CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ®

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CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® Tutorials

The Magic Tee Tutorial The Coaxial Connector Tutorial The Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial The Patch Antenna Tutorial The Cavity Tutorial The Narrow Band Filter Tutorial

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04.12.2003

The Magic Tee Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions Geometric Construction Steps 4 4 5 Results 1D Results (Port Signals. S-Parameters) 2D and 3D Results (Field Monitors and Port Modes) 15 15 17 Accuracy Considerations Getting More Information 19 23 .

We strongly suggest that you carefully read through the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Getting Started manual before starting this tutorial. Now let’s start the tutorial and try to understand the behavior of this “magic” waveguide device. Although CST ® MICROWAVE STUDIO can provide a wide variety of results.4 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model’s Dimensions In this tutorial you will analyze a well-known and commonly used high frequency device: the Magic Tee. port 1 and port 4 are de-coupled. The main idea behind the Magic Tee is to combine a TE and a TM wave guide splitter (see the figure below for an illustration and the dimensions). In this particular case. ® . this tutorial concentrates solely on the S-parameters and electric fields. so one can expect S14 and S41 to be very small. Viewing the electric fields should give you a better insight into the Magic Tee.

In the case of the Magic Tee. . you are requested to select a template which best fits your current device. the background material to PEC (which is the default anyway) and all boundaries to be perfect electric conducting. a combination of three bricks is sufficient to describe the whole device. These settings can be changed in a dialog box. you only need to model the air filled parts of the waveguide device. This template automatically sets the units to mm and GHz. which opens after selecting Edit # Working Plane Properties from the main menu. Please note that we will use the same document conventions here as introduced in the Getting Started manual. Since the structure has a maximum extension of 100mm along a coordinate direction. the working plane size should be set to 100mm (or more). Since the background material (which will automatically enclose the model) is specified as being a perfect electric conductor here. ! Define Working Plane Properties The next step will usually be to set the working plane properties in order to make the drawing plane large enough for your device.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 5 Geometric Construction Steps ! Select a Template ® Once you have started CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and have chosen to create a new project. Here the “Waveguide Coupler” template should be selected.

Create now the brick with the default component and material settings by pressing the Ok button. Drag the rectangle to the size DX=-100 and ® DY=-20 before you double-click to fix the dimensions. the information box will show the current mouse pointer’s coordinates and the distance (DX and DY) to the previously picked position. Zmax=50) . you can correct it by editing the values numerically. Drag the height to h=50 and double-click to finish the construction. and a dialog box. After you double-click on the point x=50 and y=10. The current coordinates of the mouse pointer are shown in the bottom right corner of the drawing window in an information box. If you have made a mistake during the mouse based input phase. Size Width Snap width ! 100 10 5 Define the First Brick Now you can go ahead and create the first brick: The easiest way to do this is to click the “Create a brick” icon Basic Shapes # Brick from the main menu. You should now see both the brick. Your brick’s mouse-based input parameters are summarized in the table below. shown as a transparent model. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO now switches to the height mode. Xcenter Ycenter DX DY h 50 10 -100 -20 50 = Xmax = Ymax (Xmin = -50) (Ymin = -10) (Zmin=0. where your input parameters are shown. ® or select Objects # CST MICROWAVE STUDIO now asks you for the first point of the brick.6 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® Change the settings in the working plane properties window to the values given below before pressing the Ok button.

This action moves and rotates the WCS so that the working plane (uv plane) coincides with the selected face. 3. It allows you to avoid making calculations during the construction period. The working plane can now be aligned with the selected face by pressing the “Align the WCS with the most recently selected face” icon (or simply by using the shortcut W).CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 7 Front face You have just created the waveguide connecting ports 2 and 3. Let’s continue and discover this tool’s advantages. activate the “Pick face” tool with one of these three options: 1. the Working Coordinate System (WCS). You can activate it by single-clicking on it. 2. Adding the waveguide ® connection to port 1 will introduce another of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ’s features. ! Align the WCS with the Front Face of the First Brick To add the waveguide belonging to port 1 to the front face as shown in the picture above. “Pick face” tool icon Objects # Pick # Pick Face Shortcut: F Note: The shortcuts only work if the main drawing window is active. Now simply double-click on the front face of the brick to complete the pick operation. .

Finally you have to specify the brick’s height. Therefore you should drag the mouse to the proper height h=30 and double-click on this location. you should pick the lower edge’s midpoint by simply activating the appropriate pick tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Edge Midpoint or use the shortcut M). Since you have now selected two points. it is quite simple to create the second brick. . Start the brick creation mode with either the main menu’s Objects # Basic Shapes # Brick or the . As a first step. Please remember that all values used for shape construction are corresponding icon relative to the uvw coordinate system as long as the WCS is active. Then you should repeat the same procedure for the brick’s upper edge. Please note that this step will be skipped if the previously picked two points already form a rectangle (not only a line). you will be requested to enter the width of the brick.8 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® Upper edge mid point Lower edge mid point ! Define the Second Brick With the WCS in the right place. The new brick should be aligned with the edge midpoints of the first brick as shown in the picture above. Now all edges become highlighted and you can simply double-click on the first brick’s lower edge as shown in the picture. This will open a dialog box where you can specify the coordinates numerically. you can also press the TAB key whenever a coordinate is requested. Please note that instead of specifying coordinates with the mouse (as we have done here). which are located on a line. Now you should drag the width of the brick to w=50 (watch the coordinate display in the lower right corner of the drawing window) and double-click on this location.

yp(1) represent the point coordinates of the first picked point (the midpoint of the first brick’s lower edge). Since you are currently constructing the inner waveguide volume. a dialog box will again appear showing a summary of the brick’s parameters. First brick’s top face . Here the functions xp(1). here it is convenient to construct the complete structure as a single component. However. you can still keep the default “Vacuum” Material setting and the same Component (component1) as for the first brick. Please note: The use of different components allows you to gather several solids into specific groups. you should confirm the brick’s creation again by pressing the Ok button. independently of their material behavior. Finally. Analogously the functions xp(2) and yp(2) correspond to the upper edge’s midpoint. Now let’s go straight ahead to construct the third brick.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 9 After finishing the brick’s interactive construction. Some of the coordinate fields now contain mathematical expressions since some of the points were entered by using the pick tools.

10 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® ! Align the WCS with the First Brick’s Top Face The next brick should be aligned with the top face of the first brick. The next step is to drag the mouse in order to specify the extension of 50 along the –v direction (hold down the Shift key while dragging the mouse to restrict the coordinate movement to the v direction only) and double-click on this location. Top face’s upper edge midpoint ! Construct the Third Brick The brick creation mode for drawing the third brick should now be activated by selecting either Objects # Basic Shapes # Brick or the “Create a brick” icon . . you should activate the midpoint edge pick tool (as you already did for the previous brick) and double-click on the top face’s upper edge midpoint (see picture above). Afterwards you should press the “Align the WCS with the most recently selected face” . Once you are requested to enter the first point. . Afterwards you should specify the width of the brick as being w=20 and the height being h=30 in the same way or by entering these values numerically. In order to align the local coordinate system with this face you should first activate the Pick Face mode ( Objects # Pick # Pick Face or shortcut F) and double-click on the desired face. select WCS # Align WCS with Selected Face from the main menu or use the icon shortcut W.

Objects # Pick # Pick Face or shortcut F) and then double-clicking Pick Face tool ( on the desired face.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 11 The last brick is created as a Vacuum material and belongs to the component “component1”. . The settings in the waveguide port dialog box will automatically wavguide port” icon specify the extension and location of the port according to the bounding box of any previously picked elements (faces. Now the structure should look as follows: Front face ! Define Port 1 In the next step you will assign the first port to the front face of the Magic Tee (see picture above). Once the port’s face is selected you can open the waveguide port dialog box by either selecting Solve # Waveguide Ports from the main menu or by pressing on the “Define . The easiest way to do this is to pick the port face first by activating the . edges or points). Finally confirm these settings in the brick creation dialog box.

port 3 and port 4. Once you have completed this step.12 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® In this case you can simply accept the default settings and press Ok to create the port. your model should look as follows. The next step is the definition of ports 2. 3. 3 and 4. Port 3 . ! Define Ports 2. 4 Repeat the last steps (pick face and create port) to define port 2. Please double-check your input before you go ahead to the solver settings.

that the currently selected units are shown in the status bar. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO uses the concept of so-called “monitors” in order to specify which types of field data to store. Change Fmin and Fmax to the desired values in the frequency range settings dialog box (opened by pressing the “Define frequency range” icon or choosing Solve # Frequency) and store these settings by pressing the Ok button.4 GHz to 4 GHz. In order to add a field monitor click the “Define monitors” icon Monitors from the main menu. it is necessary to define which field data should be ® stored before the simulation is started. Please note. you also have to specify whether the field should be recorded at a fixed frequency or at a sequence of time samples. ! Define Field Monitors Since the amount of data generated by a broadband time domain calculation is huge even for relatively small examples. or select Solve # Field . In addition to the type. Please note that an excessive number of field monitors may significantly increase the memory space required for the simulation.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 13 ! Define the Frequency Range The frequency range for this example extends from 3. You can define as many monitors as necessary in order to get different field types or fields at various frequencies.

1. A progress window appears showing you some information about the calculation’s status. For the Magic Tee device we are interested in the input reflection at port 1 and in the transmission from port 1 to the other three ports 2.14 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® In this example you should define an electric field monitor (Type = E-Field) at a Frequency of 3. Thus we only need to calculate the S-parameters S1.1.1 and S4. Finally press the Start button in order to start the calculation. 3 and 4. ! Define the Solver’s Parameters and Start the Calculation The solver’s parameters are specified in the solver control dialog box.6 GHz before pressing the Ok button to store the settings. . which can be opened by selecting Solve # Transient Solver from the main menu or by pressing the “Transient solver” icon . the full S-matrix would be calculated. S3. S2.1. Therefore you should change the Source type field in the Stimulation settings frame to Port 1. All of them can be derived by an excitation at port 1. You should now specify whether the full S-matrix should be calculated or if a subset of this matrix is sufficient. If you left this setting at All Ports.

1 and o4.1 are identical so don’t worry if you only see one curve). Results Congratulations. Open the 1D Results folder in the navigation tree and click on the Port signals folder. . Let’s have a look at the results.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 15 This progress window disappears when the solver has successfully finished. o2. The incident wave amplitude is called i1 and the reflected or transmitted wave amplitudes of the 4 ports are o1.1 are delayed and distorted (note.1. Otherwise a Details field will be shown to display error messages or warnings. This plot shows the incident and reflected or transmitted wave amplitudes at the ports versus time.1 and o3.1. You can see that the transmitted wave amplitudes o2.1 and o3. S-Parameters) Firstly. 1D Results (Port Signals. o3. take a look at the port signals.1. that o2. you have simulated the Magic Tee.

16 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial The S-Parameters can be plotted by clicking on the 1D Results # SdB folder. . ® As expected. the transmission to port 4 (S4. It is obvious that this simple device is very poorly matched so that the transmission to the ports 2 and 3 is of the same order of magnitude as the input reflection at port 1.1) is extremely small (-150 dB is close to the solver’s noise floor).

To visualize the electric field of the fundamental port mode you should click on the e1 folder. We will first inspect the port modes which can be easily displayed by opening the 2D/3D Results # Port Modes # Port1 folder from the navigation tree. The full three-dimensional electric field distribution in the Magic Tee can be shown by selecting the 2D/3D Results # E-Field # efield (f=3.6)[1] folder from the navigation tree and clicking on the Normal item. The field plot will then show a three dimensional contour plot of the electric field normal to the surface of the structure. .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 17 2D and 3D Results (Port Modes and Field Monitorss) Finally we will have a look at the 2D and 3D field results. The plot also shows some important properties of the mode such as mode type. cut-off frequency and propagation constant. The port modes at the other ports can be visualized in the same way.

The appearance of the plot can be changed in the plot properties dialog box.18 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® You can watch an animation of the fields by checking the Animate Fields option in the context menu. Optionally you can also double-click on the plot in order to open this dialog box. which can be opened by selecting Results # Plot Properties from the main menu or Plot Properties from the context menu. .

Please note that this ripple does not move the location of minima or maxima in the Sparameter curves. ! Numerical Truncation Errors Due to Finite Simulation Time Intervals The transient solver calculates the time varying field distribution in the device which results from excitation with a gaussian pulse at the input port as primary result. . The level of the truncation error can be controlled by using the Accuracy setting in the transient solver control dialog box. a ripple is introduced in the S-parameters affecting the accuracy of the results. The amplitude of this ripple increases with the signal amplitude remaining at the end of the transient solver run. a larger truncation error is tolerable. However. Therefore. it might be necessary to increase the solver’s accuracy setting. it should be specified with care. Numerical truncation errors introduced by the finite simulation time interval. Since increasing the accuracy requirement for the simulation limits the truncation error and thus in turn increases the simulation time. Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution. Thus the time signals of the port mode amplitudes are the fundamental results from which the Sparameters are derived by using a Fourier Transform. In the following we will give you some hints how to handle these errors and how to obtain highly accurate results. If the latter is not the case. Even if the accuracy of the time signals themselves is extremely high. As a rule of thumb. numerical inaccuracies can be introduced by the Fourier Transform which assumes that the time signals have completely decayed to zero at the end. the following table can be used: Desired Accuracy Level Moderate High Very high Accuracy Setting (Solver control dialog box) -30dB -40dB -50dB The following general rule may be useful as well: If you find a large ripple in the Sparameters. 2. The default value of –30dB will usually give sufficiently accurate results for coupler devices. if you are only interested in the location of a peak.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 19 Accuracy Considerations The transient S-parameter calculation is mainly affected by two sources of numerical inaccuracies: 1. to obtain highly accurate results for filter structures it is sometimes necessary to increase the accuracy to –40dB or –50dB.

20 ! CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® Effect of the Mesh Resolution on the S-parameter’s Accuracy The inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution are usually more difficult to estimate. you have used the default mesh which has been automatically generated by an expert system. then convergence has been achieved. the following dialog box will appear: This dialog box tells you that the desired accuracy limit (2% by default) could be met by the adaptive mesh refinement. In the example above. Since the expert system’s settings have now been . If these results do not significantly change anymore by increasing the mesh density. After a couple of minutes during which the solver is running through mesh adaptation passes. The only way to ensure the accuracy of the solution is to increase the mesh resolution and recalculate the S-parameters. you should now start the solver again by pressing the Start button. The easiest way to prove the accuracy of the results is to use the fully automatic mesh adaptation which can be switched on by checking the Adaptive mesh refinement option in the solver control dialog box (Solve # Transient Solver): After activating the adaptive mesh refinement tool.

you can visualize the maximum difference of the S-parameters for two subsequent passes by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Delta S from the navigation tree: As you can see.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 21 adjusted such that this accuracy is achieved. the maximum deviation of the S-parameters is below 0. After the mesh adaptation procedure is complete. parameter sweeps or optimizations). you may switch off the adaptation procedure for subsequent calculations (e. . You should now confirm the deactivation of the mesh adaptation by pressing the Yes button.5% which indicates that the expert system based meshing would have been fine for this example even without running the mesh adaptation procedure.g.

1 during the mesh adaptation can be visualized by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # |S|linear # S1. Please note that S4. By inspecting the plots.22 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® The convergence process of the input reflection S1.1 is extremely small (< -120dB) in this example such that it’s variations are mainly due to the numerical noise and are therefore ignored by the automatic mesh adaptation procedure. you can confirm that the results are quite stable here.1 from the navigation tree: The convergence process of the other S-parameters can be visualized in the same way. . The huge advantage of this expert system based mesh refinement procedure over traditional adaptive schemes is that the mesh adaptation needs to be carried out once for each device only in order to determine the optimum settings for the expert system. There is then no need for time consuming mesh adaptation cycles during parameter sweeps or optimizations.

usage of macros to automate common tasks. 9. mesh generation. 4. Start the transient solver. Visualize port signals and S-parameters. using templates. Define frequency ranges and boundary conditions. The following topics have been covered so far: 1. General modeling considerations. Thank you for using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ! . In some cases we have referred to the Getting Started manual which is also a good source of information for general topics. In addition to this tutorial you can find some more S-parameter calculation examples in the examples folder in your installation directory. Check the truncation error of the time signals Ensure to obtain accurate and converged results by using the automatic expert system based mesh adaptation. 6. 10. etc. 7. Finally. And last but not least: Please also visit one of the training classes being regularly held at  a location near you. 2. Each of these examples contains a Readme item in the navigation tree which will give you some more information about the particular device. etc. you should refer to the Advanced Topics manual for more in depth information on issues such as the fundamental principles of the simulation method. You can obtain more information for each particular step by using the online help system which can be activated either by pressing the Help button in each dialog box or by pressing the F1 key at any time to obtain context sensitive information. Define field monitors. Visualize port modes and field monitors. 5. 3.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO – Magic Tee Tutorial ® 23 Getting More Information Congratulations! You have just completed the Magic Tee tutorial which should have provided you with a good working knowledge on how to use the transient solver to calculate S-parameters. Define ports. 8. Use picked points to define objects relatively to each other.

