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BEST WAY CEMENT INDUSTRY

 CEMENT:
A cement is a binder, a substance used for
construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other
materials to bind them together. It is a powdery substance made
by calcining lime and clay, mixed with water to form mortar or
mixed with sand, gravel, and water to make concrete.

 TYPE OF CEMENT AND APPLICATION:

1. Rapid hardening cement:


This cement can be used in prefabricated
concrete construction, road works, etc. it gives
greater strength development at an early stage than
OPC. The strength of this cement at the age of 3 days
is almost same as the 7 days strength of OPC with the
same water-cement ratio. Rapid hardening
cement is used in areas like road pavements so that
the traffic can be opened early. It is also used in
manufacturing precast slabs, posts, electric poles,
concreting in cold countries.

2. SULFATE RESISTING CEMENT:


Sulfate resisting cement is made by
reducing C3A and C4AF content. This cement is
mostly used in mass concrete construction. Sulfate
Resisting Cement is designed to improve the
performance of concrete where the risk
of sulfate attack may be present. It also provides
improved durability for concrete in most aggressive
environments, reducing the risk of deterioration of
the structure and structural failure.

3. HYDROPHOBIC CEMENT:
Hydrophobic cement is mainly used for the
construction of water structures such dams, water
tanks, spillways, water retaining structures etc.

4. PORTLAND BLAST FURNACE CEMENT:


This type of cement can be used with
advantage in mass concrete work such as dams,
foundations, and abutments of bridges, retaining
walls, construction in sea water.

5. HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT:


Due the property of rapid hardening
and strength, it is widely used in marine
construction and sewer infrastructure. High
alumina cement is also used in refractory
concretes where it requires more strength at
very hightemperature.

 Temperature and Pressure sensors:


There are different temperature sensors and
pressure sensors in cement industry and have different
range.

 PREHEATER CYCLONE SENSOR:


This sensor measures the bas and material
temperatures. This monitoring helps to control and
prevent any obstructions due to clogging of the fines.
For the lower levels, the sensor is equipped with
anti-abrasion protection. This rugged sensor
withstands severe mechanical shocks.
 SMOKE BOX SENSOR:
This sensor is capable of withstanding high
temperatures and high concentrations of clinker dust. It monitors the
temperature of the hot gases recovered from the rotary kiln and from the
preheater tower.
 MOTOR BEARING SENSOR:
Located near the bearing greasers and
resistant to vibrations, this sensor checks the
temperature of the bearing reliably and
instantaneously. It can detect at an early stage any
overheating which may lead to malfunctions.

 Air compressor system:


The air compressor system generates the
necessary compressed air to transport the material
from the silos via the network of feed pipes. To
ensure a smooth, steady flow of material, reliable
pressure monitoring in the compressors and
conveying channels is required.

 WORKI NG PRINCIPLE OF CYCLONES:


A cyclonic separation is a method of
removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the
use of filters, through vortex separation. When removing
particulate matter from liquid, a hydro cyclone is used; while from
gas, a gas cyclone is used. Rotational effects and gravity are used
to separate mixtures of solids and fluids. The method can also be
used to separate fine droplets of liquid from a gaseous stream. A
high speed rotating (air)flow is established within a cylindrical
or conical container called a cyclone. Air flows in a helical pattern,
beginning at the top (wide end) of the cyclone and ending at the
bottom (narrow) end before exiting the cyclone in a straight stream
through the center of the cyclone and out the top. Larger (denser)
particles in the rotating stream have too much inertia to follow the
tight curve of the stream, and thus strike the outside wall, then fall
to the bottom of the cyclone where they can be removed.

 WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PLANT:


Waste heat from cement kilns is usually
used for drying of raw materials and fuel. ... This heat can be used
for electricity production. Power can be produced by using a steam
cycle, an organic Rankine cycle, or the KALINA process.
Working Cycle:
Most of the WHRPP supplied in the industry, employ
Rankine Steam Cycle, as depicted in. The technology is well
established. The gases from the preheater and cooler are passed
through the boiler to generate steam. The steam drives the
turbine for generation of electricity. The exhaust steam from
turbine, is cooled through air / water cooled condenser, and
recycled back to the boiler.
 COMPONENTS:
 Gas Turbine Heat Recovery:
The gas turbine exhaust gases
enter the heat recovery steam generating (HRSG), where the energy is
transferred to the water to produce steam. There are many
different configurations of the HRSG units. Most HRSG units are
divided into the same amount of sections as the steam turbine. In most
cases, each section of the HRSG has a pre-heater, an economizer and
feed-water, and then a superheater. The steam entering the steam turbine
is superheated.

 ADVANTAGES:
A heat recovery system could
increase the efficiency of the cement plant as
well as reduce the amount of CO2 emissions to
the environment by lowering the temperature of
the exhaust gases. It enhances power plant
rehability.