. etc has become the common practice of greedy sellers and manufacturers to make unreasonable profits. he is the purpose of it. .INTRODUCTION Consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation because in the absence of effective demand that emanates from them. Mahatma Gandhi said. misleading advertisements. He is doing us a favour by giving us opportunity to serve him. But. we are on him. He is not dependent on us. unfortunately cheating by way of overcharging. black marketing. the economy virtually collapses. He is not an interruption to our work.

. o Return of price paid by the consumer. o Discontinue the restrictive. o Replacement of defective goods with new goods of similar description which shall be free from any defect. second at state level known as 'State Commission'. and not to repeat it.CONSUMER PROTECTION o Removal of defects in goods or deficiency in service. The Consumer Production Act provides for a threetier system of redressal agencies: one at district level known as District Forum. and third at national level known as 'National Commission'. o Withdraw the hazardous goods from being offered for sale and not to offer them for sale. or unfair trade practice. o Provide for adequate cost to the aggrieved party. o Payment of compensation for any loss or injury suffered by the consumer.

3. if any. quantity. Consumers need protection due to the following reasons: 1. Right to Information: The right to be informed about the quality. Right to Choose: The right to be assured access to a variety of products at competitive prices. 5. Protection of Consumer Rights Consumer protection means safeguarding the rights and interests of consumers..A complaint is to be made to the district forum of the concerned district where the value of goods and services and compensation. i. Unorganised Consumers: In India consumers are widely dispersed and are not united. price and standards of goods. It includes all the measures aimed at protecting the rights and interests of consumers. Right to Education: The right to be educated about rights of a consumer. . 4. producers and traders are organized and powerful. Right to Seek Redressal: The right to get relief against unfair trade practice or exploitation. without any pressure to impose a sale. and to the National Commission for more than Rs 100 lakhs. CONSUMER RIGHTS 1.e. 6. to the 'State Commission' between Rs 20 lakhs and Rs 100 lakhs. 2. purity. On the other hand. Right to Safety: The right to be protected against goods which are hazardous to life and property. there is provision for appeals against the orders of a particular redessal forum by the aggrieved party before the next higher echelon and even from the findings of the National Commission before the Supreme Court. A system is required to protect them from unscrupulous businessmen. Right to be Heard: The right to be heard and assured that consumer interests will receive due consideration at appropriate forums. freedom of choice. 2. They do not understand their rights. Interestingly. is up to Rs 20 lakhs. They are at the mercy of businessmen. Illiteracy and Ignorance: Consumers in India are mostly illiterate and ignorant.

He should educate himself and know his rights. survival and growth of business is not possible without the support and goodwill of consumers. Businessmen can regulate their own behaviour and actions by adopting higher ethical standards. Consumers often get defective. in the long run. Freedom of Enterprise: Businessmen must ensure satisfaction of consumers. sell only when they meet the needs of consumers. It is necessary to protect consumers from such exploitation by ensuring compliance with prescribed norms of quality and safety. Business Self-regulation: The business community itself can help in achieving consumer protection and satisfaction through self -discipline. Trusteeship: Businessmen are trustees of the society's wealth. they should use this wealth for the benefit of people. Certain measures are required to protect the consumers against such malpractices. If business does not protect consumers' interests. . safety and utility of products.3. Goods are produced with the purpose of selling them. Therefore. It is very difficult for an ordinary consumer to distinguish between a genuine product and its imitation. unethical and monopolistic trade practices on the part of businessmen lead to exploitation of consumers. Government intervention and regulatory measures will grow to curb unfair trade practices. 2. Spurious Goods: There is increasing supply of duplicate products. 6. He should not allow unscrupulous businessmen to cheat him. Deceptive Advertising: Some businessmen give misleading information about quality. 4. Trade associations and chambers of commerce can check unfair trade practices used by some businessmen. Goods will. inferior and substandard goods and poor service. Methods of Consumer Protection There are four main methods of protecting the interests of consumers: 1. Consumer Self-help: Every consumer must be alert as self-help is the best help. 7. A mechanism is needed to prevent misleading advertisements. 5. 8. Malpractices of Businessmen: Fraudulent. Consumers are misled by false advertisement and do not know the real quality of advertised goods. In the long run. Legitimacy for Existence: Business exists to satisfy the needs and desires of consumers.

