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CHAPTER-1

Q.1: Why every period starts from ns and ends at nS2 np6,
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Ans: In modern periodic table, s-block elements are kept on left side and p-block elements are on right side. s-
block has general electronic configuration of ns1-2 and p-block has ns2 to np1-6 therefore every period
starts from ns1 and ends at nS2 np6
Q.2: Why modern classification is better classification?
Ans: Modern classification was carried out on logical and scientific grounds. It helped in correcting the
position of some elements wrongly placed in previous periodic table. It has an empirical approach to
express periodicity of the elements with increasing atomic number.
Q.3: Why the elements of a group in the periodic table has same valence shell configuration?
Ans: In a group of the periodic table, elements of similar characteristics are kept such as valency, number of
outer most electrons, chemical characteristics etc. Hence they have same valence shell configuration too.
Q.4: Why was Mendeleev's Periodic Law modified? Give at least two reasons.
Ans: Mendeleev's Periodic Law was modified because:
i) It doesn't have position of isotopes
ii) It has alkali and coinage metals In same group
iii) There was no regular difference in atomic masses of two consecutive elements
iv) Lanthanides and Actinides were assigned wrong positions.

CHAPTER-2
QS: Why Ionic hydrides are true hydrides?
Ans: Hydrides are binary compound of hydrogen. Ionic hydrides are only one in which hydrogen has negative
charge (H).
Q.6: Why Be and Mg do not form ionic hydrides?
Ans: Be and Mg are smaller in size, larger in charge density and has intermediate properties of ionic and
covalent. That's why their molecule gets polymerized and do not form fully ionic hydrides. These have
partially ionic and partially covalent properties.
Q.7: Why position of Hydrogen in Modern Periodic Table is a puzzle?
Ans: The position of hydrogen in Modem Periodic Table is a puzzle due to the limitation of first electronic shell
causing controversial properties of loosing, gaining and sharing of electrons. Due to the fact, its position
is not definite. However, in most periodic table, it is placed at the top of the periodic table.
Q.8: Why heavy water is heavy?
Ans: Heavy water has heavier isotope of hydrogen i.e. Deuterium (atomic mass 2 amu). It has formula D20.
Q.9: Why Nascent or atomic hydrogen is rnore reactive than molecular hydrogen?
Ans: Nascent hydrogen (newly born) occurs in atomic state has greater energy and needs to be stabilized by
decreasing energy. That's why it remains ready to react with those substances which are not reacted by
rnolecular hydrogen (already stabled).
CHAPTER-3
Q.10: Why the elements of group IA are called "Alkali Metals"?
Ans: The name alkali is derived from the Arabic word means "ashes" These metals are present in the ashes of
plants and produce strong alkaline solution in water. That's why they are called "Alkali Metals".
Q.11: Why the elements of group IIA are called "Alkaline Earth Metals"?
Ans: These metals are present produce alkaline solution in water and widely distributed in earth's crust. That's
why they are called "Alkaline Earth Metals".
Q.12: Why Li and Be markedly differ from other members of their respective groups?
Ans: Li and Be are: i. are smaller in size, ii. having higher charge densities causing strong polarizing effects on
their ions iii. have high heat of hydration Due to these facts, they are markedly differ from their other
members of respective groups
Q.13: Why the first Ionization Enthalpies of alkali and alkaline earth metals are generally low. However,
Ionization enthalpies of IIA group elernents are higher than IA group elements?
Ans: Ionization enthalpies of s-block elements are generally low as their outer electron is effectively shielded
frorn nucleus by inner electrons. However, I.E. of IIA group is higher due to increase in nuclear charge and
decrease in size than IA group in the same Period.
Q.14: Why Ionization Potential decreases from Li to Cs?
Ans: Ionization Potential is inversely proportional to atomic size. In a group atomic size increases that's why
I.P. decreases.
Q.15: Why alkali metals have largest covalent radii?
Ans. In a period nuclear charge increases subsequently atomic size or covalent radii decreases. Alkali rnetals
are on left most side in periodic table therefore they have largest covalent radii
Q.16: Why alkali and alkaline earth metals easily form cations?