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S-Parameters) 2D and 3D Results (Field Monitors and Port Modes) 55 55 57 Accuracy Considerations Getting More Information 59 63 .The Coaxial Connector Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions Geometric Construction Steps Solver Settings and S-Parameter Calculation 26 26 27 47 Results 1D Results (Port Signals.

The following explanations on how to model and analyze this device can also be applied to other coaxial connector structures as well. This tutorial. One of these fixtures additionally contains a rubber ring. CST MICROWAVE ® STUDIO can provide a wide variety of results. concentrates on Sparameters and surface currents. 100 190 510 90 390 160 180 Air 200 70 90 60 130 90 ° ° 40 ® Teflon Port 1 140 1 180 310 390 170 160 280 Metal 3 2 100 All dimensions are given in mil Rubber 60 140 200 Port 2 The structure shown above consists of several coaxial sections. however. The inner conductor of the connector is made from perfect electrically conducting material and is embedded in vacuum. 600 140 .26 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions In this tutorial you will analyze a 90 degree coaxial connector. We strongly suggest that you carefully read through the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Getting Started manual before starting this tutorial. This structure is mounted at three locations with rings made of teflon.

Since the background material and all boundary conditions have been set to be perfect electric conductors. ! Select a Template ® Once you have started CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and have chosen to create a new project.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 27 Geometric Construction Steps This tutorial will take you step-by-step through the construction of your model. you only need to model the interior parts of the connector. and relevant screen shots will be provided so that you can double-check your entries along the way. you are requested to select a template which fits best to your current device. Here the “Coaxial Connector” template should be chosen. the background material and all boundaries to be perfect electrically conducting. This template automatically sets the units to mm and GHz. .

the working plane size should be set to 1500 mil (or more). you should set the Size to 1500 (the unit which has previously been set to mil is displayed in the status bar).28 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial ! Set the Units The template has automatically set the geometrical units to mm. Since all geometrical dimensions are given in mil for this example. Since the structure has a maximum extent of 1320 mil along a coordinate direction. In this dialog box. the Raster width to 100 and the Snap width to 50 to obtain a reasonably spaced grid. which opens after selecting Edit # Working Plane Properties from the main menu. you have to change this setting manually. Please confirm these settings by pressing the Ok button. These settings can be changed in a dialog box. ! Set the Working Plane’s Properties The next step will usually be to set the working plane properties in order to make the drawing plane large enough for your device. Therefore. . Please note that we will use the same document conventions here as introduced in the Getting Started manual. please open the units dialog box by selecting Solve # Units from the main menu: Here you should set the Dimensions to mil and press Ok.

9 160 Air 8 200 3 Figure of rotation Air 880 Cylinder 140 In the first step. For polygonal cross sections it is more convenient to use the figure of rotation tool. Since the cross section profile is a simple polygon.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 29 ! Draw the Air Parts In this structure. activated by selecting Objects # Rotate from the main menu or pressing the ”Rotate” toolbar button . You could do this by either double-clicking on each point’s coordinates on the drawing plane using the mouse or you could also enter the values numerically. Since no face has been previously picked. you can delete the most recently entered point by pressing the backspace key): Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X 0 0 480 480 990 990 1280 1280 0 Y 0 140 140 200 200 160 160 0 0 . the air can be easily modeled by uniting two rotational symmetric parts (a figure of rotation and a cylinder) as shown in the picture below. Since the latter approach may be more convenient here. you can now start drawing the figure of rotation. you do not need to use the curve modeling tools here (please refer to the Getting Started manual for more information on this advanced functionality). we suggest pressing the TAB key and entering the coordinates in the dialog box. the tool will automatically enter a polygon definition mode and request you to enter the polygon’s points. 290 5 7 6 510 4 480 160 140 180 2 y x 1. All polygon points can thus be entered step-by-step according to the following table (whenever you make a mistake.

“air1”) to the shape and press the Ok button to finish the creation of the solid. you can easily change the values by simply double-clicking on the incorrect coordinate’s entry field.g. The picture below shows how your structure should look like now (you may need to rotate the view as explained in the Getting Started manual in order to obtain this plot). independently of their material behavior. The “Rotate Profile” dialog box will then automatically appear. Finally. the polygon will then be closed. the default settings with “component1” and “Vacuum” are practically appropriate for this example. This dialog box allows you to review the coordinate settings in the list. please assign a proper Name (e. here it is convenient to construct the complete connector as a representation of one component. If you encounter any mistakes. However.30 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial After the last point has been entered. . In this case. The next step is to assign a specific Component and a Material to the shape. Please note: The use of different components allows you to collect several solids into specific groups.

The model should then look as follows: . Afterwards. The following dialog box allows you to enter a vector along which the origin of the working coordinate system (WCS) will be moved. Afterwards you need to rotate the WCS along its u-axis by 90 degrees which can be easily achieved by selecting WCS # Rotate +90° around U axis or using the shortcut Shift+U. the origin of this coordinate system should be moved by selecting WCS # Move Local Coordinates ( ). You should now shift the origin by 160 mil along the u direction and by 180 mil along the v direction in order to position the WCS at the center of the cylinder’s base. You can now activate the local coordinate system by selecting WCS # Local Coordinate System or pressing the corresponding toolbar button .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 31 The construction of the second air part by creating a cylinder can be simplified if a local coordinate system is introduced first.

Please skip the definition of the inner radius by pressing the ESC key (the air should be modeled as solid cylinder here) and check your settings in the following dialog box: . Please press the TAB key again and set the Radius to 140 before pressing the Ok button. Once the cylinder creation mode is active.32 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial The second air part can now be created by using the cylinder tool: Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder ( ). Since this is now the origin of the working coordinate system. you can simply press Shift+TAB to open the dialog box for numerically entering the coordinates and confirm the settings by pressing Ok (please note that holding down the Shift key while pressing the TAB key opens the dialog box with the coordinate values initially set to zero rather than the current mouse pointer’s location). You are now requested to enter the outer radius of the cylinder. you are requested to pick the center of the cylinder. The Height of the cylinder can then be set to 880 in the same way.

Since the two air parts overlap each other. please set the Name of the cylinder to “air2” and verify that the solid again is associated with the vacuum Material. Confirm your settings by pressing Ok. the shape intersection dialog box will open automatically.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 33 Finally. Your model should then finally look as follows: . asking you to select a Boolean operation to combine both shapes: Please select the operation Add both shapes to unite both parts and press the Ok button.

g. . After skipping the definition of the inner radius by pressing the ESC key. Afterwards. When you are requested to enter the cylinder’s center. the cylinder creation dialog box should appear: In this dialog you should first of all assign a proper Name (e. Once the coordinate system is located properly. V=0 before clicking on the Ok button. it is advantageous to move the WCS to the middle of the teflon cylinder by selecting WCS # Move Local Coordinates ( ): In this dialog box you can enter the expression “390 + 310 / 2” in the DW field in order to move the WCS along the w-axis by this amount. press the TAB key again to set the cylinder’s outer radius to 200. you can now easily model the teflon cylinder by selecting Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder ( ). The height of the cylinder should then be set to “310 / 2” (you are currently modeling one half of the cylinder only) in the same way. Please refer to the structure’s schematic drawing earlier in this tutorial to confirm that the new origin of the WCS is located in the center of the first teflon cylinder. you can now go ahead and create the first teflon cylinder. you can press Shift+TAB and check the coordinate values U=0.34 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial ! Model the Teflon and Rubber Cylinders After successfully modeling the air parts. Therefore. “teflon1”) to the shape before you enter the expression “–310 / 2” in the Wmin field in order to properly set the cylinder’s full length.

04” in the Epsilon field. You will have access to this material database by clicking on Load from Material Library in the Materials context menu in the navigation tree. you need to select “[New material…]” in the Material dropdown list. you may check the button Add to material library. you should check your settings in the dialog box again before pressing the Ok button to store material’s parameters. Finally. if you want to save this specific material definition also for other projects. However. Please select the Change button in the Color frame and choose a nice color. the cylinder’s material is currently set to Vacuum. since the complete connector will be constructed as one component. In order to change this. Please note: The defined material “Teflon” will now be available inside the current project for the further creation of other solids. . Afterwards. opening the material parameter dialog box: In this dialog box you should set the Material name to “Teflon” and the Type to be a normal dielectric material. However.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 35 You can skip the Component setting. you can specify the dielectric constant of teflon by entering “2.

the shape intersection dialog box will appear again: . you can create the cylinder by pressing the Ok button.36 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial The dialog for the cylinder creation should now look as follows: After checking the current settings. Since the teflon cylinder overlaps the previously modeled air parts.

verify the material assignment to “Rubber” and press the Ok button. 5. 6. the rubber ring inside the first teflon cylinder can be modeled analogously: 1. 10. Please refer to the Getting Started manual for more information on Boolean operations. 8. Select “[New Material…]” from the Material dropdown list to create a new material. In the shape intersection dialog box. please activate the pick face tool by either selecting Objects # Pick # Pick Face from the main menu. Press TAB and set the Radius to 200.75. Back in the cylinder creation dialog box. In the material properties dialog box set the Material name to “Rubber”. its Type to “Normal” and its dielectric constant Epsilon to 2. Activate the cylinder creation tool (Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder. 7. Afterwards. Press Shift+TAB and set the center point to U = 0. 9. your model should look as follows: Front face Before you now continue with the construction of the two remaining teflon rings.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 37 Here you should now choose to insert the new teflon cylinder into the air part by selecting Insert highlighted shape before pressing the Ok button. Choose a nice color by pressing the Change button and confirm the material creation by pressing Ok. the front face should be selected . Press TAB and set the inner Radius to 140. 4. pressing the corresponding toolbar button or just using the shortcut F (while the main view is active). the working coordinate system should be aligned with the front face shown in the picture above. 11. Set the Name to “rubber” and enter “–100/2” in the Wmin field. 2. Afterwards. 3. ). Press TAB and set the Height to 100/2. choose Insert highlighted shape and press Ok. V = 0. Therefore. After successfully performing all these steps above.

V = 0. Activate the cylinder creation tool (Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder. 5. Press TAB and set the Height to 190. 7. Press TAB and set the Radius to 280. Now you can straightforwardly model the second teflon cylinder as shown in the structure’s drawing. 1. Therefore select WCS # Move Local Coordinates ( ) to open the corresponding dialog box: Please enter –290 in the DW field before pressing Ok. 4. 6. ). 2. . In the cylinder creation dialog box set the Name to “teflon2” and select the previously defined Material “Teflon” before pressing Ok. Press TAB and set the inner Radius to 90. 3. Press Shift+TAB and set the center point to U = 0. In the shape intersection dialog box. choose Insert highlighted shape and press Ok.38 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial by double-clicking on it. The working coordinate system is aligned with the front face by selecting WCS # Align WCS With Selected Face ( or shortcut W): Align WCS with picked face The next step is to move the WCS to the location of the second teflon cylinder’s base.

Press TAB and set the Height to 90. Select WCS # Move Local Coordinates ( ) to open the move WCS dialog box. 2. ). . 5. In the cylinder creation dialog box set the Name to “teflon3” and select the previously defined Material “Teflon” before pressing Ok. In the shape intersection dialog box. Press TAB and set the Radius to 200. 6. Enter –600 in the DW field and press Ok. V = 0. 4. 2. Press Shift+TAB and set the center point to U = 0. 7.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 39 The model should then look as follows: For the creation of the third teflon ring you should again move the WCS to the proper location: 1. Press ESC to skip the definition of the inner radius. choose Insert highlighted shape and press Ok. 3. Activate the cylinder creation tool (Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder. The construction of the teflon ring can then be performed by following the steps below: 1.

. the WCS should be rotated such that its u axis points into the structure by invoking the command WCS # Rotate +90° around V axis (Shift+V). ) 2. the model should look as follows: Front face ! Model the Inner Conductor The creation of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable can again be simplified by aligning the working coordinate system with the front face shown in the picture above: 1. Double-click on the front face shown above.40 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial After successfully completing these steps. Activate the pick face tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. Align the WCS with the picked face (WCS # Align WCS with Selected Face. ) The new location of the working coordinate system is then shown as in the picture below: Rotate WCS Around V axis In a next step. 3.

the rotate profile creation dialog box will open.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 41 Now the first part of the inner conductor can be modeled by a figure of rotation which is shown in the schematic drawing below: Rotate picked face around axis 170 8 v 1. This will allow you to follow the construction since otherwise the parts of the inner conductor will be hidden inside the previously created shapes. In this dialog box check the points’ coordinates. we will now give a short list of steps only: 1. U 0 1020 1020 800 800 170 170 0 0 V 0 0 60 60 90 90 70 70 0 2. 3. Activate the figure of rotation tool (Objects # Rotate.9 u 6 630 5 220 3 4 90 70 7 60 1 2 ° 90 40 2 Rotate polygon 3 Extrude face 60 Since the construction of a figure of rotation has already been explained in detail earlier in this tutorial. 600 . Activate the wireframe visualization mode by pressing the toolbar icon or using the shortcut Ctrl+W. set the Name of the shape to “conductor1” and change the Material assignment to “PEC” before pressing Ok. ). Enter the points shown in the table below by pressing the TAB key and specifying the coordinate values numerically: Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4. Once the last point has been defined and the polygon is then closed.

42 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial After successfully performing these steps. you may deactivate the wireframe plot mode ( or Ctrl+W): End face . the screen should look as follows: Please select the inner conductor by either double-clicking on it in the view or by selecting component5 # conductor1 from the navigation tree. Once this is done.

double-click on the desired face. + double-click on the face). please rotate the view to ensure that the end face is visible (select View # Mode # Rotate and drag the mouse while pressing the left button). Therefore. V = 0) and the coordinates of the second point (U = -100. Activate the figure of rotation mode by selecting Objects # Rotate. please activate the face pick tools (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. ) and Afterwards.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 43 The next step is to align the working coordinate system with the inner conductor’s end face shown above. Now align the WCS with this face by pressing WCS # Align WCS with Selected Face ( ). Afterwards you need to select the previously picked face once again (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. Finally please check and confirm the settings in the dialog box. ( ). Since a face has been previously picked. Then enter the first point’s coordinates by pressing the TAB key (U = 100. The next step is to define a rotation axis by selecting Objects # Pick # Edge from Coordinates ( ). the definition of polygon points is skipped and a dialog box is opened immediately: . V = -100) in the same way.

Since the rotation axis is aligned with the negative v-axis direction and the rotation angle is specified in a right-handed system. the Angle must be set to 90 degrees here (the rotation axis is visualized by a blue arrow while the dialog box is open).g. “conductor2”) to the shape. .44 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial In this dialog box you should first assign a proper Name (e. Finally change the Material assignment to “PEC” and press the Ok button.

+ double-clicking on the end face). pick the end face of the conductor as shown in the picture above (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. highlighting all solids associated to PEC material. Please rotate the view in order to obtain a picture similar to the following: Pick end face End face Afterwards. .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 45 Due to the creation of the new conductor.): The last step in the model’s geometric construction process is to create the third conductor by extruding the end face of the figure of rotation defined above. that it is also possible to visualize the so far created conductors just by clicking on Materials # PEC. Therefore please select the so far created inner conductors by multiple selecting (hold SHIFT key during selection) the corresponding solids (Components # component1 # conductor1 and Components # component1 # conductor2) in the navigation tree to obtain the following picture (Please note. the shape selection is cleared automatically and the conductors will thus be hidden inside the air and teflon parts.

please assign a proper Name (e. In this dialog box.46 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial You can now open extrude face dialog box by selecting Objects # Extrude or pressing the toolbar button . Your screen should then look as follows: .g. set the Height to 600 (mil) and check the Material assignment to “PEC” before pressing the Ok button. a polygon definition mode would be entered by the extrude tool if no face had been previously selected. “conductor3”). As with the figure of rotation.

The port’s extent can either be defined numerically or. Before you continue with the port definition. by simply picking the face to be covered by the port.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 47 Solver Settings and S-Parameter Calculation ! Define Ports The next step is to add the ports to the filter for which the S-parameters will be calculated. the port therefore has to cover the coaxial cable’s substrate completely. In the case of a coaxial cable. which is more convenient here. Since a waveguide port is based on the two dimensional mode patterns in the waveguide’s cross-section. first port as shown in the pictures below: First port’s substrate face Pick first port’s substrate face . please clear the selection by either doubleclicking on the view’s background or by selecting the Components item in the navigation tree. please activate the pick face ) and double-click the substrate’s port face of the tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. Each port will simulate an infinitely long waveguide (here a coaxial cable) which is connected to the structure at the port’s plane. it must be defined large enough to entirely cover these mode fields. Therefore. Waveguide ports are the most accurate way to calculate the S-parameters of filters and should therefore be used here.

