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GREAT BRITAIN ‘CIVILIZATION’ : Questions you must know how to answer

1) Is that true that Great Britain is one of Of course not! It’s one of the world’s smallest
the world’s biggest countries? countries ( with population around 63 million people)
2) What are the British Isles washed by? The North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the English
Channel, and the Strait of Dover
3) What can you say about the surface of 1. It varies much – the North of Scotland is mountainous, it’s
called Highlands and the South has plains and valleys and is called
the British Isles? Lowlands
2. The highest mountain is Ben Nevis : 1343 m
4) What do the British Isles consist of? 2 large islands – GB and Ireland
5) What countries is the UK made up of? England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
6) What places of interest would you visit in 1) One of the most ancient buildings in London
The Tower (11 cent)
London? What is important to know about
them? of London, 2) Ravens that used to live there when it was
founded still live there and are carefully
guarded. The legend goes: if the ravens
disappear, Britain will fall.
3) Was built to protect London. Was a fortress,
palace, prison and treasury (mint)
What has the Tower of London served as?
1)Has stood over the River Thames in London
The Tower since 1894 and is one of the most recognized
bridge bridges in the word.
2)It opens 100 times a year
1)One of the finest pieces of architecture in
St.Paul’s Europe

Cathedral 2)Its interior is fascinating – it’s full of


monuments
3)It has a huge dome, the Whispering Gallery
What can you see in St.Paul’s Cathedral? (where you can experiment with the physics of
the acoustics)
1)A gothic building opposite the Houses of
Westminster Parliament
Abbey 2) Higher than any English Church (more than
160 meters)
3) Contains a collection of swords and stained
glass
4)All coronations have taken place here since
William the Conqueror
How is Westminster Abbey associated with 5)It’s also called “mausoleum” because there
are tombs of almost all English monarchs,
royalty? scientists, writers and musicians (Chaucer,
Dickens, Kipling)
5) There are memorials of Shakespeare and
Byron
1)Official residence of Britain’s morarchs since
Buckingham the mid 19 century
palace 2)Today it’s official London residence of Queen
Elizabeth II
3) 775 rooms, 19 open for tourists
What is the main function of the
4) You can see royal collection of art and
Buckingham palace today? furniture
5) One of the major attractions – the ceremony
of Changing of the guard, which takes place
every morning.
What ceremony can you watch outside the The Houses 1)The House of Lords and the House of
Commons meet in the Houses of Parliament,
Buckingham Palace?
of located next to the River Thames in London.
2)The clock tower is the most photographed
Parliament part of the Houses of Parliament. It houses five
bells. The biggest and most famous bell is called
Big Ben.
4)The Houses of Parliament are also called the
Big Ben is a part of another city sight, which Palace of Westminster and was a royal palace.
one? 1) London’s most modern landmark.
The London 2)It is the world’s biggest ferris wheel, and will
Eye carry 800 passengers at a time on a thirty-
minute ride.
3)From its highest point of 135 m, it promises
views of almost the entire city.
1)Traditionally it is the official residence of the
10 Prime Minister of the UK

Downing 2) It’s a national symbol and one of the most


famous addresses in the world
Street. 3) Political announcements that can change the
fates of the world are delivered on the house’s
steps.
4) The house’s door is also a very popular spot
for politicians’ photo shoot.
international modern art from
6) What museums can you visit in London? The Tate Modern 1900 to the present day, including
major works by Matisse and
Picasso as well as contemporary
work, exhibitions and
installations.
The famous British Museum
The British Museum exhibits the works of man from
prehistoric to modern times from
around the world.
Five galleries and 7,000 objects
The Museum of transport you through the
London capital's tumultuous history from
1666 to today.
The famous waxwork museum
Madame Tussaud’s containing lifelike wax figures of
Museum (of wax) many famous people (Jolie, B.Pitt,
Obamas, Putin, Adele, Beckhams,
M.Jackson, M.Monroe, Gaga) and
royalty (Queen Elizabeth, the
royal family)
7) What is the name of the British flag? The Union Jack
1)English red upright cross of St. George
7) How many crosses is it made up of? Three : 2)Scottish blue diagonal cross of St. Andrew
What are they like? What are they called?
What do they represent? 3 3)Irish red diagonal cross of St. Patrick