Government of India has enacted several laws to protect the interests and rights of consumers. o The Household Electrical Appliances (Quality Control) Order. Some of these laws are as follows: o The Essential Commodities Act. o The Consumer Protection Act. The laws enacted by the Government must be strictly enforced by the executive. 4. 1940 which seeks to ensure purity and quality in drugs and cosmetics. . executive and judicial actions. o The Drugs and Cosmetics Act. 1976 which seeks to ensure safety and quality in the manufacture of electrical appliances. o The Standards of Weights and Measures Act. 1954 which aims to check adulteration in food items and eatables. o The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. supply and distribution and prices of essential commodities. They can take organized action and put pressure on businessmen to adopt fair trade practices.3. Government Regulations: The State can ensure consumer protection through legislative. Consumers' Associations: Consumers should form voluntary associations. These associations can educate and awaken consumers. 1955 which aims to regulate and control the production. 1986 which seeks to provide speedy and inexpensive redressal to the grievances of consumers. 1956 which aims at ensuring that consumers get the right weight and measurement in products.

to be assured that consumer interests will receive full and sympathetic consideration in the formulation of Government policy. deceitful or grossly misleading information. an assurance of satisfactory quality and service at fair be protected against the marketing of goods which are hazardous to health or life. This day has a historic importance as it was on this day in 1962. 2.” John F.CONSUMER RIGHTS AND ITS EXPANSION RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES India has been observing 15 March since 1989 as the National Consumers’ Day. when the Bill for Consumer Rights was moved in the US Congress. his health and safety may be threatened. He gave the American consumer four basic rights: 1. advertising. and fair and expeditious treatment in its administrative tribunals. Kennedy had remarked: “If a consumer is offered inferior products. access to a variety of products and services at competitive prices: and in those industries where competition is not workable and Government regulation is substituted. The Right to Choose . labeling. During his speech President John F. 4. if drugs are unsafe or be protected against fraudulent. The Right to Information . and national interest suffers. and to be given the facts s/he needs to make an informed choice. 3. The Right to Safety . wherever possible. then his dollar is wasted. if prices are be assured. if the consumer is unable to choose on an informed basis. or other practices. Kennedy had equated the rights of the ordinary American consumer with national interest. . The Right to be Heard .

3. former International Organisation of Consumer Unions (IOCU). by nature the highest spokesman for all people. a healthy environment and redress. as an informed consumer cannot be exploited easily. adopted its Guidelines for Consumer Protection. This charter had a universal significance as they symbolised the aspirations of the poor and disadvantaged. other well-defined rights like basic needs. they did not cover the whole gamut. While these rights served the interest of the American consumer well enough. the umbrella body. . for 240 organisations in over 100 countries. Basic Needs Safety Information Choice Representation Redress Consumer Education and Healthy Environment. 4. 5. whose views were not heard. On this basis. in April 1985. The Consumers International (CI). 8. But they were also the only important group who were not effectively organised. Therefore. expanded the charter of consumers rights contained in the US Bill to eight. because a global consumer did need. which in a logical order reads: 1. the United Nations. 2.Kennedy recognised that consumers are the largest economic group in the country’s economy. affecting and affected by almost every public and private economic decision. the Federal Government. apart from them. Thirteen years later President Gerald Ford felt that the four rights constituted in Kennedy’s Bill of Rights were inadequate for a situation where most consumers are not educated enough to make the right choices. had a special obligation to the consumer’s needs. So he added the Right to Consumer Education. 7. 6.

BIRTH OF CONSUMERS’ DAY Considering the importance of Kennedy’s speech to the US Congress on this day. and the resultant law. 6. it recognises only six of these eight rights: 1. Peculiar though it may sound. He is doing us a favour by giving us the opportunity to serve him. Besides this statutory recognition. 4. He is not dependent on us. He is not an interruption in our work . Gandhi had rightly said: “A customer is the most important visitor on our premises. 5. 3.” BIRTH OF ‘COPRA’ The right to redress lead to the passing of the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) in 1986 in India which has been defined as the Magna Carta of consumers but. adopted 15 March as the National Consumer’s Day. which never fell behind in introducing progressive legislation we were among the first in the world to introduce universal adult franchise for women. But at home in India the Government. COPRA has succeeded in bringing about revolutionary judicial reforms by providing juristic quasi-judicial courts solely for redressal of consumer grievances (where a price has been paid). 15 March is not observed as a special day in the world’s largest and most pulsating consumer society . Safety.the US. Choice. . We are not doing him a favour by serving him. Redress and Consumer Education. Representation. the CI took a decision in 1982 to observe 15 March as the World Consumer Rights Day from 1983. 2.he is the purpose of it. India is a country. We are dependent on him. Information. for adjudication within a limited time frame of 90 to 150 days.