You can simply accept this setting and go ahead. For coaxial devices. Thus the port’s Position (transversal as well as normal) is initially set to Use picks. The next step is to choose how many modes should be considered by the port. first port 1: ) to define the Whenever a face is picked before the port dialog is opened. . Therefore you should simply keep the default of one mode. we usually only have a single propagating mode. the port’s location and size will automatically be defined by the picked face’s extent.48 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial Please open the waveguide dialog box now (Solve # Waveguide Ports.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 49 Please finally check the settings in the dialog box and press the Ok button to create the port: Now you can repeat the same steps for the definition of the second port: 1. Your model including the ports should now look as follows: . 3. Open the waveguide dialog box (Solve # Waveguide Ports. ). Pick the corresponding substrate’s port face (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. ). 2. Press Ok to store the port’s settings.

This symmetry will reduce the time required for the simulation by a factor of two. The easiest way to do this is to enter the boundary definition mode by pressing the tool bar item or selecting Solve # Boundary Conditions. a symmetry condition can be used. These defaults (which have been set by the template) are appropriate for this example.50 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial ! Define Boundary Conditions and Symmetries Before you start the solver. You should also refer to the example in the Getting Started manual for more information on symmetry conditions. Due to the structure’s symmetry to the XY plane and the fact that the magnetic field in the coaxial cable is perpendicular to this plane. . you should always check the boundary and symmetry conditions. The boundary conditions will then become visualized in the main view as follows: Here all boundary conditions are set to “electric” which just means that the structure is embedded in a perfect electric conducting housing.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 51 Please enter the symmetry plane definition mode now by activating the Symmetry planes tab in the dialog box. the structure should look as follows: . The screen should then look as follows: By setting the symmetry plane X/Y to magnetic. you force the solver to calculate only the modes which have no tangential magnetic field component on these planes (thus forcing the electric field to be tangential to these planes). After these settings have been made.

g.2 – 13. In contrast to frequency domain tools. the lower frequency can be set to zero without any problems! The calculation time can often be reduced by half if the lower frequency is set to zero rather than e. the bandwidth (8 GHz – 0 GHz = 8 GHz) is 200% of the center frequency. you should always make use of symmetry conditions whenever possible in order to reduce calculation times by a factor of two to eight. the performance of a transient solver can be degraded if the frequency range is chosen to be too small (the opposite is usually true for frequency domain solvers). Finally press the Ok button to complete this step.5 to 12. 11. 0.3%.8 GHz. This extension of the frequency range could speed up your simulation by more than a factor of three! In contrast to frequency domain solvers.52 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial Please note that you also could double-click on the symmetry plane’s handle and choose the proper symmetry condition from the context menu. In this case it would make sense to increase the frequency range (without loosing accuracy) to a bandwidth of 30% which corresponds to a frequency range of 10. Please note: Assuming that you are interested primarily in a frequency range of e. then the bandwidth would only be about 8. the S-parameters are to be calculated for a frequency range between 0 and 8 GHz. Thus you can simply choose the frequency range as desired between 0 and 8 GHz. ! Define the Frequency Range The frequency range for the simulation should be chosen with care. which is just fine. In general. . We recommend using reasonably large bandwidths of 20% to 100% for the transient simulation. With the center frequency being 4 GHz.01 GHz.5 GHz (for a narrow band filter). In this example.g.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO uses the concept of so-called “monitors” in order to specify which types of field data to store. 6 and 8 GHz). 4. you can simply open the frequency range dialog box (Solve # Frequency.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 53 After the proper frequency band for this device has been chosen. Let’s assume that you are interested in the current distribution on the coaxial cable’s conductors at several frequencies (2. it is necessary to define which field data should be ® stored before the simulation is started. In addition to the type. In order to add field monitors. Please note that an excessive number of field monitors may significantly increase the memory space required for the simulation. ) and enter the range from 0 to 8 (GHz) before pressing the Ok button (the frequency unit has previously been set to GHz and is displayed in the status bar): ! Define Field Monitors Since the amount of data generated by a broadband time domain calculation is huge even for relatively small examples. You may define as many monitors as necessary in order to get the fields at various frequencies from a single calculation run. you can also choose whether the field should be recorded at a fixed frequency or at a sequence of time samples. . select Solve # Field Monitors from the main menu or press the corresponding icon in the toolbar .

6. . you can close this dialog box by pressing the Ok button. Afterwards you should press the Apply button to store the monitor’s data. Please define monitors for the following frequencies now: 2. Please make sure that you press the Apply button for each monitor (the monitor definition is then added in the Monitors folder in the navigation tree). 8 (with GHz being the currently active frequency unit). the transient solver will need to calculate a single port only in order to obtain the full S-matrix even if you specify All Ports for the Source type. Since this two port structure is lossless. After the monitor definition is completed. 4. which can be opened by selecting Solve # Transient Solver from the main menu or by pressing the corresponding icon in the toolbar. ! Define the Solver’s Parameters and Start the Calculation The solver’s parameters are specified in the solver control dialog box.54 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial In this dialog box you should firstly select the Type H-Field / Surface current before you specify the frequency for the monitor in the Frequency field.

S-Parameters) Firstly. Otherwise a Details field will be shown to display error messages or warnings. 1D Results (Port Signals. take a look at the port signals. . This progress window disappears when the solver has successfully finished. you have simulated the coaxial connector! Let’s have a look at the results. Results Congratulations. A progress window appears showing you some information about the calculation’s status. Open the 1D Results folder in the navigation tree and click on the Port signals folder.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 55 In this case you can thus keep the default settings and press the Start button to start the calculation.

the input reflection S1.1 is quite small (less than –15 dB) across the entire frequency range.1 and o2. reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at the ports versus time. These curves show the delay in the transition from the input port to the output port and a relatively small reflection at the input port. As expected previously. The incident wave amplitude is called i1 and the reflected or transmitted wave amplitudes of the two ports are o1.1. The S-Parameters magnitude in dB scale can be plotted by clicking on the 1D Results # SdB folder. .56 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial This plot shows the incident.

. You should first inspect the port modes. which can be easily displayed by opening the 2D/3D Results # Port Modes # Port1 folder from the navigation tree. After properly rotating the view and tuning some settings in the plot properties dialog box.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 57 2D and 3D Results (Port Modes and Field Monitors) Finally you can have a look at the 2D and 3D field results. To visualize the electric field of the port mode. The port mode at the second port can be visualized in the same way. you should obtain a plot similar to the following picture (please refer to the Getting Started manual for more information on how to change the plot’s parameters): The plot also shows some important properties of the mode such as mode type. propagation constant and line impedance. please click on the e1 folder.

The surface currents for the other frequencies can be visualized in the same way as shown above. .58 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial The full three-dimensional surface current distribution on the conductors can be shown by selecting one of the entries in the 2D/3D Results # Surface Current folder from the navigation tree. ) You can toggle an animation of the currents on and off by selecting the Results # Animate Fields item. The surface current at a frequency of 4 GHz can thus be visualized by clicking at the 2D/3D Results # Surface Current # h-field (f=4) [1] entry (you may need to activate the transparent plotting option by selecting Results # All Transparent.

you may set the accuracy to –50 dB or even –60 dB with relatively little increase in computation time. Please note that this ripple does not move the location of minima or maxima in the Sparameter curves. the following table can be used: Desired Accuracy Level Moderate High Very high Accuracy Setting (Solver control dialog box) -30dB -40dB -50dB The following general rule may be useful as well: If you find a large ripple in the Sparameters. it should be specified with care. Therefore. a ripple is introduced into the S-parameters affecting the accuracy of the results. Since increasing the accuracy requirement for the simulation limits the truncation error and thus in turn increases the simulation time. Even if the accuracy of the time signals themselves is extremely high. numerical inaccuracies can be introduced by the Fourier Transform which assumes that the time signals have completely decayed to zero at the end. However. . a larger truncation error is tolerable.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 59 Accuracy Considerations The transient S-parameter calculation is mainly affected by two sources of numerical inaccuracies: 1. ! Numerical Truncation Errors Due to Finite Simulation Time Intervals The transient solver calculates the time varying field distribution in the device which results from excitation with a gaussian pulse at the input port as primary result. The coaxial connector template has already set the default to –40dB since this is a good compromise between speed and accuracy for this kind of devices. Thus the time signals of the port mode amplitudes are the fundamental results from which the Sparameters are derived by using a Fourier Transform. 2. it might be necessary to increase the solver’s accuracy setting. Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution. The level of the truncation error can be controlled by using the Accuracy setting in the transient solver control dialog box. If the latter is not the case. The amplitude of this ripple increases with the signal amplitude remaining at the end of the transient solver run. As a rule of thumb. Numerical truncation errors introduced by the finite simulation time interval. if you are only interested in the location of a peak. In the following we will give you some hints how to handle these errors and how to achieve highly accurate results.

After a couple of minutes during which the solver is running through mesh adaptation passes. The only way to ensure the accuracy of the solution is to increase the mesh resolution and recalculate the S-parameters. If these results do not significantly change anymore when the mesh density is increased. In the example above.60 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial ! Effect of the Mesh Resolution on the S-parameter’s Accuracy Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution are usually more difficult to estimate. Since the expert system’s settings have now been . you have used the default mesh which has been automatically generated by an expert system. then convergence has been achieved. The easiest way to test the accuracy of the results is to use the fully automatic mesh adaptation which can be switched on by checking the Adaptive mesh refinement option in the solver control dialog box (Solve # Transient Solver): After activating the adaptive mesh refinement tool. you should now start the solver again by pressing the Start button. the following dialog box will appear: This dialog box tells you that the desired accuracy limit (2% by default) could be met by the adaptive mesh refinement.

three passes of the mesh refinement were required to obtain highly accurate results within the given accuracy level. you can visualize the maximum difference of the S-parameters for two subsequent passes by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Delta S from the navigation tree: As you can see. After the mesh adaptation procedure is complete. parameter sweeps or optimizations). which is set to 2% by default. you may switch off the adaptation procedure for subsequent calculations (e.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 61 adjusted such that this accuracy is achieved. . You should now confirm the deactivation of the mesh adaptation by pressing the Yes button.g.

1 during the mesh adaptation can be visualized by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # |S| dB # S1. The major advantage of this expert system based mesh refinement procedure over traditional adaptive schemes is that the mesh adaptation needs to be carried out once for each device only in order to determine the optimum settings for the expert system.1 from the navigation tree: The convergence process of the other S-parameters magnitudes and phases can be visualized in the same way. There is then no need for time consuming mesh adaptation cycles during parameter sweeps or optimization. .62 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial The convergence process of the input reflection S1.

5. 9. Each of these examples contains a Readme item in the navigation tree which will give you some more information about the particular device. In some cases we have referred to the Getting Started manual which is also a good source of information for general topics. boundary conditions and symmetry planes. 7. you should refer to the Advanced Topics manual for more in depth information on issues such as the fundamental principles of the simulation method. And last but not least: Please also visit one of the training classes being regularly held at  a location near you. etc. 3. Define ports. General modeling considerations. using templates. 2. Visualize port modes and surface currents. You can obtain more information for each particular step by using the online help system which can be activated either by pressing the Help button in each dialog box or by pressing the F1 key at any time to obtain context sensitive information. Model a coaxial structure by using the rotate. Ensure to obtain accurate and converged results by using the automatic expert system based mesh adaptation. usage of macros to automate common tasks.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Coaxial Connector Tutorial 63 Getting More Information Congratulations! You have just completed the coaxial connector tutorial which should have provided you with a good working knowledge on how to use the transient solver to calculate S-parameters. cylinder and extrude tools and define the substrates. mesh generation. 4. etc. Visualize port signals and S-parameters. Finally. Define field monitors for surface current distributions. Check the truncation error of the time signals 10. Start the transient solver. Thank you for using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ! . In addition to this tutorial you can find some more S-parameter calculations in the examples folder in your installation directory. 6. 8. Define frequency range. The following topics have been covered so far: 1.

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S-Parameters) 2D and 3D Results (Field Monitors and Port Modes) 87 87 89 Accuracy Considerations Getting More Information 91 95 .The Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions Geometric Construction Steps 66 66 67 Results 1D Results (Port Signals.

concentrates solely on the Sparameters and surface currents. The following explanations on how to model and analyze this device can also be applied to other microstrip devices as well.58 25.00 Substrate = Al2O3 Metallisation = PEC 24.118 mil.0 Port 1 All dimensions are given in milli-inches (mil).68 300.00 20. We strongly suggest that you carefully read through the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Getting Started manual before starting this tutorial.66 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions In this tutorial you will analyze a Microstrip Phase Bridge.00 30.58 4.40 30.00 177. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO can provide a wide variety of results. however. There is no need to model the ground plane since it can easily be described by using a perfect electric boundary condition.41 25. This tutorial. Thickness of the metallisation is 0.00 44.90 40. ® ® Port 2 44. The structure depicted above consists of two different materials: The aluminiumoxide substrate (Al2O3) and the stripline metallisation. .

the structure can be modeled just as it looks like on your desk. Since the background material has been set to vacuum. ! Select a Template ® Once you have started CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and have chosen to create a new project. you are requested to select a template which best fits your current device. Here the “Planar Filter” template should be selected. . and relevant screen shots will be provided so that you can double-check your entries along the way. This template automatically sets the units to mm and GHz. the background material to vacuum and all boundaries to perfect electric conducting. Furthermore the automatic mesh strategy is optimized for planar structures and the solver settings are adjusted to resonant behavior.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 67 Geometric Construction Steps This tutorial will take you step by step through the construction of your model.

which opens after selecting Edit # Working Plane Properties from the main menu. you should set the Size to 400 (the unit which has previously been set to mil is displayed in the status bar). . However. ). These settings can be changed in a dialog box. since all geometrical dimensions are given in mil for this example.68 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial ! Set the Units As mentioned. the working plane size should be set to 400 mil (or more). Please confirm these settings by pressing the Ok button. This can be easily achieved by creating a brick made of the substrate’s material. Please activate the brick creation mode now (Objects # Basic Shapes # Brick. Therefore please open the units dialog box by selecting Solve # Units from the main menu: Here you should set the Dimensions to mil and press Ok. Since the structure has a maximum extension of 300 mil along a coordinate direction. ! Draw the Substrate Brick The first construction step for modeling a planar structure is usually to define the substrate layer. ! Set the Working Plane’s Properties The next step will usually be to set the working plane properties in order to make the drawing plane large enough for your device. the Raster width to 10 and the Snap width to 5 to obtain a reasonably spaced grid. you have to change this setting manually. In this dialog box. the template has automatically set the geometrical units to mm. Please note that we will use the same document conventions here as introduced in the Getting Started manual.

Y = 150 in the dialog box and press Ok. Press the TAB key Enter X = 150. Thus please enter the first point’s coordinates X = -150 and Y = -150 in the dialog box and press the Ok button. Y = -150 for the first corner and X = 150.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 69 When you then are prompted to define the first point. assuming that the brick is modeled symmetrically to the origin. Now the following dialog box will appear showing you a summary of your previous input: Please check all these settings carefully. The transversal coordinates can thus be described by X = -150. Now you will be requested to enter the height of the brick. please change the value in the corresponding entry field. . This can also be numerically specified by pressing the TAB key again. entering the Height of 25 and pressing the Ok button. When you encounter any mistake. Then you can repeat these steps for the second point: 1. you can enter the coordinates numerically by pressing the TAB key which will open the following dialog box: In this example you should enter a substrate block which has an extension of 300 mil in each of the transversal directions. Y = 150 for the opposite corner. 2.

here it is convenient to construct the complete microstrip device as a representation of one component. Since no material has yet been defined for the substrate.70 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial You should now assign a meaningful name to the brick by entering e. independently from their material behavior. Please note: The use of different components allows you to gather several solids into specific groups. Since the brick is the first object you have modeled so far. “substrate” in the Name field. The Material setting of the brick has to be changed into the desired substrate material.g. you can keep the default settings for the first Component (“component1”). However. you should open the layer definition dialog box by selecting “[New Material…]” from the Material dropdown list: .

Please note: The defined material “Al203” will now be available inside the current project for the further creation of other solids.9.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 71 In this dialog box you should define a new Material name (e. Finally choose a nice color for the material by pressing the Change button.g. you may check the button Add to material library. if you want to save this specific material definition also for other projects. Al2O3) and set the Type to a Normal dielectric material. Here you only need to change the dielectric constant Epsilon to 9. You screen should now look as follows (you can press the SPACE key in order to zoom the structure to the maximum possible extent): . Afterwards specify the material properties in the Epsilon and Mue fields. You will have access to this material database by clicking on Load from Material Library in the Materials context menu in the navigation tree. Back in the brick creation dialog box you can also press the Ok button to finally create the substrate brick. Your dialog box should now look similar to the picture above before you press the Ok button. However.