8) What other countries’ flags include the Australia, New Zealand, Bermuda and about a
Union Jack? dozen others.
1)It is the oldest and largest inhabited castle in
9) What are the 3 most important The the world!!
monuments in Britain’s history? Windsor 2)The oldest parts of Windsor Castle were built
by the Normans following the victory of William
Castle the Conqueror in 1066. The original castle was
made of wood and then upgraded to stone
What places you ‘must’ visit travelling 3)The Castle grounds cover 53 thousand square
meters which is the same area as 3 of our
to the UK? Chisinau Main Squares.
4) It was a home to more than 10 royal, families,
each of them embellished the castle. It also
served as a home for Elizabeth II during World
War II. She still spends her weekends there.
1)One of the best-preserved Roman sites in the
The Roman UK
Baths 2)Contains an impressive set of thermal spas and
an impressive Roman bathing house.
3)It can accommodate more than just the
residents of the town. It was a place to socialize
and even a religious site.
4)The Roman baths offer an incredible insight into
the lives of ancient Romans around Britain.
The
1)Stonehenge is one of Europe's biggest stone
Stonehenge circles. The earliest part of Stonehenge, the inner
circle, is nearly 5,000 years old and many of the
stones are 10 metres high.The stones used in the
inner circle are believed to be from the Wales
which are nearly 400 km away. The bluestones
weigh up to 4 tons each and about 80 stones were
used, in all.

2)It is thought that the Druids used Stonehenge


for a calendar. There are also other versions – it
may have been a religious place of worship or a
place of human sacrifice. Nowadays every June
21st hundreds of people go to Stonehenge to
watch the sun rise. The sun shines on one famous
stone - the Heel stone. For the Druids this is a very
important moment of the year.