which are numerous. However. these are the backbone of peoples’ movements in both the developing and the developed worlds. declared and adopted the 9th Consumer Right on India’s Independence Day . and did not feature in the existing charter of Consumer’s Rights. whether permanent or temporary. It only defined a consumer’s necessities required to survive and live a dignified life but it did not demand the means to obtain them the right to work. to be used when all methods fail. on the other. There existed a vacuum in the definition of rights. and were not the subject matter of priced commodities and services available in the market place. as a fundamental right on the one hand. including the poor. the right to work is also vague. we at CUTS. the right to basic needs remained abstract. and the judiciary fails. While the right to boycott epitomises the enability of consumer rights. by cutting the inflated prices. and it is a collective action that succeeds. and how they maim the spirit of enterprise which . and advocating self employment schemes for everyone. the administration does not listen. Observing the societal disarray created by government job and dole schemes. examples of. It was often seen that boycotts would be spontaneous or organised in an adversarial situation. This right inherently signifies consumer unity as an individual consumer can be helpless or even apathetic. RIGHT TO BOYCOTT Taking a leaf out of India’s freedom movement. This right was the ultimate one. when Mahatma Gandhi had successfully organised various boycotts of foreign cloth. salt etc.15 August 1990: “The right to resist and boycott any person. inspite of pulsating movements. In the interlude. On an occasion in Calcutta a boycott of fish was successfully organised and the marketing cartel had to bow down. And many a times they do: the seller does not heed. a new Union Government in India raised a debate to recognise the right to work. rather than store rotting fish.The rights of basic needs and healthy environment could not be provided in COPRA as these symbolised the aspiration of the poor and the disadvantaged. Yet. the rights of consumers could and were trampled on and often. However. as this colloquially meant easy jobs. goods or services in the event of conflict with consumer’s interest”.

but it is the rights’ movement of people which produce results in a democracy. job more tight rope walking. While right to information is enshrined in COPRA. COPRA has encouraged active consumer bodies to demand. Also. rules.” This inherently demands execution of the state’s singular responsibility to provide productive infrastructure. calling and urging the now (CI) IOCU to recognise and take suitable steps in expansion of the Consumer Rights internationally. social justice and economic equity. Coming 39 years after Independence. but total glasnost. Both these rights were adopted at the Third National Convention of Consumer Activists at Calcutta during 1-3 November 1991. work ethos. independent Public Utility Regulatory Commissions to debate costing. were created as state monopolies ostensibly to protect consumers! Critics of COPRA rightly conclude that it can’t do anything about rising prices. giving substance to the adage: Customer is King. in the first place.prevails in the mass humanity of India. transport. without exploitation. One of the greatest achievements of the Indian consumer movement is the enactment of the dynamic consumer law: COPRA. regulations and orders (for which India has unparalleled distinction in the Guinness book of records) alone do not protect consumers. ‘CUTS’ was inspired to declare and adopt the 10th (enabling) Consumer Right on 26 January 1991: “The right to opportunities to acquire basic needs which will enable one to work and to earn a living. This confidence emanates from the empowerment of voluntary organisations in COPRA and other consumer laws. power etc. These utilities. but it has succeeded in bringing about fairplay in the supply of goods and services available in the market place. it has acknowledged the rampant consumer abuses. including those of the government owned public utilities like telephones. and perhaps see in the near future. pricing and promote competition. In fact the Central Consumer Protection Council has recommended to the Government to enact a Freedom of Information Act on the pattern of a similar law . addition of the enlarged Right to Know in the fundamental rights chapter of the Indian Constitution would only result in meaningful empowerment . INDIA’S GLOBAL REPUTATION Laws.