The face selection should then be visualized as in the following picture: After the face has now been selected. ) and doubleclicking on the substrate’s top face as shown above. This can be easily achieved by activating the face pick tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. Therefore please either select WCS # Align WCS with Selected Face from the main menu. Therefore you should firstly move the drawing plane on top of the substrate. Now the drawing plane will be aligned with the top of the substrate (you may switch off the visualization of the global coordinate axes by pressing Ctrl+A): .72 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial Substrate’s top face ! Model the Stripline Metallisation The next step is to model the stripline metallisation on top of the substrate. you can align the working coordinate system with its plane. press the toolbar button or simply use the shortcut W.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 73 The easiest way to draw the metallisation here is to use a polygonal extrusion.41 / 2 (=22.41 / 2 (=22. Once the polygonal extrude mode is active.605) 44.205) 44. This tool can be entered by selecting Objects # Extrude or pressing the toolbar button .4 (=62.205) 44.15 11 4 3 6 5 7 Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U coordinate 25 / 2 (=12.58 / 2 (= -88.4 + 30 (=92.41 / 2 + 40.605) 44. you are requested to enter the polygon’s points.58 / 2 (= -88.5) 25 / 2 (=12.5) 44.45) -4.45) -30 / 2 (= -15) -30 / 2 (= -15) .9 / 2 (= -2.41 / 2 + 40. For each of these points you should press the TAB key and enter the point coordinates manually according to the following table (you may either enter the expressions or the absolute values given in brackets): 10 9 12 14 13 2 1.79) -4.79) -177.9 / 2 (= -2.41 / 2 + 40.605) 8 V coordinate -150 -177.4 (=62.

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CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

44.41 / 2 + 40.4 + 30 (=92.605) -44.41 / 2 – 44.68 (= -66.885) -44.41 / 2 – 44.68 (= -66.885) -44.41 / 2 (= -22.205) -44.41 / 2 (= -22.205) -25 / 2 (= -12.5) -25 / 2 (= -12.5) 25 / 2 (=12.5)

0 0 -4.9 / 2 (= -2.45) -4.9 / 2 (= -2.45) -177.58 / 2 (= -88.79) -177.58 / 2 (= -88.79) -150 -150

Please note that we do not recommend entering the points relatively to each other here because this would make the detection of mistakes during the coordinate input more difficult. Once you entered the last point from the table which closes the polygon, the extrusion tool requests you to enter the height. Please press the TAB key again and enter the Height to be 0.118. Afterwards, your screen should look as follows:

If your polygon does not look like the one in the picture above, please double-check your input in the dialog’s point list. Afterwards, please assign a Name to the solid (e.g. “stripline”) and change the Material assignment to be a perfect electric conductor (PEC).

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial

75

After finally pressing the Ok button, the structure should look as follows:

So far, you have modeled half of the stripline structure. The other half can be created by mirroring the structure at the U/W plane of the working coordinate system. Please select the stripline by double-clicking on it (the substrate will then become transparent) and open the transform dialog box afterwards (Objects # Transform, ) :

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CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial

In this dialog box you should change the Operation to Mirror before you set the Vcoordinate of the Mirror plane normal to 1. Afterwards please switch on the Copy as well as the Unite option in order to copy the existing shape before mirroring it and to unite the original shape with the mirrored copy. Finally press Ok to create the full stripline. Your model should then look as follows:

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial

77

!

Model the Via

After successfully modeling the stripline structure, the next step is to model the via which should be located in the center of the square pad. The alignment between these two geometric elements can be specified by moving the working coordinate system to the center of the pad. Please activate the pick point tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Point, ) and double-click on one of the corners of the pad. Repeat the same steps in order to pick the point from the opposite corner as well. The picture below shows an example how your structure could look like now:

Please note: Due to the finite thickness it may be difficult to pick the appropriate points on the drawing plane since they are very close to the points from the metallisation’s top face. In order to simplify this task, CST MICROWAVE ® STUDIO offers a so called “Snap points to drawing plane” feature (Objects # Pick # Snap Points to Drawing Plane) which is activated by default. This feature will automatically snap all picked points onto the workplane if they are indistinguishably close to it in the current view. Zooming into the structure would allow to pick points from the metallisation’s top face as soon as they are clearly distinguishable from the points belonging to the bottom face. In this example, we make use of this feature to ensure that the picked points are located on the drawing plane. If you have made a mistake, please clear all picked points (Objects # Clear Picks) and try again. The next step is to replace both points by a point in the middle of both. This can easily be achieved by invoking the command Objects # Pick # Mean Last Two Points. Now a single point should be selected in the middle of the pad. Now the working coordinate system can be aligned with this point by selecting WCS # Align WCS with Selected Point or by pressing the toolbar button . Your structure should then look like the following picture:

you can simply press Shift+TAB to open the dialog box for numerically entering the coordinates and confirm the settings by pressing Ok (please note that holding down the Shift key while pressing the TAB key opens the dialog box with the coordinate values initially set to zero rather than the current mouse pointer’s location). Please skip the definition of the inner radius by pressing the ESC key (the via should be modeled as solid cylinder here) and check your settings in the following dialog box: . Once the cylinder creation mode is active you are requested to pick the center of the cylinder. .78 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial The via can now be created by using the cylinder tool: Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder. Please press the TAB key again and set the Radius to 10 before pressing the Ok button. Since this is the origin of the working coordinate system now. The Height of the cylinder can then be set to –25 in the same way. You are now requested to enter the outer radius of the via.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 79 Finally set the Name of the cylinder to “via”. This can be easily achieved by defining proper background material properties in the corresponding dialog box which can be opened by selecting Solve # Background Material ( ). The model should then finally look as follows (please use Ctrl+W to toggle the wireframe visualization mode on and off): ! Add Space on Top of the Stripline Since the structure will be embedded in a perfect electric conducting box. some space is needed between the metallisation layer and the top wall of the enclosure. . check the Material assignment to “PEC” and press the Ok button.

): .80 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial In most cases it is sufficient to add an additional space of about five times the height of the substrate on top of the metallisation. Thus you should now enter 125 (= 5 • 25) in the Upper Z distance field and press Ok. The structure should then finally look as follows (the working coordinate system has been deactivated by using WCS # Local Coordinate System.

first port 1: ) to define the Here you should set the Normal of the port’s plane to the Y-direction and its Orientation to the lower Y-bound (Lower) of the structure. you find that the optimum port’s width is roughly 250 mil and its height should be about 125 mil. Since the port should extend across the whole boundary of the model.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 81 ! Define Ports The next step is to add the ports to the microstrip device for which the S-parameters will later be calculated. . you can simply keep the Full plane setting for the transversal position. Without activating the Free normal position check button. Since a waveguide port extends the structure to infinity. Waveguide ports are the most accurate way to calculate the S-parameters of microstrip devices and should thus be used here. In this example the whole model has a width of 300 mil and a height of 150 mil. Each port will simulate an infinitely long waveguide (here stripline) structure which is connected to the structure at the port’s plane. On the other hand it should not be chosen excessively large in order to avoid higher order mode propagation in the port. Please open the waveguide dialog box now (Solve # Waveguide Ports. A good choice for the width of the port is roughly ten times the width of the stripline. its transversal extension must be large enough to sufficiently cover the microstrip mode. Applying these guidelines to the example here. A proper height is about five times the height of the substrate. Since these dimensions are close to the optimal port size you can simply take these dimensions and apply the port to the full extension of the model. the port will be allocated as default on the boundary of the calcualtion domain.

For microstrip devices. After entering the distance you may press the TAB key in order to move the focus to the next dialog element. Once a reference plane distance has been set. To ref plane field. the location of this plane will be visualized in the main view.82 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial The next step is to choose how many modes should be considered by the port. Please note that you have to enter a negative number (-150) here in order to move the reference plane inwards. In this case you could move the phase reference plane for both ports to the center of the structure as shown below: Port 1 plane 150 mil Port 2 plane Common phase reference plane Therefore please enter the distance between the port’s plane and the phase reference plane in the Dist. . Let’s assume that you are interested in the additional phase shift of the device compared to a microstrip line of the same length. usually a single mode propagates along the line. Thus you should simply keep the default setting of one mode.

Enter the reference plane distance of –150. 4. ) . Press Ok to store the port’s settings.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 83 Please finally check the settings in the dialog box and press the Ok button to create the port: Now you can repeat the same steps for the definition of the opposite port 2: 1. 5. 2. Open the waveguide dialog box (Solve # Waveguide Ports. Set the Normal to Y Set the Orientation to Upper. 3.

Please note: Assuming that you were interested primarily in a frequency range of e.3%.5 to 12.g. We recommend using reasonably large bandwidths of 20% to 100% for the transient simulation. the bandwidth (18 GHz – 6 GHz = 12 GHz) is 100% of the center frequency. the S-parameters are to be calculated for a frequency range between 6 and 18 GHz.01 GHz. 0. With the center frequency being 12 GHz. 11.2 – 13. In this example. then the bandwidth would only be about 8. In contrast to frequency domain tools. . the structure is embedded within a perfect electrically conducting enclosure. you don’t need to change anything here.g. Since this is the default set by the template for planar structures. the performance of a transient solver such as CST  MICROWAVE STUDIO can be degraded if the frequency range is chosen too small (the opposite is usually true for frequency domain solvers). the lower frequency can be set to zero without any problems! The calculation time can often be reduced by half if the lower frequency is set to zero rather than e. which is quite large enough. Thus you can simply choose the frequency range as desired between 6 and 18 GHz.5 GHz (for a narrow band filter).84 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial Your model should now finally look as follows: ! Define the Boundary Conditions In this case. In this case it would make sense to increase the frequency range (without loosing accuracy) to a bandwidth of 30% which corresponds to a frequency range of 10.8 GHz. This extension of the frequency range could speed up your simulation by more than a factor of three! In contrast to frequency domain solvers. ! Define the Frequency Range The frequency range for the simulation should be chosen with care.

an interesting result for microstrip devices is the current distribution as a function of frequency.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 85 After the proper frequency band for this device has been chosen. Please make sure that you press the Apply button for each monitor (the monitor definition is then added in the Monitors folder in the navigation tree). 12. The transient solver used in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO is able to obtain the surface current distribution for an arbitrary number of frequency samples from a single calculation run. you can simply open the frequency range dialog box (Solve # Frequency. The only thing you need to do is to define so-called “field monitors” to specify at which frequencies the field data shall be stored. 18 (with GHz being the currently active frequency unit). 15. . Afterwards you should press the Apply button to store the monitor’s data. Please define monitors for the following frequencies now: 6. Please open the monitor definition dialog box now by selecting Solve # Field Monitors ( ): In this dialog box you should firstly select the Type H-Field / Surface current before you specify the frequency for this monitor in the Frequency field. 9. ) and enter the range from 6 to 18 (GHz) before pressing the Ok button (the frequency unit has previously been set to GHz and is displayed in the status bar): ! Define Monitors for the Surface Current In addition to the S-parameters.

so change the Source type to Port 1.1 and S2. . A progress window appears showing you some information about the calculation’s status.86 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial After the monitor definition is complete. Since the structure is fully symmetric. which can be opened by selecting Solve # Transient Solver from the main menu or by pressing the corresponding icon in the toolbar. Finally you can press the Start button to start the calculation. ! Define the Solver’s Parameters and Start the Calculation The solver’s parameters are specified in the solver control dialog box. Both results can be obtained by exciting the structure at port 1 only. you can close this dialog box by pressing the Ok button. it is sufficient to calculate the S-parameters S1. Otherwise a Details field will be shown to display error messages or warnings. This progress window disappears when the solver has successfully finished.1 to get the whole information about the device.

These curves already show that the reflection is quite small for this device. S-Parameters) Firstly. take a look at the port signals. The incident wave amplitude is called i1 and the reflected or transmitted wave amplitudes of the two ports are o1. This plot shows the incident.1.1 and o2. . 1D Results (Port Signals.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 87 Results Congratulations. Open the 1D Results folder in the navigation tree and click on the Port signals folder. you have simulated the microstrip phase bridge! Let’s have a look at the results. reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at the ports versus time.

Probably the most important S-parameter information for a phase shifter is the transmission phase which can be visualized by clicking on the 1D Results # arg(S) folder. If you want to visualize the phase curve for S2. As expected previously. you can also select the subitem 1D Results # arg(S) # S2.1 only. the input reflection S1.1 is quite small (less than –20dB) for the majority of the frequency range.1: .88 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial The S-Parameters magnitude in dB scale can be plotted by clicking on the 1D Results # SdB folder.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 89 2D and 3D Results (Port Modes and Field Monitors) Finally you will have a look at the 2D and 3D field results. After properly rotating the view and tuning some settings in the plot properties dialog box. you should obtain a plot similar to the following picture (please refer to the Getting Started manual for more information on how to change the plot’s parameters): The plot also shows some important properties of the mode such as mode type. . propagation constant and line impedance. To visualize the electric field of the fundamental port mode you should click on the e1 folder. You should first inspect the port modes which can be easily displayed by opening the 2D/3D Results # Port Modes # Port1 folder from the navigation tree. The port mode at the second port can be visualized in the same way.

.90 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial The full three-dimensional surface current distribution on the conductors can be shown by selecting one of the entries in the 2D/3D Results # Surface Current folder from the navigation tree. The surface current at a frequency of 15 GHz can thus be visualized by clicking at the 2D/3D Results # Surface Current # h-field (f=15) [1] entry: You can toggle an animation of the currents on and off by selecting the Results # Animate Fields item. The surface currents for the other frequencies can be visualized in the same way as shown above.

As a rule of thumb. The default value of –30dB will usually give sufficiently accurate results for coupler devices.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 91 Accuracy Considerations The transient S-parameter calculation is mainly affected by two sources of numerical inaccuracies: 1. The amplitude of this ripple increases with the signal amplitude remaining at the end of the transient solver run. Numerical truncation errors introduced by the finite simulation time interval. a ripple is introduced into the S-parameters affecting the accuracy of the results. Therefore. Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution. it might be necessary to increase the solver’s accuracy setting. Please note that this ripple does not move the location of minima or maxima in the Sparameter curves. it should be specified with care. Thus the time signals of the port mode amplitudes are the fundamental results from which the Sparameters are derived by using a Fourier Transform. However. 2. the following table can be used: Desired Accuracy Level Moderate High Very high Accuracy Setting (Solver control dialog box) -30dB -40dB -50dB The following general rule may be useful as well: If you find a large ripple in the Sparameters. ! Numerical Truncation Errors Due to Finite Simulation Time Intervals The transient solver calculates the time varying field distribution in the device which results from excitation with a gaussian pulse at the input port as primary result. Even if the accuracy of the time signals themselves is extremely high. The level of the truncation error can be controlled by using the Accuracy setting in the transient solver control dialog box. In the following we will give you some hints how to handle these errors and how to obtain highly accurate results. . Since increasing the accuracy requirement for the simulation limits the truncation error and thus in turn increases the simulation time. numerical inaccuracies can be introduced by the Fourier Tramsform which assumes that the time signals have completely decayed to zero at the end. a larger truncation error is tolerable. If the latter is not the case. to obtain highly accurate results for filter structures it is sometimes necessary to increase the accuracy to –40dB or –50dB. if you are only interested in the location of a peak.

until the desired accuracy limit (2% by default) is reached. The only way to ensure the accuracy of the solution is to increase the mesh resolution and recalculate the S-parameters. In the example above. you have used the default mesh which has been automatically generated by an expert system. then convergence has been achieved. After the mesh adaptation procedure is complete. If these results do not significantly change anymore by increasing the mesh density. Now the solver is running through several mesh adaptation passes. Thus. you only have to activate the Adaptive mesh refinement tool in the “Solver Parameters” dialog and start the solver again by pressing the Start button.92 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial ! Effect of the Mesh Resolution on the S-parameter’s Accuracy Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution are usually more difficult to estimate. you can visualize the maximum difference of the S-parameters for two subsequent passes by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Delta S from the navigation tree: . which is more convenient for planar structures. The easiest way to test the accuracy of the results is to use the fully automatic mesh adaptation which can be switched on by checking the Adaptive mesh refinement option in the solver control dialog box (Solve # Transient Solver): Please note that the previously selected template has changed the default settings to the energy based adaptive strategy.

the maximum deviation of the S-parameters is almost 4% between the first and the third pass which indicates that the adaptive mesh refinement was required here to obtain highly accurate results. The convergence process of the input reflection S1.1 during the mesh adaptation can be visualized by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # |S| dB # S1.1 from the navigation tree: .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 93 As you can see.

94 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial The convergence process of the other S-parameters magnitudes and phases can be visualized in the same way. By inspecting the plots. you can confirm that the important results for the transmission phase are quite stable here: .