3)The only thing that is obvious is that those who


built it were very sophisticated in mathematics
and geometry.
the Big Ben, pubs and, Double-decker buses, black
10) What things do you associate with the The city taxi cabs
UK? Poets: Byron, Shakespeare, Writers: Conan Doyle (
Literature Sherlock Holmes); Jane Austen ( Jane Eyre); Lewis
Carroll (Alice in Wonderland), Rudyard Kipling
(Junglebook); Tolkien (The Hobbit ; The Lord of the
Rings) ; JK Rowling (Harry Potter)
Ben Nevis; Loch Ness;
Nature Thames River; gloomy weather
The Stonehenge
Historical
monuments
the Royal Family; Princess Diana, Mr Bean; The
Famous Beckhams; W.Churchill; I. Newton; David
People Cameron, Naomi Campbell, Banksy
the Beatles, the Queen (Freddy Mercury), the
Musicians Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd,
Radiohead, Muse, Amy Winehouse, Adele, David
Bowie, Sting
Charlie Chaplin, Kate Winslet, Christian Bale,
Actors Benedict Cumberbatch, Keira Nightley, Hugh
Laurie, Robert Pattinson, Orlando Bloom
fish and chips; tea; beer
Food
1.It’s a universal language of communication
11) Why do we need to learn English? 2.It’s a part of formal education in many countries
3.More and more books on subjects as Physics, Philosophy, Science,
Math and documents are published in English and yhose who don’t
know it will fail to learn the new breakthrough information.
4. It’s a language of opportunities: people with the knowledge of English
are more likely to be hired by employees than those who don’t.
5. It’s the universal language of higher education – wherever you go
abroad to pursue your university education, you will be able to study in
English and communicate with the locals in it.
6. English is the essential language that has to be learnt in the 21 century
because you just can’t do without it
1. Bagpipes: historically existing in many other countries since the
12) What things do you associate with the Middle Ages, this instrument became a national instrument of Scotland
Scotts? since the 16 century. The sound of bagpipes is very stirring, it was used
by the army musicians when the troops went into battle. IT consists of
many pipes with holes and a bag: when you play, you blow a pipe and
squeeze the bag made of animal gallbladder, with the arm. Bagpipes are
often decorated with different clans’ tartans.
2. Tartan is a kind of pattern of checked fabric which is today a part of
international fashion. Kilts are made of tartan and each clan has its own
pattern.
3.’Clan’ means ‘family’ in Gaelic. In the past these were enormous
families that often had battles against each other. McDonalds,
McKenzies, Camerons and Campbells are just a few surnames of clans.
‘Mc’ means ‘Son of’ and people with the same surname feel they belong
to the same clan. Common girls’ names are Fiona and Jean and the
boys’ - Donald, Angus, Jimmy and Jock, that’s why the English call a man
from Scotland ‘A Jimmy’ or ’A Jock’
1. The humid climate of the country with frequent rains contributes to
13) Why historically the most beautiful the growth of plants.
gardens were in England? 2. In the 11 century gardens served the purpose of feeding their owners
- growing vegetables was the first priority.
3.First gardeners were monks who grew vegetables and medicinal plants
and spread the seeds among other monasteries spreading the culture.
There were also vineyards and fruit gardens beside monasteries as well
as flowers like roses, lilies, violets and peonies.
4. Book printing introduced in Britain in the 15 century played a big role
in the spread of culture of gardening because one of the first printed
books was about how to grow certain plants in your garden.
5.In the Tudor period landscape gardening appeared introducing
different shapes of bushes and hedges, squares and other neat geometry
to gardens.
6. Colonization of other continents played a major role in gardening as it
contributed to the spread of different plants that were transported by
ship from India, South and North America, as it happened with kiss-me-
quick and the tulip.
7. In the 17 century after the microscope had been invented, gardening
flourished even more because it became possible to study the way
plants multiplied.
8.In the 18 century the century of the Industrial revolution the seeding
machine was invented in England which made it easier to garden.
9.In the 19 century gardeners become even more creative – by
introducing irregular, asymmetrical forms into gardens as well as the
ponds in gardens. Moreover, the lawnmower is invented! This made it
possible for everyone to have a neat lawn and a glorious garden in their
yards.
1.Quality n-p: ‘The Times’, ‘The Guardian’ ,‘The Daily Telegraph’ (they
14) What are the 2 main groups of report national and international news, focusing on events, politics,
newspapers? business, science, technology, books, arts)
2. Popular n-p: ‘TheSun’, ‘The Daily Mirror’, ‘Hello (magazine)’ (they
publish articles dealing with the private life of celebrities, their photos
and intend to shock the reader)
1. The United Kingdom has given birth to a range of major international
15) What sports are popular in GB? sports including: football, rugby, darts, cricket, golf, tennis, table tennis
, badminton, squash, hockey, boxing, snooker, billiards, curling and
even baseball.
2. Undoubtedly, the most popular sport in Britain is football. There are
92 football clubs, the most famous ones are Manchester United,
Liverpool and Arsenal.
3. Another very popular sport is tennis, which originated here too. In
June the world famous tournament, the Wimbledon takes place here.
4. Horseracing is the most favourite sport of Her Majesty the Queen –