Most warranties and guarantees on goods expire in one year. a matter which was not even discussed in the high power working group of the Central Consumer Protection Council. Today India is the only country in the world. a noted US consumer activist and a close associate of Ralph Nader. instead of setting it right or replacing or refunding the price of the defective goods.” BUREAUCRAT’S REVENGE COPRA. the World Consumer Rights Day. the Consumer Rights Day. Another major achievement of the Indian consumer movement in the context of the world scenario. to candidly observe: “India is getting a global reputation for the rapid development of its consumer movement. was to get the government in 1989. which has exclusive courts for consumer redressal. which also has roots in the US. which goes beyond the principles of our well established Limitations Act of 1963. where none existed. expecting consumers to meet a . the apex consumer court. in one matter. is a mixture of sad and happy tidings. An utter nonsense. and cases drag on for years. Unlike the Labour Day on 1 May. Since there was no limitation period prescribed under COPRA. Consumers will be angry because the rule on the time limit of 90/150 days provided in COPRA for disposal of cases are practiced more in the breach. And tragic because of one surprise which our bureaucrats sprung onto the bill. At the IOCU’s 13th World Congress held in Hong Kong during 7-13 July 1991 it came in for praise and developed countries were called upon to emulate. wherein courts cannot be approached after the expiry of three years of the last cause of action. In the same year. is not even observed there. They will thus be deprived of the easy redressal avenue by this one-year ‘deadline’. which has roots in the US. which was amended by an ordinance in June 1993. though not religiously. and manufacturers often drag on many consumers during this period by attending to the US. Under this situation. the National Commission had pronounced that the principles of the Limitations Act do not apply but can be relied upon. to adopt 15 March. these developments inspired Jim Sugarman. This proposal would not only have put consumers at a terrible disadvantage but also annoy them badly. The law then proposed a limitation of one year to file complaints. as the National Consumers’ Day.

another major one has also been diluted. In a beacon case involving a plot: Garima Shukla vs. a nominee of the chief justice of the state high court and two consumer activists (one a woman) would be . if the Motor Vehicles Act. 1988 provides for certain mandatory safety features which have been ignored by manufacturers. BELYING EXPECTATIONS The law belied the consumer affairs Minister. but there can be no basis to determine the deadline in such matters. after research. the law also enables consumers to file class action complaints. the National Commission had held that the dispute is covered as a deficiency in the service of housing. houses purchased or to be purchased. as defined under the MRTP Act. we decide to file a complaint what would be the limitation period? Due to these arguments and lobbing the time limit was revised to two years. Among several other recommendations of the Central Council. when the ordinance was put on the table of the parliament. Fourthly. In view of several protests by consumers. UP Avas evam Vikas Nigam. A K Antony’s note in the statement of objects and reasons. but that would mean a set of lengthy arguments on just the admissibility of the case.deadline will be very irritating. The Supreme Court upheld the orders of the National Commission. For instance. wherein he says the working of the redressal agencies has helped to arouse the expectations of the people on several other grounds as well. Rather than adopt the words: ‘real estate’. land. Granted that delayed complaints can be entertained. the council had agreed to recommend incorporation of an open. which incidentally always existed. a new jargon: ‘housing construction’ is added. This would mean that the consumer courts will only entertain complaints relating to: flats. 1969 from which the whole definition clause of services was borrowed in the first instance. Housing by way of plots or flats or houses has been covered under the definition of ‘services’ under COPRA. democratic and a transparent process of selection of the non-official members of consumer courts. The recommendation was that a selection committee headed by the minister and consisting of the secretary in charge of the department.

as against twice as recommended’. 2. This was recommended because lawyers often delay the settlement of cases by court craft etc. for the central council to ‘talk. Lawyers were to be debarred except when the complainant had engaged one. These were: 1. 4. especially when s/he is a retired high court judge. as they are not charities but are run from the taxpayer money. after the so-called consultation. Presence of two activists would have perhaps changed the odds. people have been appointed. consultation does not mean consent or concurrence.the right form. when questions of law were involved. Apparently the belligerent lawyers lobby proved stronger. The bill now proposes a committee headed by the President of the state commission and the consumer affairs secretary and the state law secretary. Consumer rights were to be put in a separate chapter so that violations of the same could be an additional ground. Writ jurisdiction of high courts has to be excluded by bringing COPRA under Article 323B of the constitution as their interference. in spite of opposition. . Services rendered by public health care system and civic bodies were to be covered. THE BROOM STICK The Council had made several other vital recommendations after long deliberations and critical debates. So that consumer could get value for money and these white elephants are brought to heel. I have seen many a president of the State Commission sitting in the chamber of the secretary. However the president of the State Commission can only be appointed after consultation with the Chief Justice of the concerned high court. but those who know. The union health ministry prevailed. about only once in a year. By and large the secretary has to follow the minister’s orders. 3. particularly the Calcutta High Court. On several occasions. It is thus heavily loaded against transparency. if not the basis of a complaint. therefore the transparency sought in the selection process will be doubtful. These will now continue as decorations in COPRA. or with his consent or if the consumer court directed the parties to engage lawyers. but they have been given the broomstick.