Start the transient solver. etc. General modeling considerations. Check the truncation error of the time signals 10. Define frequency range and boundary conditions. define the substrate and create a via. etc. Model a planar structure by using the extrude tool. 5. 7. 4. Ensure to obtain accurate and converged results by using the energy based mesh adaptation. 2.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial 95 Getting More Information Congratulations! You have just completed the microstrip phase bridge tutorial which should have provided you with a good working knowledge on how to use the transient solver to calculate S-parameters. 9. 8. And last but not least: Please also visit one of the training classes being regularly held at  a location near you. Finally. Visualize port modes and surface currents. The following topics have been covered so far: 1. Define ports. Visualize port signals and S-parameters. mesh generation. 6. In addition to this tutorial you can find some more S-parameter calculation examples for planar structures in the examples folder in your installation directory. You can obtain more information for each particular step by using the online help system which can be activated either by pressing the Help button in each dialog box or by pressing the F1 key at any time to obtain context sensitive information. In some cases we have referred to the Getting Started manual which is also a good source of information for general topics. using templates. you should refer to the Advanced Topics manual for more in depth information on issues such as the fundamental principles of the simulation method. Each of these examples contains a Readme item in the navigation tree which will give you some more information about the particular device. 3. usage of macros to automate common tasks. Define field monitors for surface current distributions. Thank you for using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ! .

96 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Microstrip Phase Bridge Tutorial .

The Patch Antenna Tutorial Geometric Constructions and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions Geometric Construction Steps 98 98 99 Results 1D Results (Port Signals. S-Parameters) 2D and 3D Results (Port Modes and Farfield Monitors) Antenna Array Calculation 114 114 116 117 Accuracy Considerations Patch Antenna Array Geometric Construction Steps Combine Results Simultaneous Excitation 121 124 124 127 130 Getting More Information 134 .

® The structure depicted above consists of two different materials: The “Substrate” and the Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC). This will be done automatically by using an appropriate template. Here you have the option to calculate the antennas separately one after another and finally combine the results with arbitrary amplitudes and phase values or even run the excitation simultaneously to produce the farfield result with only one solver cycle.98 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Geometric Constructions and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions In this tutorial you will analyze a circular patch antenna. superimposing the result with different amplitudes and phase settings. The following explanations on how to model and analyze this device can be applied to other patch antenna devices as well. Another possibility expands the patch model to a set of four identical antennas. In addition. The feeding of the patch is realized with a coaxial line. Although CST MICROWAVE ® STUDIO can provide a wide variety of results. each excitable with an own coaxial feed. We strongly suggest that you carefully read through the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Getting Started manual before starting this tutorial. Firstly. this tutorial will concentrate mainly on the S-parameters and farfield results. . the single patch antenna will be extended to a rectangular 2x2 array pattern using three different methods. the farfield solution of the single patch antenna is applied to the antenna array feature. The farfield distribution of all these possibilities will be compared. There is no need to model the air above since it will be added automatically (according to the current background material setting) when specifying the open boundary conditions. Please remember the Edit # Undo facility in case you want to cancel the last construction step.

so that we can straightforwardly extend this example to an antenna array later. Since the structure has a maximum . except Zmax is set to “open (add space)”. Please note: Concerning the boundary conditions it is possible to specify a symmetry boundary condition at the YZ-plane in the boundary dialog box (Solve # Boundary Conditions. Here the “Antenna (on Planar Substrate)” template should be chosen.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 99 Geometric Construction Steps This tutorial will take you step-by-step through the construction of your model. offering some free space above the antenna patch and Zmin is set to “electric”. This template automatically sets the units to mm and GHz and the background material to vacuum. the structure can be modeled just as it looks like on your desk. ! Set the Working Plane’s Properties The next step will usually be to set the working plane properties in order to make the drawing plane large enough for your device. and relevant screen shots will be provided so that you can double-check your entries along the way. since the simulation does not take too long. The open boundary condition is selected. ). However. Since the background material has been set to vacuum. providing a perfect electric conducting ground plane. ! Select a Template ® Once you have started CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and have chosen to create a new project. we shall skip the symmetry condition here. This would reduce the simulation time by a factor of two. you are requested to select a template which fits best to your current device.

Y = 30 for the opposite corner. assuming that the brick is modeled symmetrically to the origin. Thus please enter the first point’s coordinates X = -30 and Y = -30 in the dialog box and press the Ok button. Afterwards you can repeat these steps for the second point: 1. which opens after selecting Edit # Working Plane Properties from the main menu. entering the Height of -0. Now you will be requested to enter the height of the brick. When you then are prompted to define the first point. These settings can be changed in a dialog box. Press the TAB key Enter X = 30. the Raster width to 2 and the Snap width to 0. Please confirm these settings by pressing the Ok button. ). the working plane size should be set to 100 mm (or more). The transversal coordinates can thus be described by X = -30. This can also be numerically specified by pressing the TAB key again.7 and pressing the Ok button (regarding an easy construction of the patch antenna it is convenient to define the . Please note that we will use the same document conventions here as introduced in the Getting Started manual. In this dialog box. 2. ! Draw the Substrate Brick The first construction step for modeling a planar structure is usually to define the substrate layer. you can enter the coordinates numerically by pressing the TAB key which will open the following dialog box: In this example you should enter a substrate block which has an extension of 60 mm in each of the transversal directions.100 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial extension of 60 mm along a coordinate direction. Y = 30 in the dialog box and press Ok. Y = -30 for the first corner and X = 30. Please activate the brick creation mode now (Objects # Basic Shapes # Brick.01 to obtain a reasonably spaced grid. This can be easily achieved by creating a brick made of the substrate’s material. you should set the Size to 100 (the unit which has previously been set to mm by the chosen template is displayed in the status bar).

please change the value in the corresponding entry field. Since no material has yet been defined for the substrate.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 101 substrate in negative z-direction).g. However. independently from their material behavior. If you encounter any mistake. you should open the layer definition dialog box by selecting “[New Material…]” from the Material dropdown list: . “substrate” in the Name field and just keep the Component default setting (“component1”). you still need to define the substrate material. which can then easily be extended into a patch antenna array. You should now assign a meaningful name to the brick by entering e. Finally. here it is convenient to construct the single patch antenna as a representation of one component. Please note: The use of different components allows you to gather several solids into specific groups. Now the following dialog box will appear showing you a summary of your previous input: Please check all these settings carefully.

Afterwards specify the material properties in the Epsilon and Mue fields. However. you may check the button Add to material library. “Substrate”) and set the Type to a “Normal” dielectric material. Your dialog box should now look similar to the picture above before you press the Ok button.102 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial In this dialog box you should define a new Material name (e. Please note: The defined material “Substrate” will now be available inside the current project for the further creation of other solids. if you want to save this specific material definition also for other projects. Back in the brick creation dialog box you can also press the Ok button to finally create the substrate brick. You will have access to this material database by clicking on Load from Material Library in the Materials context menu in the navigation tree.33. Here you only need to change the dielectric constant Epsilon to 2. Your screen should now look as follows (you can press the SPACE bar in order to zoom the structure to the maximum possible extent): .g. Finally choose a nice color for the layer by pressing the Change button.

In CST MICROWAVE STUDIO a port region has to be homogeneous for at least three mesh lines in longitudinal direction. As a consequence a metallic brick has to be additionally defined. the electric boundary at Zmin defined by the previously chosen template is not suitable as a ground plane. The model is rotated by activating the rotation mode View # Mode # Rotate ( ). This can be easily achieved by activating the face pick tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Face.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 103 Substrate’s top face ! Model the Ground Plane The next step is to model the ground plane of the patch antenna. ) and double-clicking on the substrate’s bottom face. Thus you can choose a Height of 2. Enter this value in the following dialog box and select “PEC” from the Material dropdown list as the metallic material property: .1 mm representing three times the substrate thickness as a sufficient dimension. Since the antenna will be excited by a coaxial feed at the bottom face. Here you have to enter the height and the material of the new shape to be created. The face selection should then be visualized as in the following picture: Substrate’s selected bottom face Now you can extrude the selected face with the “Extrude” tool ( ). In this example the ground plane must have a non-zero thickness because of the coaxial feed which will be ® modeled later on.

g. Please activate the cylinder creation mode now (Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder. Similar to the construction of the substrate’s brick you can enter the coordinates numerically by pressing the TAB key to open the following dialog box: .104 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial After entering a suitable name (e. “ground”) in the Name input field and confirming your settings with the Ok button the current structure will look like this (rotated again to the see the top face): Substrate’s top face ! Model the Patch Antenna After defining the ground plane the patch antenna has to be modeled as a cylindrical shape on the substrate’s top face. ).

each appearing after you have pressed the TAB button: Skipping the entry dialog for the inner radius by pressing the ESC button will lead to the following dialog box showing you again a summary of your entered parameters: Select “PEC” as the Material setting for the patch and assign a meaningful name to the brick by entering e. After applying with the Ok button. Again. After this please define the Radius with 23 mm and the Height with 0. your screen should show the following structure: .g. “patch” in the Name input field. please check all these settings carefully and change any possible mistakes in the corresponding entry field. since the patch is located symmetrically on the substrate.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 105 Here you enter the center point of the cylinder with X = 0 and Y = 0.07 mm in the shown dialog boxes.

Since the feeding point is located asymmetrical to the circular patch it is advisable to activate the local coordinate system (WCS # Local Coordinate System.106 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial ! Model the Coaxial Feed The last modeling step is the construction of the coaxial feed as the excitation source for the patch antenna. Thus please enter the value of 9. This action introduces the working coordinate system (WCS). In order to define the new center point for the coaxial feed the local coordinate system is moved along the positive v-direction (WCS # Move Local Coordinates.2 mm in the following dialog box: Now it is possible to design the coaxial feed by constructing two cylindrical shapes. Please check your settings referring to the following dialog box: . ) .1+0. similar to the previously defined circular patch. The cylinder has a outer radius of 4 mm and an extension in negative w-direction of 2. again skipping the input of the inner radius. ).7=2.8 mm. First enter the values for the coaxial substrate cylinder by using the TAB button facility.

So please mark the radio button Insert highlighted shape from the “Shape Intersection” dialog window as presented below and confirm again with Ok: . the solid “component1:substrate” and the ground plane “component1:ground”. Here it is necessary to determine the kind of intersection for the shapes.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 107 Select the previously defined “Substrate” material from the Material dropdown list and create the cylinder with the Ok button. It is convenient to combine the two substrate materials into one single shape. so please mark the radio button Add both shapes in the “Shape Intersection” dialog box as presented below and confirm with Ok: In the second case the substrate cylinder has to be inserted into the PEC material of the ground plane. As a result the cylinder shape component1:solid1 intersects with two already existing shapes.

The cylinder creation dialog should look like this: .12 mm and again an extension of 2. Please define the cylinder with an outer radius of 1.108 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Now the following screenshot allows you to double-check your model (please use Ctrl+W to toggle the wireframe visualization mode on and off): or The inner conductor is constructed by defining another cylinder made of PEC material.8 mm in negative w-direction.

This implies that the PEC shape is automatically inserted into the intersected shape. After applying the Ok button the final model will look like this (please use again Ctrl+W or to toggle the wireframe visualization mode on and off): ! Define Waveguide Port The next step is to add the excitation port to the patch antenna device. for which the reflection parameter will later be calculated. because the PEC shape is defined after the normal material shape (here: “Substrate”). define again a suitable name (e. “feed”) for the cylinder shape and apply by pressing the Ok button.g. .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 109 This time select “PEC” from the Material dropdown list. Please note: In this case no “Shape intersection” dialog window will appear. The port simulates an infinitely long coaxial waveguide structure which is connected to the structure at the port’s plane.

110 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Since a waveguide port extends the structure to infinity. in contrast to open port structures. port: ) to define the . Consequently. So. here the port range is clearly defined by the outer shielding conductor of the coaxial waveguide. the easiest way to define the port range is to pick the face (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. its transversal extension must be large enough to sufficiently cover the corresponding modes. ) of the coaxial feed (“Substrate” material) as demonstrated below (the model is rotated again to the bottom side first): Port Please open now the waveguide dialog box (Solve # Waveguide Ports.

) and enter the range from 2 to 3 . the S-parameters are to be calculated for a frequency range between 2 and 3 GHz. Please confirm your port settings with the Ok button to finally create the port. With the center frequency being 2. This extension of the frequency range could speed up your simulation by more than a factor of three! In contrast to frequency domain solvers. the performance of a transient solver such as CST ® MICROWAVE STUDIO can be degraded if the frequency range is chosen too small (the opposite is usually true for frequency domain solvers). After rotating the model again to the top face your model should now look as follows (please to toggle the wireframe visualization mode on and off): use again Ctrl+W or ! Define the Frequency Range The frequency range for the simulation should be chosen with care.5 GHz. the bandwidth (3 GHz – 2 GHz = 1 GHz) is 40% of the center frequency. the lower frequency can be set to zero without any problems! The calculation time can often be reduced by half if the lower frequency is set to zero rather than e. For a simple coax port with only one inner conductor. Thus you can simply choose the frequency range as desired between 2 and 3 GHz. Thus you should simply keep the default setting of one mode. In this example. you can simply open the frequency range dialog box (Solve # Frequency. you can increase the frequency range without loosing accuracy.g. which is inside the recommended interval. We recommend using reasonably large bandwidths of 20% to 100% for the transient simulation. usually only the fundamental TEM mode is of interest. 0. Please note: In the case where you just cover a bandwidth of less than 20%. After the proper frequency band for this device has been chosen.01 GHz.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 111 Here you have to choose how many modes should be considered by the port. In contrast to frequency domain tools.

Please open the monitor definition dialog box now by selecting Solve # Monitors ( ): In this dialog box you should firstly select the Type “Farfield/RCS” before you specify the frequency for this monitor in the Frequency field. you can define some more monitors at other frequencies. each time pressing Apply button to confirm the setting and to add the monitor in the Monitors folder in the navigation tree. After the monitor definition is complete.112 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial (GHz) before pressing the Ok button (the frequency unit has previously been set to GHz by the selected template and is displayed in the status bar): ! Define Farfield Monitor Besides the S-parameters. However. Afterwards you should press the Apply button to store the monitor’s data. . please close this dialog box by pressing the Ok button. The transient solver used in CST MICROWAVE ® STUDIO is able to obtain the farfields for an arbitrary number of frequency samples from a single calculation run. The only thing you need to do is to define so-called “field monitors” to specify at which frequencies the field data shall be stored.4 (with GHz being the currently active frequency unit). Please define a monitor at the frequency of 2. the main result of interest for antenna devices is the farfield distribution at a given frequency.

Please note: Clicking the Details button during the calculation opens a text field in which some solver relevant information is displayed concerning the port of excitation. .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 113 ! Define the Solver’s Parameters and Start the Calculation The solver’s parameters are specified in the “Solver Parameters” dialog box which can be opened by selecting Solve # Transient Solver from the main menu or by pressing the corresponding icon in the toolbar: You can just accept the default settings and press the Start button to run the calculation. A progress window appears showing you some information about the calculation’s status: This progress window disappears when the solver has successfully finished. the numerical timestep and so on. Otherwise a Details field will be shown to display error messages or warnings.

. wait until the solver has finished. The incident wave amplitude is called i1 (referring to the port name: 1) and the reflected wave amplitude is o1. however. the patch antenna array has a strong resonance that leads to a slowly decreasing output signal. 1D Results (Port Signals. Open the 1D Results folder in the navigation tree and click on the Port signals folder. you have simulated the circular patch antenna! Let’s have a look at the results.114 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Results Congratulations. In order to get the complete information. take a look at the port signals. This plot shows the incident and reflected wave amplitudes at the waveguide port versus time.1. S-Parameters) ! Port Signals Firstly. As you can see in this time signal plot. Please note: It is possible to observe the progress of the results during the computation.

these ripples do not affect the location of the resonance frequency and therefore can be ignored for this example. .4 GHz. The good result presented above will be confirmed. The amplitude of the ripples increases with the signal amplitude remaining at the end of the transient solver run. This is a good possibility if no theoretical value is available. The following screenshot shows the reflection parameter: It is possible to precisely work out the operational frequency for the patch antenna. The ripples that can be seen in the reflection parameters result from the fact that the time signal has not sufficiently decayed (have a look again at the time signal plot). In the following chapter “Accuracy Considerations” an adaptive mesh refinement will be applied to the structure in order to examine the accuracy of the solution. However.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 115 ! S-Parameters A primary result for the antenna is the S11 Parameter. Please find some more information about this kind of numerical error again in the chapter “Accuracy Considerations”. which is usually the case for more complex simulation models. that will appear if you click on the 1D Results # |S| dB folder from the navigation tree. Now you can move the marker to the S11 minimum and pinpoint a resonance frequency for the patch antenna of about 2. Activate the axis marker by pressing the right mouse button and selecting the Show axis marker option from the context menu.