Ans: Alkali and alkaline earth metals (elements of IA and IIA) groups easily form cations because they have: a.
large size b. low ionization potential c. low electron affinity
Q.17: Why the cationic radius is smaller than that of atomic radius? OR Na+ ion is smaller than Na atom?
Ans: Cationic radius is smaller than that of neutral atomic radius because on removal of an electron the nuclear
charge becomes rnore effective to pull the remaining electrons and causes shrinkage in radius. For
example Na+ ion has smaller radius than its Na atom.
Q.18: Why alkaline earth metal ions are more hydrated than alkali metal ions?
Ans: The alkaline earth metal ions are more strongly hydrated than alkali metal ions because M2+ ions have a
stronger electric field than M+1 ions and hydration energy increases with decreasing size of the ion.
Q.19: Why Li+ ions are more readily hydrated than K+ ions?
Ans: Hydration energy decreases with increasing size of the ion down the group. That's why Li + ions are more
readily hydrated than K+ ions.
Q.20: Why alkali metals are powerful reducing agents?
Ans: Alkali rnetals get easily oxidized and form cations because they have: a. large size b. low ionization
potential c) low electron affinity hence they are more powerful reducing agents
Q.21: Why Li+/Li couple has exceptionally high negative electrode potential?
Ans: Li +/Li couple has exceptionally high negative electrode potential because of its large value for the
hydration energy which promotes oxidation of Li to form Li +
Q.22: Why alkali and alkaline earth metals cannot be used in voltaic cells?
Ans: Alkali and alkaline earth metals cannot be used in voltaic cells because their hydration energy values
are based on water as soivent which rapidly helps in oxidation,
Q.23: Why alkaline earth metals are harder than alkali metals?
Ans: Alkaline earth metals are harder than alkali metals because of the presence of divalent cations in their
metallic structure produce greater binding forces
Q.24: Why alkali metals are highly reactive?
Ans: Alkali metals are highly reactive than alkaline earth rnetals because alkali metals have low ionization
potential energy, greater size, less nuclear charge as compared to the corresponding alkaline earth
metals.
Q.25: Why in manufacture of sodium, the two electrodes are separated by iron-gauze diaphragm?
Ans: The two electrodes are separated by a cylindrical iron gauze diaphragm which screens the graphite anode
from the ring shaped iron cathode to keep away the molten sodium ion to , the top of the cathode
compartment from gaseous chlorine formed at the anode.
Q.26: How the given reaction Is avoided during the preparation of sodiurn hydroxide.
6OH- + Cl2  Cl- + CLO3- + 3H2O
Ans: Chlorine gas is collected over at Titanium anodes where as NaOH is collected in the Denuder separately,
hence possible reaction between NaOH and CI,
Q.27. Why Na ions are discharged at the cathode in preference to H in the manufacture of NaOH?
Ans: Na+ ions are discharged at the cathode in preference to H+ Ions in the manufacture of NaOH due to high
voltage of H+ ions.
Q.28: Why Zinc hydroxide is soluble in excess sodium hydroxide solutions?
Ans: In excess sodium hydroxide, Zinc hydroxide forms a complex anion tetrahydroxo zincate (II) ion.
Zn (OH) 2 + 2NaOH  Na2[Zn (OH)4]
Q.29: Why Plaster of Paris is used in making plaster coats and moulds?
Ans: Plaster of Paris when mixed with water sets in 5 minutes with expansion and converts into hard mass
which permits it to use in the preparation of coats and moulds.
CHAPTER-4
Q.30: Why Sulphuric Acid is a sulphonating agent?
Ans: Sulphuric Acid has a sulphonyl group (-SO3H).When it reacts with an organic compound it replaces
hydrogen with sulphonyl group. Due to this property it is called Sulphonating Agent.
Q.31: Why Nitric Acid is an oxidizing agent?
Ans: Nitric Acid decomposes and gives atomic oxygen, which oxidizes substances.
2HNO3 2NO2 + H2O + [o] That's why nitric acid is an oxidizing agent.
Q.32: Why Graphite is a good conductor of electricity?
Ans: In graphite the outer most 3 electrons engaged in sp2-hybridization, whereas 1 electron remains free
causing conduction of electricity.