she has a great number of racing horses, so she is always present.
5.Polo is another symbol of Britain, although only aristocrats and their
descendants take part in tournaments – Prince Charles and his and
Diana’s son William are an example.
16) At what age do British children start school? 1. All children must stay at school from the age of 5 till the age of 16.
How is the ‘gradinita de copii’ / ‘детсад’ called? Until the age of 3 children attend nursery schools. At 5 children go to
How is the ‘ clasa pregatitare’/ ’подготовительная школа’ Infant schools where they study writing, reading, simple math, drawing,
called? singing.
2. At 7 they go to junior schools. There just like in our Primary schools
How is ‘scoala primara’/ ‘начальная школа’ called? they study 11+ subjects like History, Geography, Nature, Art and Music,
PE, etc. Pupils are streamed according to their ability to learn into A,B, C
or D streams.
2. Secondary schools are divided into:
a)Grammar schools (teaching mostly academic subjects)
What kind of secondary schools are there?
b)Technical schools (teach commercial and technical course)
c) Comprehensive schools (include both features of Grammar and
Technical schools)
3. There are private schools, too. They are called Public schools; some
well known are Eton and Rugby. They are single-sex schools for the
How are private schools in Britain called? privileged. There is a set uniform for each Public school. They are also
boarding schools, which means that pupils live there during the term
What are boarding schools? time.
4. At 16 pupils take GCSE exams and can stay on at school or do a
vocational course.
What is the equivalent of our 9 form exams?
5. At 18 pupils take the final exams called A-levels.
How is our’ Bacalaureat’ exam called in Britain?
1. a) Oxford and Cambridge (referred to as Oxbridge) are the oldest and
17) What 3 types of universities are there in Britain?
the most prestigious universities. Mostly elite studies there(usually the
graduates of Public schools).
b) There are 19 century universities as London and Manchester
universities and
c) There are new universities.
How long is the main ‘Bachelor’ course? 3. Most degree courses at university last 3 years (language courses – 4
years; medical – up to 7 years). At the end of the course you get the
What kind of degree do you get at the end of the main course? degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science.
What are the names of the further 2 courses at university? 4. You can pursue further education and get a Master’s Degree and then
a PhD.
5. University life is considered ‘an experience’ as many students live far
Why is studying at university important (besides from a better
from home. The exams are competitive and the life in a new
chance to get quality education and further find a well-paid
environment teaches students to socialize. Universities and colleges are
job)? also associated with clubs, parties and concerts.
1) William 1.He is the finest English writer and poet. His plays,
18) What famous people would you write a Shakespeare: such as Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Hamlet and others
report about and why? have had a huge impact on culture, literature and
language all over the world.
2. He is also the greatest word creator in history – he
created more than 1500 new words and expressions
that hadn’t existed before. Among them champion,
generous, lonely, gossip, addiction, gloomy,
fashionable, bedroom, luggage.
2)Alfred the He was a powerful ruler who achieved great goals that
Great influenced the future of England:
a) he united the quarrelsome Angle and Saxon
kingdoms
b) he successfully defended the land against
the Viking attempt at conquest.
c) he created a system of fortified towns – a
military innovation that protected Britain from raids
and invasion.
3)Isaac He is widely considered the greatest scientist of all
Newton time.
a) Newton is most famous for discovering gravity. His
theory about gravity helped to explain the movements
of the planets and the Sun. This theory is known today
as Newton's law of universal gravitation.
b) Newton's laws of motion were three fundamental
laws of physics that laid the foundation for classical
mechanics.
c) Calculus - Newton invented a whole new type of
mathematics .Today it is an important type of math
used in advanced engineering and science.
d) In 1668 Newton invented the reflecting telescope.
This type of telescope uses mirrors to reflect light and
form an image. Nearly all of the major telescopes used
in astronomy today are reflecting telescopes.
Others Winston Churchill, Charles Darwin, Charlie Chaplin,
Jane Austen, Captain James Cook, John Lennon and
Paul McCartney, JR Tolkien, Stephen Hawking.
St. Patrick’s Irish festival honoring the saint that brought Christianity
What holidays are celebrated only in Great into the country. It’s celebrated not only in Northern
Day
Britain? Ireland, but also all around Britain, the USA and in
other countries by Irish descendants and amateurs of
March, 17 th
Irish culture.
What exactly is celebrated? Folk music and traditional dancing; wearing green
clothes with the shamrock, the holy trinity symbol;
painting faces green; drinking green Guinness beer;
What happens on these days? Queen’s All TV channels, radio, newspapers, etc congratulate the
Birthday queen. The ceremonial parade, the trooping of the
color, secular ball take place.
April, 21 st This year the Queen turned 90. More than 900 horses
and 1500 participants (actors, musicians, dancers) told
the story of her life. The celebration went on for 4 days