4 GHz can thus be visualized by clicking on the Farfields # farfield .116 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 2D and 3D Results (Port Modes and Farfield Monitors) Finally you will have a look at the 2D and 3D field results. the farfield is another important parameter in antenna design. To visualize the electric field of the fundamental port mode you should click on the e1 folder. ! Port Modes You should first inspect the port modes. propagation constant and line impedance. The farfield solution of the antenna device can be shown by selecting the corresponding monitor entry in the Farfields folder from the navigation tree. you should obtain a plot similar to the following picture (please refer to the Getting Started manual for more information on how to change the plot’s parameters): The plot also shows some important properties of the coaxial mode such as TEM mode type. Please note: For this action you will need the farfield calculation feature. ! Farfield Monitors As well as the resonance frequency. If it is ® locked please contact your CST MICROWAVE STUDIO distribution partner. For example the farfield at the frequency 2. After properly rotating the view and tuning some settings in the plot properties dialog box. which can be easily displayed by opening the 2D/3D Results # Port Modes # Port1 folder from the navigation tree.

showing the directivity over the phi and theta angle (The position of the color ramp can be modified by clicking on the Results # Plot Properties # Color ramp button): Please note: You have the option to change the Results # Plot Properties # Step to 5 degrees for a better angle accuracy of the plot. . Later on we will expand the antenna example by constructing a 2x2 antenna array pattern. Thus please open the corresponding dialog box by pressing Results # Plot Properties # Array and select the radio button Antenna array.4) [1] entry. You can see that the maximum power is radiated in positive z-direction. Note that there are several other options available to plot a farfield: the Polar plot. the Cartesian plot and the 2D plot.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 117 (f=2. so it is of interest to apply the mentioned array calculation feature to the same rectangular array dimension. it is possible to calculate the farfield distribution for an arbitrary antenna array consisting of identical antenna elements as a post processing step. Antenna Array Calculation Using the farfield results of the simulated single patch antenna.

118 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Afterwards select Properties and insert the values to create the rectangular 2x2 array pattern in the XY-plane with a spatial shift of 60 mm (due to the dimension of the antenna substrate) and a phase shift of +90 degrees: .

165 dBi to 11. Please confirm with the Ok button to calculate the resulting farfield of the defined array pattern. This means that not only rectangular arrays with constant space and phase shift can be calculated.29 dBi. Regarding the following calculations the antenna array feature should be disabled by now.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 119 By pressing the Update antenna list button the coordinates and their respective amplitudes and phase values are displayed in the Antenna list as can be seen in the dialog box above. but also a slight rotation of the main loop in negative x and y direction: Please feel free to define some more array patterns to analyze the resulting changes in the farfield distribution. Therefore please check the radio button Single antenna in the “Farfield Plot” dialog box (Results # Plot Properties): . The following screenshot demonstrates that the array arrangement together with the constant phase shift of +90 degrees produce on the one hand a constructive superposition increasing the directivity of 7. Please note: The Antenna list can be modified if the radio button Edit antenna list is activated. Here you have a fast and efficient way to design various antenna arrays without the necessity to restart a transient calculation. but by adding and modifying single antennas any array pattern with arbitrary amplitude and phase values can be defined.

120 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial .

! Effect of the Mesh Resolution on the S-parameter’s Accuracy Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution are usually more difficult to estimate. If the latter is not the case. Thus the time signals of the port mode amplitudes are the fundamental results from which the Sparameters are derived by using a Fourier Transform. it might be necessary to increase the solver’s accuracy setting. As a rule of thumb. In the following we will give you some hints on how to handle these errors and how to achieve highly accurate results. the following table can be used: Desired Accuracy Level Moderate High Very high Accuracy Setting (Solver control dialog box) -30dB -40dB -50dB The following general rule may be useful as well: If you find a large ripple in the Sparameters. The only way to ensure the accuracy of the solution is to increase the mesh resolution and recalculate the S-parameters. ! Numerical Truncation Errors Due to Finite Simulation Time Intervals The transient solver calculates the time varying field distribution in the device which results from excitation with a gaussian pulse at the input port as primary result. to obtain highly accurate results for filter structures it is sometimes necessary to increase the accuracy to –40dB or –50dB. . numerical inaccuracies can be introduced by the Fourier Transform which assumes that the time signals have completely decayed to zero at the end. If these results do not significantly change anymore by increasing the mesh density. then convergence has been achieved. it should be specified with care. 2. Numerical truncation errors introduced by the finite simulation time interval. Please note that this ripple does not move the location of minima or maxima in the Sparameter curves. a larger truncation error is tolerable. Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution. Therefore. The amplitude of this ripple increases with the signal amplitude remaining at the end of the transient solver run. The level of the truncation error can be controlled by using the Accuracy setting in the transient solver control dialog box. The default value of –30dB will usually give sufficiently accurate results. Since increasing the accuracy requirement for the simulation limits the truncation error and thus in turn increases the simulation time.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 121 Accuracy Considerations The transient S-parameter calculation is mainly affected by two sources of numerical inaccuracies: 1. a ripple is introduced into the S-parameters affecting the accuracy of the results. however. if you are only interested in the location of a peak. Even if the accuracy of the time signals themselves is extremely high.

122 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial In the example above. you have used the default mesh which has been automatically generated by an expert system. you only have to activate the Adaptive mesh refinement tool in the “Solver Parameters” dialog and start the solver again by pressing the Start button. This means that maximum deviation of the S-parameters between the first and the second run is less than 2%. Obviously in this example the mesh created first by the expert system was already quite acceptable for an accurate solution. ): Please note. In this example only two adaptation passes are necessary to obtain a suitable result. Thus. The easiest way to test the accuracy of the results is to use the full automatic mesh adaptation which can be switched on by checking the Adaptive mesh refinement option in the solver control dialog box (Solve # Transient Solver. The convergence process of the input reflection S1.1 during the mesh adaptation can be visualized by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # |S| dB ⇒ S1.1 from the navigation tree: . that the previously selected template has changed the default settings to the energy based adaptive strategy. which is more convenient for planar structures.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 123 .

Here. Similarily. Geometric Construction Steps The construction of the array is based on the translation feature for selected objects. All other results can be analyzed in a similar way as in the first part of this tutorial. Finally. which will be applied to the complete component of the single patch antenna. this procedure is also applicable to single objects or an arbitray multiple selection of objects. please activate the Copy check button and then select “[New Component]” from the Component dropdown menu to create the destination group “component2”. In order to gather all translated shapes as a new component.124 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Patch Antenna Array Using the single patch antenna constructed in this chapter the extension to a four element antenna array will now be demonstrated. Now choose the Translate function in the upcoming “Transform Selected Object” dialog box and enter the value of –60 (referring to the previously defined units of mm) for the x-component of the translation vector. correspondent to the structure dimension. In the following we will construct the rectangular 2x2 array pattern. we will concentrate purely on the farfield calculations. perform the translation operation with the Ok button (the local coordinate system was previously switched off by clicking again WCS # Local Coordinate System or the icon ): . Here we use a result combination of a sequential excitation as well as a simultaneous excitation to obtain the radiation characteristics. please select “component1” from the “Component” folder in the navigation tree and perform a transformation of the complete component (Press the toolbar icon or enter the Objects # Transform Shape menu). Therefore. even when selected from different components.

can just be skipped with the default setting (activated None button): ® . The “Shape Intersection” dialog box that appears. which informs you about the intersection of the solids “component2:substrate_1” and “component2:feed_1”. containing all translated single shapes of the patch antenna.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 125 Now CST MICROWAVE STUDIO copies the selected component to the coordinates of its translated position and creates a new component.

again with a space shift of 60 mm. . The occurring intersection dialog box can be solved again by activating the None button. again with only one mode.126 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial The resulting structure consisting of two identical patch antennas will then look like this: Please repeat the described transformation in the negative y-direction. This is carried out in a similar manner to the definition of the first port by picking the corresponding port area (in each case the bottom face of the respective substrate cylinders) and defining a port. so that the final array pattern will be created as follows: To complete the model the remaining ports of the newly created patch antennas have to be created. for both components (“component1” and “component2”).

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Ground side 127 Port 2 Port 3 Port 4 Combine Results In order to receive farfield results. where all patches are driven simultaneously. ! Define the Solver’s Parameters and Start the Calculation As described earlier the solver’s parameters are specified in the solver control dialog box. which can be opened by selecting Solve # Transient Solver from the main menu or by pressing the corresponding icon in the toolbar: . This means that at first each port is excited individually one after another. the possibility of combining the results as a post processing step is performed. after which arbitrary combinations of these excitations can be defined with respect to different amplitude and phase values.

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Since all ports should be calculated you have to be sure that “All Ports” is selected in the Source type dropdown list. Now you can press the Start button to run the calculation. Again the progress window appears indicating, in addition to the calculation’s status, the current solver cycle:

After the transient solver has finished please take a look at the farfield of a single patch from the array. It looks quite similar to the farfield distribution of the previously calculated single patch antenna. The following screenshot shows again the directivity over the angles theta and phi. Click on the Farfields # farfield (f=2.4) [1] folder to bring your plot into view:

!

Combine Results

The interesting results, however, are those where all patches are driven at one time with a pre-determined amplitude and phase variation being taken into account. This can be  produced by CST MICROWAVE STUDIO using the “Combine results” option. Press

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Results # Combine Results to bring the “Combine Calculation Results” window into view. Now you have the option to change each amplitude and phase excitation in the port mode list. In order to compare the farfield result with the previously demonstrated antenna array feature we define identical antenna settings, i.e. the first antenna receives a phase shift of +90 degrees, the third antenna –90 degrees and the two remaining antennas 0 degree:

Please note: The corresponding monitor label will be generated automatically due to the settings of the port mode combination, however, by disabling the Automatic labeling button you are able to enter a label of your choice. After confirming your settings with the Combine button, you will observe a new farfield subfolder farfield (f=2.4) [1[1,90]+2[1,0]+3[1,-90]+4[1,0]] in the navigation tree. By clicking on it you will see the following farfield distribution which is quite similar to the result of the antenna array feature:

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As you can see, the combination of results is time efficient, since you do not have to restart the transient solver; just enter the amplitude and phase and view the combined generated farfield plot.

Simultaneous Excitation
Another possibility to obtain the farfield result of the array pattern is the excitation of all four ports simultaneously. In contrast to the combine result facility, here only one transient solver run is required. However, the phase shift relationship between the antenna elements has to be known before the solver is started. Please note: The definition of a phase shift in connection with a simultaneous excitation of different ports will be converted, by use of the defined reference frequency, into a constant time shift between the port excitation signals. So in order to examine a farfield result, the reference frequency has to be identical to the frequency of the farfield monitor. In order to define the simultaneous excitation you have to choose the “Selected Ports” option in the Source type dropdown list in the “Solver Parameters” dialog box (Solve # Transient Solver, ):

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Pressing the Port mode list button opens the following dialog box, where the selective and simultaneous port excitation settings can be defined:

Since all four existing ports shall be excited, please activate all available check buttons in the port mode list. In order to enter the amplitude and phase values, you first have to

132 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial activate the Simultaneous excitation by checking the corresponding Activate button. ) to start the simultaneous calculation.0]+3[1. 0 degrees. Finally. Again all antennas are driven with an amplitude value of one and phase values of 90. Please doublecheck your settings with the dialog box above and confirm with the Ok button.4 GHz so that the result will be compatible to the combined farfield monitor in the previous chapter. you can press the Start button in the “Solver Parameters” dialog box (Solve # Transient Solver. the progress window appears indicating. -90.90]+2[1.4]] folder. Again. in addition to the calculation’s status. Clicking on it will . Please enter the reference frequency of 2.-90]+4[1. 0. the simultaneous solver calculation: Take a look at the input time signals (you can select specific curves in your 1D plot view by choosing Port Signals # Select Curves to open the corresponding dialog box).[2.4) [1[1.0]. In the picture below you can see the time delay of the different input signals due to the defined phase shifts of the ports: After the transient solver has finished you will find the resulting farfield information in the Farfields # farfield (f=2.

the result is very similar to the one produced by combining the results of the four single port excitations in the previous chapter: .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial 133 show the following farfield plot of the directivity over the angles theta and phi. As expected.

And last but not least: Please also visit one of the training classes being regularly held at  a location near you. creating the substrate. 8. using templates. Ensure to obtain accurate and converged results by using the energy based mesh adaptation. 9. 2. 12. Check the truncation error of the time signals 10. Each of these examples contains a Readme item in the navigation tree which will give you some more information about the particular device. Extend the single patch antenna to a four element antenna array and combine single calculation results as well as perform a simultaneous excitation. Define waveguide ports. In addition to this tutorial you can find some more S-parameter calculation examples for planar structures or various antenna models in the examples folder in your installation directory.134 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Patch Antenna Tutorial Getting More Information Congratulations! You have just completed the circular patch antenna tutorial which should have provided you with a good working knowledge on how to use the transient solver to calculate S-parameters and farfield results. Model a planar structure by using the extrude tool. Define farfield monitors. Define frequency range. Visualize port modes and farfield results. circular patch antenna and a coaxial feed. Visualize port signals and S-parameters. In some cases we have referred to the Getting Started manual which is also a good source of information for general topics. etc. The following topics have been covered so far: 1. usage of macros to automate common tasks. etc. Start the transient solver. Finally. 7. 11. Thank you for using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ! . 3. 5. 6. you should refer to the Advanced Topics manual for more in depth information on issues such as the fundamental principles of the simulation method. You can obtain more information for each particular step by using the online help system which can be activated either by pressing the Help button in each dialog box or by pressing the F1 key at any time to obtain context sensitive information. mesh generation. Application of the antenna array feature. 4. General modeling considerations.

The Cavity Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions Geometric Construction Steps Solver Settings 136 136 137 143 Eigenmode Calculation with AKS Eigenmode Visualization and Q-Factor Calculation Accuracy Considerations Eigenmode Calculation with JD (lossfree) Getting More Information 146 150 153 158 161 .

The coordinates are given in mm for each of the polygon’s points. If it is not available. 65) (129. 65) y Rotation Axis (0. Once the model is constructed.0) (210. 0) All coordinates are given in mm x . Please note: The CST MICROWAVE STUDIO (CST MWS) “Eigenmode solver” license is required for this tutorial. The cross section polygon is shown below. 215) (148. due to a second symmetry.  (0. Due to its rotational symmetry.136 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model’s Dimensions This cavity tutorial demonstrates how to calculate the eigenmodes of an air filled cavity. you can easily model the cavity by rotating a cross section profile around an axis. In addition to this. This tutorial will show you how to calculate and visualize a number of eigenmodes for this resonator. Please note than only half of the profile needs to be drawn because of the depicted symmetry. the analysis process is quite simple. 215) (179. it is sufficient to draw half of the profile and mirror the structure afterwards to build the full model. please contact your CST MWS distribution partner. 139) (210. Furthermore. 190) Symmetry plane (179. the Q-factors will be calculated as well.

The largest coordinate value is 215 mm.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 137 The following sections will guide you through the construction of the cavity’s model. Please enter this value in the Size field and set the Raster Width to 10 mm . Geometric Construction Steps ! Select a Template ® Once you have started CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and have chosen to create a new project. the background material to PEC (which is the default anyway) and all boundaries to be perfect electric conducting. you are requested to select a template which fits best to your current device. you should set the working plane to be large enough to contain the model’s dimensions. Please make sure that you carefully complete each step before you proceed to the next one. You should already be familiar with this document convention after reading the Getting Started manual. This template automatically sets the units to mm and GHz. Here the “Resonator” template should be chosen. ! Set Working Plane Properties Before you start entering the cavity’s shape. so a working plane size of roughly 250 mm will be sufficient. Please select this template now and press the Ok button. The dialog box can be accessed by selecting Edit # Working Plane Properties.

Since the latter approach may be more convenient here.138 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial in order to obtain a reasonably fine grid on the drawing plane. The “Rotate Profile” dialog box will then automatically appear. we suggest pressing the TAB key and entering the coordinates in the dialog box. You could do this by either double-clicking on each point’s coordinates on the drawing plane by using the mouse or you could also enter the values numerically. the tool will automatically enter a polygon definition mode and request you to enter the polygon’s points. For polygonal cross sections it is more convenient to use the figure of rotation tool. . you can delete the most recently entered point by pressing the backspace key): Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X 0 210 210 129 179 179 148 0 0 Y 0 0 65 65 139 190 215 215 0 After the last point has been entered. the polygon will then be closed. you don’t need to use the curve modeling tools here (please refer to the Getting Started manual for this more advanced functionality). ! Create Figure of Rotation After these preparatory steps have been completed. Please note that all geometric settings are in mm since the current geometry unit is set to mm (also displayed in the status bar). activated by selecting Objects # Rotate from the main menu. you can now start drawing the figure of rotation. Since the cross section profile is a simple polygon. Since no face has been previously picked. All polygon points can thus be entered step by step according to the following table (whenever you make a mistake.

If you encounter any mistakes you can easily change the values by simply double-clicking on the incorrect coordinate’s entry field. Please note: The use of different components allows you to collect several solids into specific groups. .g. the default settings with “component1” and “Vacuum” are practically appropriate for this example. However. Finally you should assign a proper Name (e. here it is convenient to construct the complete cavity as a representation of one component.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 139 This dialog box allows you to review the coordinate settings in the list. In this case. The next step is to assign a specific Component and a Material to the shape. “cavity”) to the shape and press the Ok button in order to finally create the solid. independently of their material behavior.