so as to meet the ends of justice have not been incorporated. To correct the anomaly. Empowering Consumer Courts by giving them the authority to order cease and desist. bureaucrats felt that it would give unbridled power to over 450 district fora and 30 state commissions and that would have created havoc. it was proposed to put a semi-colon. However there are many welcome steps. it was understood that it was an all inclusive definition and exclusions had to be specified. or interim injunction or take suo motu action (of its own accord and on its own information) like the MRTP Commission. and add. RECALLING UNSAFE GOODS So much so for the bureaucratic revenge and/or sabotage. Section 1(4) of COPRA says this Act will apply to all goods and services. “not limited to” before the illustrations. therefore under the definition of services. as it were. 5. This will entitle consumers and consumer groups to challenge harmful goods.delays the proceedings especially when an hierarchy of appeals is provided under COPRA where the Supreme Court is the ultimate arbiter. But this has also not been inserted in the amendment bill. which will take the consumer movement considerably forward. For. though confused as well. Some readers might remember the case of ITC LTD’s Wills brand being injuncted by a Gangtok district judge. This type of case is a freak but without such power our consumer courts will be hamstrung in protecting the consumers interest. where illustrations are given. which cost ITC a large sum of money to get it vacated from the Supreme Court under its extraordinary jurisdiction. like the . These are: • Enhancement in the scope of relief under COPRA to stop the sale of and/or order withdrawing the marketing of hazardous goods. provided a law says so. especially in view of the hectic lobbying by the medical fraternity and other professional groups.

they could face a worse fate of paying a further fine of upto Rs 10. This would cover disputes relating to booking of flats. And if they don’t pay up. where delivery has not been made. But the clause does not empower consumers to challenge hazards in services.000.000 and/or undergo imprisonment of upto three years like other offenders. scooters and similar contracts.BVO case when this toxic chemical was banned but continued to be used in soft drinks like Limca. but consumers may not be able to challenge it. and under the relief section power has also been given to consumer courts to remove defects and deficiencies in services. This is more so surprising when in all the consumer rights in COPRA ‘services’ have been added along with ‘goods’. For instance the Electricity Act provides for certain safety measures to be adopted by the suppliers. • • • • • A major beneficial change has been added to cover agreements for purchase. Restrictive trade practices have been added. while that of a state commission to Rs 20 lakh. This means that there would be a mini-MRTP Commission in every district. also enabling the courts to stop these. cars. Complaints against goods purchased for commercial purpose will ordinarily not be adjudicable under COPRA save and except where such goods in dispute have been purchased by a self-employed businessperson like a taxi owner-driver. . Beyond this. the National Commission. Simultaneously consumers who file frivolous or vexatious complaints could be penalised with a fine of upto Rs 10. while that of the national commission at 70. as against the earlier provision for only goods or services actually purchased. Costs would be awardable to consumers or their organisations that win cases. as well as unfair trade practices. Monetary jurisdiction of a district forum has been raised to Rs 5 lakh. Gold Spot etc. Age limit of the members of the state commissions has been fixed at 67. No mention of the age limits of members of the district forums.

administrative control of district fora will now be under the state commissions. .• Following the Supreme Court order. Consumer protection is linked to the idea of "consumer rights" (that consumers have various rights as consumers). in the Common Cause Vs Union of India case. a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue. Consumer is defined as someone who acquires goods or services for direct use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production and manufacturing. consistent with economic efficiency. such as food. For example. who will in turn report to the National Commission. The laws are designed to prevent businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors and may provide additional protection for the weak and those unable to take care of themselves. and to the formation of consumer organizations which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace. Lastly. but this topic is treated in Competition law. Consumer protection laws are designed to ensure fair competition and the free flow of truthful information in the marketplace.[1] Consumer interests can also be protected by promoting competition in the markets which directly and indirectly serve consumers. a quiet change has been incorporated to redefine the department of civil supplies as consumer affairs. Consumer Protection laws are a form of government regulation which aim to protect the interests of consumers. A proper reporting system and procedures will also be incorporated. which is what we in the consumer movement have been shouting for a long time.