in Windsor Castle and were broadcast on TV.
May Day Celebration of the soon coming of summer and the
May, 1st arrival of warmer weather and abundant blooming of
trees and flowers.
Cheerful parades, festivals, street decoration with
flower garlands, processions through towns and
villages, old traditions (gathering flowers before the
sunrise and decorating the houses to keep the evil spirit
away; washing faces with dew to stay beautiful all the
following year; archery contest; strength contest;
crowning of the May Queen)
Guy Fawkes People commemorate the prevention of Gunpowder
Night Plot that could have blown the Houses of Parliament in
London in the 17 century.
November A thunder of fireworks, huge bonfires in city squares,
burning of the Guy Fawkes’ effigy, celebrating the
5th
farewell to autumn.
London Ride the London Eye and the double decker bus along
What cities would you travel to if you came to England the river Thames, see the changing of the guard at
the UK? Why? Buckingham Palace, take photos of the Big Ben and my
favourite stars in the wax museum of Madame
Tussaude, go over the Tower Bridge, spend several
What season of the year would you choose? hours exploring St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of
London, have some fish and chips, visit the Sherlock
Holmes museum,…..
“If I could choose the time of the year, I’d go Wiltshire Stonehenge: Stonehenge is one of Europe's biggest
in _____season________, England stone circles. The earliest part of Stonehenge, the inner
circle, is nearly 5,000 years old and many of the stones
in _____month________. It is considered the are 10 metres high. The stones used in the inner circle
_______________ month of the year” are believed to be from the Wales which are nearly 400
km away. It’s a really enigmatic place and an absolute
must-see in Britain.
Blackpool I hope to go there in summer. I’d visit the Pleasure
England beach with its enormous amusement park including
one of the fastest roller coasters in Europe, the Big One.
Then I would certainly go to the beach and swim and
sunbathe.
Bath I’d like to see the Roman Baths, One of the best-
England preserved Roman sites in the UK. It contains an
impressive set of thermal spas and an impressive
Roman bathing house.
It can accommodate more than just the residents of the
town. It was a place to socialize and even a religious
site.The Roman baths offer an incredible insight into the
lives of ancient Romans around Britain.
Fort I want to see Ben Nevis, the Highest mountain on
William British Isles, it’s 1344 m. It is estimated that more than
Scotland 100,000 people climb ‘The Ben’ each year. I’d like to do
that too. I know that snow can be found on top of the
mountain throughout the year.
Inverness I’d visit Loch Ness lake. Although I know that some
Scotland photos of the monster which is believed to live there
are fake, the lake still fascinates me. The lake is
enormous: it is more than 200 m deep and holds more
water than in all of the lakes and rivers of England and
Wales combined.
Snowdonia Snowdonia is an area and an awesome national
Wales park, where I’ll see its stunning 360-degree views
of the mountains, valleys and coast below, and if
it happens to be a clear day, I’ll even see Ireland.
It is located along the coast of Wales and is home
to Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and
England.
My favourite English writer is William Shakespeare. He is the finest
Who is your favourite English writer and English writer and poet. His plays, such as Romeo and Juliet, Othello,
which of their works impressed you the Hamlet and others have had a huge impact on culture, literature and
language all over the world.
most? My favourite play is Romeo and Juliet. Romeo and Juliet stretches across
all generations and cultures in terms of theme. The dueling families, the
teenage quest to interpret the difference between passion and desire
and real love, the role of a family friend or mentor and how to deal with
the blows that life prepares for you – are eternal themes of the human
life. People may deal with these issues at different times in their lives,
but almost all people deal with at least one of these issues if not all.
Some say that every love story written since owes at least a little
something to this story of Juliet and her Romeo. Any love story needs an
obstacle, something that keeps the lovers apart, at least temporarily.
Shakespeare's version of an obstacle--the feud between the Montagues
and Capulets--has been imitated so often it is now cliche. One aspect
I've always found interesting about the play's popularity is that it is a love
story with an unhappy ending. How rare is that! Of course, the play is a
tragedy and contains much more than just the love story. And maybe it's
the mix of romance and tragedy that makes the play so great.
According to many opinions of people from different backgrounds who
How can you characterize British people? have been to England or have English friends or “mates” as the British
say, they are In general nice and friendly people once they get to know
you more. Everybody says in one voice that they’re very polite. Talking
about sense of humour, they are often described as cynically funny and
sarcastic. They are also obsessed about the weather - they’d discuss it
no matter what the weather is like – freezing cold, boiling hot or just
lovely. Thus British people love small talk and love pubs and beer. There
is a great bond in families and family reunions are a rather frequent
thing as well as having traditional roast dinners on such days. The British
are said to have a sense of justice and fairness