Once this mode is active. The next step is to blend the selected edge. the model should look as follows: Inner edge If you accidentally picked the wrong edge. Therefore the sharp inner edge (shown on the picture above) should be blended. you can delete all picks by using Objects # Clear Picks and try again.140 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial ! Pick Edge and Blend Edge Having sharp edges inside cavities is usually not a good idea since strong field singularities will occur at these edges. just press the toolbar icon or select Objects # Blend Edges from the menu. Therefore. which is indicated by highlighting all edges in the model. . you can rotate the view by using the view changing tools as explained in the Getting Started manual. If the edge is hidden. The first step for blending the edge is to pick the edge in the model by entering the pick edge mode with the toolbar icon . Sometimes it is also advantageous to switch the drawing mode to Wireframe (View # View options). the Objects # Pick # Pick Edge menu entry or the shortcut E in the main view window. you can easily double-click at the inner edge. Afterwards a dialog box will open where you can set the Radius of the blend to 15 mm. Once the proper edge has been selected.

After the face has been selected. Therefore. The easiest way to obtain the full model is to mirror this structure at the planar back face. Once the face pick mode is active. If the face is hidden by the structure you can use the view changing tools as explained in the Getting Started manual. you should simply double-click on the planar back face as shown in the picture above. enter the face pick mode by pressing the toolbar item selecting Objects # Pick # Pick Face or just using the shortcut F in the main view window. The structure should then look as follows: Back face ! Mirror the Structure to Model the Entire Cavity So far you have successfully modeled half of the cavity.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 141 Finally press the Ok button to apply the blend. The first step to achieve this is to define the mirror plane by picking the corresponding or face in the model. the model should look as follows: Back face .

. The next step is to use the transform tool to create the mirrored shape by pressing the or selecting Objects # Transform. so you don’t need to change anything here.142 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial If this is not the case. Please check that its name becomes highlighted in the navigation tree. The mirror plane’s coordinates will then be automatically set according to the previously-picked back face of the cavity. Furthermore the original shape should also be combined with the mirrored one to form a single shape. then please delete all picks by selecting Objects # Clear Picks and try again. Since the transformation should create a new shape by mirroring the existing one rather than just modifying it. Now you should select the cavity’s solid by double-clicking it. Thus the Unite option must be switched on as well. you have to select the Copy option. toolbar item In the dialog box that appears you should firstly select the Operation Mirror.

. Finally press the Ok button to store this setting. In this dialog box you should set the upper frequency limit to 1.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 143 Finally. Please open the frequency range dialog box by either pressing the icon from the toolbar or selecting Solve # Frequency. the cavity has been sliced for visualization purposes by using the View # Cutting plane tool. all you need to do is to specify some solver settings such as frequency range and boundary conditions before you can finally start the solver to calculate the eigenmodes.5 GHz. ! Define the Frequency Range For this device the first five resonance frequencies are estimated to be below 1. you should press the Ok button to create the entire cavity shown below: In this picture.5 (please remember that the frequency unit has been set to GHz as shown in the status bar). Solver Settings After you have successfully modeled the cavity’s geometry.

The easiest way to do this is to enter the boundary definition mode by pressing the tool bar item or selecting Solve # Boundary Conditions.144 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial ! Define Boundary Conditions and Symmetries Before you start the solver. Assume that you are only interested in those modes which have longitudinal electric field components along the (x-)axis of the device in this example. . The boundary conditions will then become visualized in the main view as follows: Here all boundary conditions are set to electric which just means that the structure is embedded in a perfect electric conducting housing. This a priori knowledge about the fields could be used to speed up the calculation by a factor of eight by informing the solver about these symmetry conditions. These defaults (which have been set by the template) are appropriate for this example. you should always check the boundary and symmetry conditions.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 145 Please enter the symmetry plane definition mode now by activating the Symmetry planes tab in the dialog box. you force the solver to only calculate fields which have no magnetic field tangential to these planes (and thus forcing the electric field to be tangential to these planes). In addition to this you can set the Y/Z symmetry plane to be an electric wall which implies that the electric field is forced to be normal to this plane. After these settings have been made. The main view should look as follows: By setting the symmetry planes X/Y and X/Z to magnetic. the structure should look as follows: .

you should advise the eigenmode solver to calculate 10 modes. In general. Eigenmode Calculation with AKS ! Calculating the Eigenmodes by Using Fully Automatic Solver Settings After completing all steps above you are now ready to start the eigenmode calculation. therefore. which is also the default. assuming that you want to calculate the first five modes in this example. It is usually advantageous to specify more modes to calculate than you are actually searching for. . The only setting which commonly needs to be specified here is the number of Modes to be calculated. Finally press the Ok button to complete this step. Therefore. you should open the eigenmode solver control dialog box by pressing the or selecting Solve # Eigenmode Solver from the main corresponding toolbar icon menu. do not need to change anything here and can just press the Start button right away. You. you should always make use of symmetry conditions whenever possible in order to reduce calculation times by a factor of two to eight.146 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial Please note that you could also double-click on the symmetry planes’ handles and choose the proper symmetry condition from the context menu. The solver will then calculate these number of modes starting from the lowest resonance frequency. Thus.

After the solver has finished its work.100 unknowns. In order to review the solver time required to achieve these results.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 147 Now a few progress bars will appear. matrix calculation. Please scroll down the text to obtain the following timing information (the actual values may vary depending on the speed of your computer): -------------------------------------------------------------Solver Statistics: Mesh generation time Solver time Total time : : : 4 s 29 s 37 s -------------------------------------------------------------- . eigenmode analysis). This dialog box can be dismissed by pressing the Ok button. keeping you informed about the current status of your calculation (e. This in fact corresponds to a system of equations consisting of about 23. the number of mesh cells required for discretizing this example is quite small (roughly 7700). Due to the Perfect Boundary Approximation™. Calculating eigenmodes for such a system takes only a few minutes to complete on a modern PC.g. a dialog box will be shown displaying the resonance frequencies of the first ten modes: The accuracy for the mode solution is excellent for all these modes. A mode with an accuracy of less than 1e-3 can usually be considered as being sufficiently accurate. you can display the solver log-file by selecting Results # View Logfiles # Solver Logfile from the main menu.

This information is shown right below the timing information: -------------------------------------------------------------Optimum guess for the highest eigenfrequency would be: 1. you have successfully calculated the eigenmodes for this device in a reasonable amount of time.148 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial ! Optimizing the Performance for Subsequent Calculations So far. if you are going to make parametric studies it may be advantageous to speed up the solver for subsequent runs. The eigenmode solver automatically determines this guess from a previous calculation and prints the result in the log-file. This performance tuning step actually turns out to be quite simple: The eigenmode solver can make use of a guess for the highest eigenmode frequency you are looking for. Please enter the eigenmode solver control dialog box once or selecting Solve # Eigenmode again by pressing the corresponding toolbar icon Solver from the main menu. you should now recalculate the eigenmodes once again to compare the time required for the simulation. However.732 -------------------------------------------------------------- In order to demonstrate how this information can be used for improving the solver’s speed. .

you can enter this value in the Guess field. Please note that there is no need for recalculating the matrix since the structure has not been changed. If you don’t know this value. The accuracy of the solution will also be excellent by using the fully automatic procedure without this additional setting.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 149 In this dialog box just press the Specials button in order to open a dialog box for more advanced settings: Once you know a guess for the highest eigenfrequency of interest (here 1. of course. just enter zero in order to let the solver estimate this value automatically. you can see that specifying the guess for the highest eigenfrequency could speed up the solution process by a factor of 1.5. this performance tuning step does not make sense. . Please remember that these steps are only made in order to illustrate how to speed up the solver for parametric sweeps or optimizations. Again.732 GHz). a progress bar will appear informing you about the status of your calculation. After pressing the Ok button in this dialog box you can restart the eigenmode solver by pressing the Start button. The solver will finish its work after a short time giving the same results as before for the eigenfrequencies. The timing information in the log-file should look similar to the data below: -------------------------------------------------------------Solver Statistics: Mesh generation time Solver time Total time : : : 0 s 24 s 24 s -------------------------------------------------------------- If you now compare the solver time only. For a single analysis of a particular device.

Please refer to the Getting Started manual or press the F1 key for online help to obtain more information on field visualization options. Please note that the field amplitudes of the modes will always be normalized such that each mode contains a total energy of 1 joule.150 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial Eigenmode Visualization and Q-Factor Calculation ! Eigenmode Visualization The eigenmode results can be accessed by selecting the corresponding item in the navigation tree from the 2D/3D Results # Modes folder. The field patterns for each mode will be stored in subfolders named Mode N where N stands for the mode number. The result data will then be visualized in a three dimensional vector plot as shown in the picture above. . Therefore. The field data should then be visualized similar to the picture below. it is more important to visualize the fields in a cross section plane. In many cases. To visualize the electric field of the first mode you can simply select the corresponding item from the navigation bar: 2D/3D Results # Modes # Mode 1# e. please switch to the 2D field visualization mode by pressing the icon or by selecting Results # 3D Fields on 2D Plane.

some information text containing maximum field strength values and resonance frequencies will also be shown in the main window. ! Q Factor Calculation The eigenmode’s Q-factors. which are an important quantity for cavity design. Please open the loss and Q-factor calculation dialog box by selecting Results # Loss and Q Calculation.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 151 In addition to the graphical field visualization. . can be easily derived from the field patterns.

16e7 S/m) and press the Ok button. Finally you should press the Calculate button to obtain the Q factor value. the fundamental mode Mode 1. The Q-factor is calculated to be 4. Back in the loss and Q factor calculation dialog box you should now select the desired Mode from the H-Field data list. 4 . e. By default the conductivity of the Cond.152 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial The only setting which needs to be specified here is the conductivity of the enclosing metal. The Q-factors for the other modes can be calculated in the same way.2946•10 for the fundamental mode. You may change this setting by double-clicking on the Cond.g. Enclosure line in the list which opens the following dialog box: In this example you can set the Conductivity value to silver (6. Enclosure is set to copper (5e7 S/m).

you have used the default mesh which has been automatically generated by an expert system. Specifying more than five iterations does not usually improve the results any further.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 153 Accuracy Considerations The eigenmode calculation is mainly affected by two sources of numerical inaccuracies: 1. Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution. in order to improve the accuracy of the desired (lower) ones. In the following sections we will give you some hints on how to handle these errors and how to achieve highly accurate results. In many cases it may be advantageous to calculate more modes than you are actually looking for. The results can be improved by specifying a proper guess for the highest eigenmode frequency of interest and by increasing the number of iterations for the eigenmode solver. The easiest way to test the accuracy of the results is to use the fully automatic mesh adaptation which can be switched on by checking the Adaptive mesh refinement option in the solver control dialog box (Solve # Eigenmode Solver): .g. The only way to ensure the accuracy of the solution is to increase the mesh resolution and recalculate the eigenmodes. then convergence has been achieved. Numerical errors introduced by the iterative eigenmode solver. ! Effect of the Mesh Resolution on the Eigenmode Accuracy The inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution are usually more difficult to estimate. eigenmode frequencies. In the example above. Q-factors) do not significantly change anymore by increasing the mesh density. The modes can usually be considered sufficiently accurate for most practical applications if the mode accuracy is below 1e-3. 2. If the desired results (e. Sometimes higher modes are calculated with a lower accuracy than lower ones. ! Accuracy of the Numerical Eigenmode Solver The first type of error is always quantified as Accuracy for each mode after the calculation has finished.

154 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial After activating the adaptive mesh refinement tool. the Properties button becomes active. . you should change the Number of modes to check to 5 in order to focus the mesh refinement procedure on these modes. Afterwards you can close this dialog box by pressing the Ok button. You should now press this button to open the mesh refinement properties dialog box: Since you are actually interested in the first five modes of this structure only.

The converged results for the eigenmode frequencies will then be shown in the eigenmode solver dialog box: . you can now start the eigenmode solver again by pressing the Start button.g. After a couple of minutes during which the solver is running through mesh adaptation passes. You should now confirm the deactivation of the mesh adaptation by pressing the Yes button. parameter sweeps or optimizations).CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 155 Back in the solver dialog box. Since the expert system’s settings have now been adjusted such that this accuracy is achieved. the following dialog box will appear: This dialog box tells you that the desired accuracy limit (1% by default) could be met by the adaptive mesh refinement. you may switch off the adaptation procedure for subsequent calculations (e.

The eigenmode solver accuracies achieved for the modes during the mesh adaptation can be visualized by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Mode Accuracies from the navigation tree: .156 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial After the mesh adaptation procedure is complete. the maximum deviation of the eigenmode’s frequencies is below 0.16% which indicates that the expert system based meshing would have been fine for this example even without running the mesh adaptation procedure. you can visualize the maximum relative difference in the eigenmode frequencies for two subsequent passes by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Error from the navigation tree: As you can see.

you can visualize the convergence process of the mode frequencies by clicking on 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Mode Frequencies: By inspecting the plot above. . you can confirm that the results are quite stable here. The major advantage of this expert system based mesh refinement procedure over traditional adaptive schemes is that the mesh adaptation needs to be carried out only once for each device in order to determine the optimum settings for the expert system.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 157 The plot shows that all mode accuracies for both passes are fine (even better than 4e-9). Finally. There is then no need for time consuming mesh adaptation cycles during parameter sweeps or optimization.

158 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial Eigenmode Calculation with JD (lossfree) CST MICROWAVE STUDIO offers the possibility to choose the JD (lossfree) eigenmode solver. So please open the “Mesh Properties” dialog by selecting Mesh # Mesh Properties and set Lines per wavelength and Lower mesh limit equal to 10. Here. ® The solver’s parameters are specified in the solver control dialog box which can be opened again by selecting Solve # Eigenmode Solver from the main menu or by . Since this is a tutorial. please select from the drop down pressing the corresponding toolbar icon menu Method the eigenmode solver “JD (lossfree)” and reduce the number of Modes to 5. With these settings the solver will calculate 5 modes starting from the lowest resonance frequency. it is convenient to reset the mesh settings to the initial values of the mesh adaptation to speed up the calculation. This solver is recommended only if a small number of eigenmodes are required (less or equal 5 modes). .

g. keeping you informed about the current status of your calculation (e. In this case the value of 1e-6 is sufficient and you can leave the box unchanged by pressing the Ok button. Finally just press the Start button right away. matrix calculation. eigenmode analysis).CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 159 Before starting the eigenmode solver. you may select the Specials button in order to change the desired accuracy for the eigenmodes. Now a few progress bars will appear again. .

displaying the resonance frequencies of the first five modes: The accuracy for all mode solutions is below 1e-6 as desired. a dialog box will be appear. Please scroll down the text to obtain the following timing information (the actual values may vary depending on the speed of your computer): -------------------------------------------------------------Solver Statistics: Mesh generation time Solver time Total time : : : 4 s 23 s 27 s -------------------------------------------------------------- The solver time required for the calculation is comparable to the AKS eigenmode solver. you can display the solver log-file by selecting Results # View Logfiles # Solver Logfile from the main menu. Please note: In contrast to the AKS eigenmode solver the JD (lossfree) requires no guess of the highest eigenfrequency and the eigenmodes are calculated to a prescribed accuracy. In order to review the solver time required to achieve these results. The visualization of modes. In addition. complex permittivity) with the JD (lossy) eigenmode solver. This dialog box can be dismissed by pressing the Ok button. the Q-factor calculation and the mesh adaptation are carried out as for the AKS eigenmode solver. .160 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial After the solver has finished. you can calculate eigenmodes of lossy structures (const.

8. Run the eigenmode solver and display eigenmode frequencies and field patterns. using templates. boundary conditions and symmetries. 7. usage of macros to automate common tasks. 3. you can find some more eigenmode solver examples in the examples folder in your installation directory. which is also a good source of information for general topics. you should refer to the Advanced Topics manual for more in depth information on issues such as the fundamental principles of the simulation method. 5. Use a figure of rotation and a mirror transformation to model the cavity. Each of these examples contains a Readme item in the navigation tree which will give you some more information about the particular device. mesh generation. General modeling considerations. 6. 2. Define the frequency range. 4. You can obtain more information for each particular step by using the online help system which can be activated either by pressing the Help button in each dialog box or by pressing the F1 key at any time to obtain context sensitive information. Calculate the Q-factors of the eigenmodes. 9.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Cavity Tutorial 161 Getting More Information Congratulations! You have just completed the Cavity tutorial which should have provided you with a good working knowledge on how to use the eigenmode solver. Check and if necessary improve the accuracy of the eigenmode solver. In addition to this tutorial. Finally. etc. The following topics have been covered so far: 1. Use the JD (lossfree) eigenmode solver. In some cases we have referred to the Getting Started manual. And last but not least: Please also visit one of the training classes which are regularly  held at a location near you. Thank you for using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ! . etc. Optimize the performance of the eigenmode solver for subsequent runs. Ensure to obtain accurate and converged results by using the automatic expert system based mesh adaptation.

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CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 163 The Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Geometric Construction and Solver Settings Introduction and Model Dimensions Geometric Construction Steps Solver Settings and S-Parameter Calculation 164 164 165 182 Results 1D Results (S-Parameters) 2D and 3D Results (Port Modes and Three Dimensional Modes) 192 192 192 Accuracy Considerations Alternative Solvers The JD (lossfree) Eigenmode Solver The Frequency Domain Solver 195 200 200 203 Getting More Information 206 .