Q.33: Why atomic radii increase down the group in the p-block element? OR Why the atomic size of sulphur
is bigger than that of oxygen?
Ans: Atomic radii/ size increases down the group due to addition of a new orbit /shell. That's why Sulphur is
bigger than that of Oxygen.
Q.34: Why the metallic character or electro positivity of elements increase down the group?
Ans: The metallic character of elements is inversely proportional to the factors:
a. ionization potential b. electron affinity c. electron population
Hence metallic character or electro positivity increases down the group as these factors decrease.
Q.35: Why diamond is the hardest known substance,
Ans: Diamond is the hardest known substance as its valence 4 electrons are strongly bonded due to sp3
hybridization. It has high C-C bond energy i.e. 347 KJ /mole. It has high refractive index and M.P. too.
Q.36: Why hydrogen Sulphide is a gas where as water is a liquid,
Ans: The hydrogen bonding affects the physical properties greatly. The effect decreases down the group due to
decrease of electro negativity. Hence H2S is a gas having weak hydrogen bonding where as H20 is liquid
having stronger hydrogen bonding.
0.36: Why Aluminum hydroxide acts both as a base and an acid?
Ans: The substances which can react with acids as well as bases are called "Amphoteric". Aluminum hydroxide
reacts with both acid and base as shown below:
Base (neutralizing an acid): Al(OH)3 + 3HCl AlCl3 +3H2O
Acid (neutralizing a base): Al(OH)3 + 3NaOH Na3[AL(OH)4]
Q.37: Why graphite is more stable allotropic form of carbon than diamond,
Ans: The radius of graphite is greater than Diamond. Atoms inside graphite have the autonomy to move
around its lattice; therefore it has more entropy and more stable at higher temperatures.
Q.38: Why diamond is lustrous whereas carbon is dull-colored,
Ans: Diamond has high optical dispersion ability i.e. to disperse light into different colours which makes it
luster. Whereas other allotropic forms of carbon do not have such ability, hence they are dull coloured.
Q.38: Why electron population of aluminum s less than that of boron?
Ans: Electron population is defined as the ration of outer most electrons to the capacity of outer most shell.
In Aluminum: 13Al =1S2 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p1
No. of outer most electron = 3, Capacity of outer most shell = 18 (M-shell) i.e. electron population is 3:18
In Boron: 5B = 1S22s2, 2p'
No. of outer most electron=3, Capacity of outer most shell = 8 (L-shell) i.e. electron population is 3:8
Hence electron population of aluminum is less than that of boron.
Q.40: Why the viscosity and boiling point of H2SO4 are high?
Ans. Sulphuric acid has 2 hydrogen atoms form stronger hydrogen bonding with each other causing greater
viscosity and high boiling point.
Q.41: Why ammonia is a stronger base than Phosphine?
Ans: The hydrides of V-A groups are basic in nature, but in Ammonia, N has greater electro negativity as
compared to P in Phosphine. Moreover, ammonia is more soluble in water but Phosphine is less. Due to
reasons NH3 is stronger base as compared to the PH3
CHAPTER-5
Q.42: Why most of the transition elements and their compounds are paramagnetic?
Ans: Most of the transition elements have their unpaired electron in d-orbital causing paramagnetic property
i.e. attracted by the magnetic fields like Sc, V, Ti, Cr, Mn etc.
Q.43: Why H20 and NH3 act as ligand but H3O+ and NH4+ do not?
Ans: H20 and NH3 have lone pair of electrons donating to central atom and act as ligand, but H3O+ and NH4+ do
not have any lone pair of electrons to form coordinate covalent bond.
Q44. Why is electronic configuration of Cr is 4s1 3d5 instead of 4s2, 3d4 while that of Cu is 4s1 3d10 instead of
4s2 3d9?
Ans: In Cr and Cu, one electron from 4s orbital jumps to 3d orbital in order to gain extra stability of being
lower energy orbital and single spin electron. Hence, chromium (Cr) has electronic configuration 4s1 3d5
instead of 4s2, 3d4 while that of Cu is 4s1 3d10 instead of 4s2 3d9