Consumer Behaviour and Consumer Protection in India The process of development coupled with increasing liberalization and globalisation across the country has enabled consumers to realize their increasingly important role in society and governance. particularly in the context of consumer related issues. adulteration.Consumer protection can also be asserted via non-government organizations and individuals as consumer activism. In Kautilya’s Arthashastra. penal law and other law of public order. This includes the law of contracts or torts and the law of obligations. The consumer movement in India is as old as trade and commerce. A critical appraisal of government policies and programs has also been attempted. there are references to the concept of consumer protection against exploitation by the trade and industry. Accepting this. In a developing country like high and the level of literacy is very low. That is. whereas private law involves interactions between private citizens. the people face a volume of problems. In general terms. policies have been framed and the Consumer Protection Act. including regulatory statutes. 1986 . It is distinguished from public law. public law involves interrelations between the state and the general population. in that it also encompasses private relationships between governments and private individuals or other entities. Ensuring consumer welfare is the responsibility of the state. The concept of private law in common law countries is a little more broad. and are not considered to be within the scope of public law. which deals with law involving the state. This book brings into focus the role and status of Indian consumers and their problems arising from the given socioeconomic set up of our society. and punishment for these offences. short weighment and measures. Private law (Civil law) is that part of a legal system that involves relationships between individuals. relationships between governments and individuals based on the law of contract or torts are governed by private law.

was introduced. Communication and Rural Market / Consumer Protection Act. The book constitutes a rich contribution to an issue of considerable importance. Contents : Consumer Behavior and Consumer Protection: Theoretical and Conceptual Issues / Consumer Protection in Indian Economy / Consumer Organisations and Consumer Protection / Consumer Behaviour-An Empirical Approach / Consumer Protection Act. 1986-Ligislative and Judicial Dimensions / Consumer Organisations-Role and Importance / Consumer Awareness and Protective Aspects: Global Experiences / Governmental Role in Consumerism / Buying Behaviour and Grievance Redressal / Consumer Protection Through Mass Awareness: Challenges and opportunities in the Global Era / Consumer Rights and Consumer Protection Act. comprehensive and unique piece of legislation. besides examining the provisions of various other statues dealing with consumer protection. 1986 / Consumer Awareness and Government Role / Governmental Role for Consumer Awareness and Welfare / Protective Aspects of Consumer Protection / Economic Analysis of Consumer Behavior / A New Era in Consumerism / Consumer Behaviour. economists. It is expected to be highly useful to policy planners. The present book provides a detailed and comprehensive study of the recent developments in the Indian consumer protection law. NGOs and students. This Act has been regarded as the most progressive. researchers. 1986-A Case Study Approach / Consumerism and Role of Legislation / Banking Services in India and Consumer Protection / Impact of Advertising on Consumer Education and Behaviour / Consumer Problems / Consumer Behaviour in Selection and . A separate Department of Consumer Affairs was also created in the Central and State Governments to exclusively focus on ensuring the rights of consumers as enshrined in the Act. It also provides further insight into consumer behaviour to help marketers develop an appropriate marketing strategy.

Purchasing of Clothes / Food Adulteration-A Case Study / WTO and Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Implications for Consumer Welfare / Managing Consumer Expectations through Encouraging Customer Complaints / Healthcare in India and Consumer Protection Act / Advertising and Consumer / Globalization and Consumer Behaviour: Some Gender Issues / Appendix. MEANING .

it is the duty of the government to confer some rights on consumers to safeguard their interests. In this context. profiteering. the government has . we are on him. he is the purpose of it. Mahatma Gandhi said. India too is no exception to it. airlines. Conclusion Invariably.Consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation because in the absence of effective demand that emanates from them. We are not doing a favour to a consumer by giving him an opportunity. Instances like overcharging. of late. "A consumer is the most important visitor on our premises. black marketing. etc are not uncommon here. lack of proper services in trains. He is doing us a favour by giving us opportunity to serve him. telecommunication. He is not an interruption to our work. black marketing. the economy virtually collapses. He is not dependent on us. consumers are a vulnerable lot for exploitation. etc has become the common practice of greedy sellers and manufacturers to make unreasonable profits. But. more so in a developing country with the prevalence of mass poverty and illiteracy. adulteration. From time to time. misleading advertisements. unfortunately cheating by way of overcharging. water supply.

consumer awareness through consumer education and actions by the government. Procedural simplicity and speedy and inexpensive redressal of consumer grievances as contained in the CPA are really unique and have few parallels in the world. . and associations are needed the most to make consumer protection movement a success in the country. Implementation of the Act reveals that interests of consumers are better protected than ever before.attempted to safeguard consumer's interests through legislations and the CPA 1986 is considered as the most progressive statute for consumer protection. consumer activists. However.