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Geometric Construction and Solver Settings
Introduction and Model Dimensions
In this tutorial you will analyze a Narrow Band Filter. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO can provide a wide variety of results. This tutorial however, concentrates solely on the Sparameters of the filter. We strongly suggest that you carefully read through the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Getting Started manual before starting this tutorial.
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The following two pictures show the structure and its dimensions in two different crosssection planes:
200 100 15 r = 2.9 17.9

25 r = 10

105

110

95
2

50

17

All dimensions are given in mm

The structure consists of two resonators, each formed by a perfect electrically conducting cylinder in a rectangular cavity. Both resonators are coupled via a rectangular iris. The

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two coaxial ports are capacitively coupled to the device by extending the coaxial cable’s inner conductor into the resonators. The following explanations on how to model and analyze this device can also be applied to other filter structures as well.

Geometric Construction Steps
This tutorial will take you step by step through the construction of the model, and relevant screen shots will be provided so that you can double-check your entries along the way. !

Select a Template
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Once you have started CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and have chosen to create a new project, you are requested to select a template which fits best to your current device. Here the “Resonator” template should be chosen.

The template automatically sets the units to mm and GHz, the background material to be perfect electrically conducting. Please select this template now and press the Ok button. ! Set the Working Plane’s Properties

Once the units have been correctly set (which has been done by the template here), the modeling process usually starts with setting the working plane’s size large enough for the device. Since the structure has an extension of 200 mm along one coordinate direction, the working plane’s size should be set to 300 mm (or more). These settings can be changed in a dialog box, which opens after selecting Edit # Working Plane Properties

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from the main menu. Please note that we will use the same document conventions here as introduced in the Getting Started manual.

In this dialog box you should set the Size to 300 (the unit which has been previously set to mm is displayed in the status bar), the Raster width to 10 and the Snap width to 5 to obtain a reasonably spaced grid. Please confirm these settings by pressing the Ok button. !

Draw the Filter’s Housing

Due to the fact that the background material has been set to electric, you need to model the interior of the filter. The structure will then automatically be embedded within a perfect electric conducting enclosure. Therefore you should start the structure modeling by entering the filter’s housing which can easily be defined by creating an air-brick. Please activate the brick creation tool now by either selecting Objects # Basic Shapes # Brick or pressing the corresponding button in the toolbar ( ). Once you are prompted to enter the first point, you may enter the coordinates numerically by pressing the TAB key which will open the following dialog box:

In this example you should create the housing with the transversal extension of 100 x 200 mm. In order to model the structure symmetrically to the origin, you should now enter the coordinates X = -50 and Y = -100 in the dialog box and press the Ok button (please remember that the geometric unit is currently set to mm). The next step is to enter the opposite corner of the brick’s base. Thus you should press the TAB key again and enter X = 50, Y = 100 in the coordinate fields before pressing Ok.

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Now you will be requested to enter the height of the brick. This can also be numerically achieved by pressing the TAB key, entering a Height of 110 and pressing the Ok button again. After the steps above have been completed, the following dialog box will appear showing you a summary of your input:

Please check all entries carefully. When you encounter any mistakes, please change the value in the corresponding entry field. You should then give the shape a meaningful Name (e.g. “housing”). Since the housing consists of vacuum, you can keep the Material default setting (“Vacuum”) as well as the assignment to the default Component “component1”. Please note: The use of different components allows you to collect several solids into specific groups, independently of their material behavior. However, here it is convenient to construct the complete filter device as a representation of one component. Finally, confirm the creation by pressing Ok. Your screen should now look as follows (you can press the SPACE key in order to zoom the structure to the maximum possible extent):

it is advantageous to switch the display to wireframe mode because otherwise the newly created shapes may be hidden inside this brick. The easiest way to activate the wireframe visualization mode is to press or to use the corresponding shortcut: Ctrl+W. Now the structure should look the toolbar icon as follows: .168 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Since some structures will be inserted into this air brick in the following steps.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 169 ! Create the Cylindrical Resonators The next step is to create the cylindrical resonators inside the air brick. to specify the cylinder to be a perfect electric conductor (PEC). Since the filter is constructed as one component. Y = -50 in the dialog box before pressing the Ok button. The first step in the cylinder creation process is to enter the center point coordinates. you can skip the Component setting and confirm the creation of the cylinder by pressing the Ok button. . the following dialog box will appear: Please check and correct all settings as necessary before you specify the cylinder’s Name to be “cylinder1”. So far. you should now set the Radius to 17 after pressing the TAB key. This can be achieved numerically by pressing the TAB key and entering the dimensions X = 0. Finally. However. In the following we will assume that you always confirm the settings in a dialog box by pressing the Ok button unless mentioned otherwise. you need to change the Material assignment to “PEC”. Similarly to the procedure above. the cylinder consists of vacuum material. After pressing the TAB key once more and setting the Height to 95. Please activate the cylinder creation tool now by selecting either Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder from the main menu or by pressing the corresponding toolbar icon ( ). you may skip the definition of the cylinder’s inner radius by pressing the ESC key. The second step in the cylinder’s creation is to specify the outer radius.

Activate the cylinder tool: Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder. 4. Y = 50. 6. . Press the TAB key and set the Radius to 17. Set the Name of the cylinder to “cylinder2” Change the Material assignment to “PEC” and press the Ok button. 2. 3. Press the TAB key and set the center’s coordinates to X = 0. . 7. 5.170 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Your screen should then look as follows: After successfully creating the first cylinder you can now model the second cylinder in the same way: 1. Press the ESC key to skip the definition of the inner radius. Press the TAB key and set the Height to 95.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 171 After the successful creation of the second cylinder. we will now explain how this can be forced by using picked points. Afterwards. you should now activate the pick midpoint tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Edge Midpoint. The application of transformations to copy shapes will be explained later in this tutorial. we simply recommended you to draw the cylinder twice. ! Create the Iris between the two Cavities The next step is to create the rectangular iris between the two cavities. the screen should then look as follows: Please note: The creation of the second cylinder could also be achieved by applying a transformation to the first one. However. This could easily be achieved by entering its dimensions numerically in the same way as the creation of the air brick above. Instead of entering the point by double-clicking with the mouse or by entering the point numerically by pressing the TAB key. you are requested to enter the first point. all straight edges will be highlighted in the model: . For the sake of simplicity. ). After activating the brick creation tool by selecting Objects # Basic Shapes # Brick or pressing the corresponding button in the toolbar ( ). since the iris should always extend across the entire width of the filter.

the brick creation tool prompts for the width of the brick. double-click on the edge) with the second edge in order to specify the brick’s second point. You should now press the TAB key and set the Width of the brick to 2. You should now repeat the same steps (activate midpoint pick tool.g. by parametrically editing the structure). the first point of the newly created brick will always be linked with the edge midpoint’s current position. By moving the mouse pointer you can now confirm that the first point of the brick is aligned with the midpoint of this edge.172 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial First Edge Second Edge You should now double-click on the first edge shown in the picture above. . Since now both points are located on a line. Even if the location of the midpoint may change (e.

Please set the Name of the brick to “iris” now. The expression xp(1). represents the x-coordinate of the initially picked edge’s midpoint. Completing this step will now open the following dialog box: Some of the entry fields now contain expressions which reflect the relative construction of the brick. This can also be accomplished by pressing TAB and setting the Height to 105. Your model should then look as follows: .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 173 In the last step of the interactive brick creation you are requested to enter the brick’s height. for instance. change the Material assignment to “PEC” and press the Ok button.

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!

Create the Coaxial Couplings

So far, you have modeled the filters internal structure. However, the next step is to model the coaxial couplings on both side walls of the filter. Before you start modeling the cylinders, you should firstly align the working coordinate system with one of the side walls of the filter. This will allow you to model the coupling structure in a much more convenient way. Please deactivate the wireframe plot mode by pressing the toolbar icon or using the shortcut Ctrl+W:

Top face

Pick top face

You should then activate the face pick tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Face, ) and double-click on the top face as shown above. The selected face should then be highlighted in the model (see picture above). The next step is to align the working coordinate system with the picked face by selecting either WCS # Align WCS with Selected Face, pressing the toolbar button ( ) or by using the shortcut W (while the main view is active). After activating the wireframe drawing mode again (Ctrl+W), the model should look as follows:

Top edge

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The location of the coaxial coupler’s center is located 17.9 mm below the top wall of the filter. Therefore the next step is to align the working coordinate system with the top wall of the filter which makes the definition of the coupler’s location more convenient. You should now again activate the midpoint pick tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Edge Midpoint, ) and double-click on the top edge shown in the picture above. Now the midpoint of this edge should become highlighted. You can then align the origin of the working coordinate system with this point by selecting WCS # Align WCS with Selected or just using the shortcut W. The following picture Point, pressing the toolbar button shows the new location of the working coordinate system:

With the working coordinate system being aligned this way, the construction of the coaxial coupler is straightforward: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. . Activate the cylinder tool: Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder, Press the TAB key and set the center’s coordinates to U = 0, V = 17.9. Press the TAB key and set the Radius to 10. Press the TAB key and set the Height to 15. Press the ESC key to skip the definition of the inner radius. Set the Name of the cylinder to “coaxial substrate”.

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The cylinder creation dialog box should then look as follows:

You still need to define the substrate material. Since no material has yet been defined for the substrate so far, you should open the material definition dialog box by selecting “[New Material…]” in the Material dropdown list:

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In this dialog box you should first of all define a new Material name (e.g. “Coaxial cable”) and set the Type to a “Normal” dielectric material. Then specify the material properties in the Epsilon and Mue fields. Here you only need to change the dielectric constant Epsilon to 2.2. Finally choose a nice color for the layer by pressing the Change button. Your dialog box should now look similar to the picture above before you press the Ok button. Please note: The defined material “Coaxial cable” will now be available inside the current project for the further creation of other solids. However, if you want to save this specific material definition also for other projects, you may check the button Add to material library. You will have access to this material database by clicking on Load from Material Library in the Materials context menu in the navigation tree. Back in the cylinder creation dialog box you can also press the Ok button to finally create the coaxial coupler’s substrate. Your model should now look as follows: Upper edge

The next step is to model the inner conductor of the coaxial coupler as a perfect electric conducting cylinder. Since both cylinders should always be coaxial, it is convenient to move the local coordinate system to the center of the substrate cylinder. Therefore please activate the circle center pick tool by either selecting Objects # Pick # Pick Circle Center from the main menu or by pressing the corresponding button in the toolbar ( ). Now double-click on the substrate cylinder’s upper edge as shown in the picture above which will highlight the circle center point. Finally you can align the working coordinate system with this point by selecting WCS # Align WCS with Selected Point or pressing the toolbar button . The following picture shows how your model should now look:

9. After all these steps. 6. . 8. 4. Press the Ok button to finally create the cylinder. 7. the model should now look as follows: . 2. Press the ESC key to skip the definition of the inner radius. Press the TAB key and set the Radius to 2. 3. Press the TAB key and set the Height to -40. Press the TAB key and set the center’s coordinates to U = 0. Activate the cylinder tool: Objects # Basic Shapes # Cylinder.178 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial The inner conductor of the coaxial connector can now be easily modeled by performing the following operations to create a cylinder: 1. The next step is to deactivate the working coordinate system by selecting WCS # Local Coordinate System or pressing the corresponding toolbar button . V = 0. Set the Name of the cylinder to “conductor” Change the Material to perfect electric conducting (“PEC”). 5.

In the “Shape Intersection” dialog you have to mark the radio button Trim highlighted shape in order to get the same coaxial connector as above. please enable the option Copy. .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 179 So far. Since this plane should be the X/Z plane of the global coordinate system. Please select both parts of the connector (Components # component1 # coaxial substrate and Components # component1 # conductor ) while holding the SHIFT key. Afterwards please open the shape transformation dialog box (Objects # Transform or press the corresponding icon ( ) ): The first action in this dialog is to set the Operation to Mirror. you only need to set the Y coordinate of the Mirror plane normal to 1. The new created solids will then also be grouped to the existing component “component1”. Afterwards the parameters of the mirror plane are specified. The most convenient way to achieve this is to create a mirrored copy by using an appropriate shape transformation. you have modeled one coaxial coupler but still need to create the second one. To create a mirrored copy of the existing multiple selected shape. Confirm the settings by pressing Ok. Confirm the setting by pressing Ok. With help of multiple selection this only has to be done once for the complete coaxial coupler.

180 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial You end up with the following picture: Original shape Mirrored copy .

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 181 And your screen should finally look as follows: .

Therefore. one of the coaxial couplers as shown in the pictures below: Substrate’s port face Pick substrate’s port face Please open the waveguide dialog box now (Solve # Waveguide Ports. Each port will simulate an infinitely long waveguide (here a coaxial cable) which is connected to the structure at the port’s plane.182 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Solver Settings and S-Parameter Calculation ! Define Ports The next step is to add the ports to the filter for which the S-parameters will be calculated. by pressing the toolbar icon The port’s extent can either be defined numerically or. by simply picking the face to be covered by the port. Before you continue with the port definition. please deactivate the wireframe visualization or using the shortcut Ctrl+W. it must be defined large enough to entirely cover these mode fields. please activate the pick face ) and double-click on the substrate’s port face of tool (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. In case of a coaxial cable. the port thus has to cover the coaxial cable’s substrate completely. which is more convenient here. Since a waveguide port is based on the two dimensional mode patterns in the waveguide’s cross-section. first port 1: ) to define the . Waveguide ports are the most accurate way to calculate the S-parameters of filters and should thus be used here.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 183 Whenever a face is picked before the port dialog is opened. The next step is to choose how many modes should be considered by the port. Thus you should simply keep the default of one mode. the port’s location and size will automatically be defined by the picked face’s extent. . Thus the port’s Position is initially set to Use picks for the coordiantes. You can simply accept this setting and go ahead. we usually only have a single propagating mode. For coaxial devices.

1. ).184 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Please finally check the settings in the dialog box and press the Ok button to create the port: Now you can repeat the same steps for the definition of the opposite port 2. Press Ok to store the port’s settings. Your model should now look as follows: . Pick the corresponding substrate’s port face (Objects # Pick # Pick Face. ). 2. Open the waveguide dialog box (Solve #Waveguide Ports. 3.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 185 ! Define Boundary Conditions and Symmetries Before you start the solver. Due to the structure’s symmetry about the Y/Z plane and the fact that the magnetic field in the coaxial cable is perpendicular to this plane. You should also refer to the example in the Getting Started manual for more information on symmetry conditions. This symmetry will reduce the time required for the simulation by a factor of two. a symmetry condition can be used. you should always check the boundary and symmetry conditions. The boundary conditions will then become visualized in the main view as follows: Here all boundary conditions are set to electric which just means that the structure is embedded in a perfect electric conducting housing. These defaults (which have been set by the template) are appropriate for this example. The easiest way to do this is to enter the boundary definition mode by pressing the tool bar item or selecting Solve # Boundary Conditions. .

the structure should look as follows: Please note that you could also double-click on the symmetry plane’s handle and choose the proper symmetry condition from the context menu. After these settings have been made.186 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Please enter the symmetry plane definition mode now by activating the Symmetry planes tab in the dialog box. The screen should then look as follows: By setting the symmetry plane YZ to magnetic. . you force the solver to calculate only the modes which have no tangential magnetic field component to these planes (thus forcing the electric field to be tangential to these planes).

. In general.58 GHz to 0. Thus we are going to demonstrate how to use this highly specialized solver here. you should always make use of symmetry conditions whenever possible in order to reduce calculation times by a factor of two to eight. Please refer to the Getting Started manual and the other tutorials on how to utilize the transient solver for S-parameter problems. However. Transient solver Modal analysis solver (based on eigenmode solver) Frequency domain solver The transient solver is definitely the most versatile tool to solve any kind of S-parameter problem. The filter device analyzed here is a narrow band filter for which three different solution methods can be used: 1. 2.62 GHz.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 187 Finally press the Ok button to complete this step. for strongly resonant structures (such as the filter here). ! Define the Frequency Range The frequency range for this example extends from 0. the modal analysis solver is an interesting alternative which can be more computationally efficient than the transient solver. Change Fmin and Fmax to the desired values in the “Frequency Range Settings” dialog box (opened by pressing the toolbar icon or choosing Solve # Frequency) and store these settings by pressing the Ok button (the frequency unit which has previously been set to GHz is shown in the status bar). ! Define the Solver’s Parameters and Start the Calculation After completing all steps above you are now ready to start the S-parameter computation. 3.

e.188 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial For S-parameter calculations by using the modal analysis tool you should open the eigenmode solver control dialog box by pressing the corresponding toolbar icon or selecting Solve # Eigenmode Solver from the main menu.g. Since the highly accurate calculation of 20 modes is a quite demanding task. The modal analysis solver usually requires a reasonably large number of modes to be calculated. eigenmode analysis). 20 for accurate results. Thus you should set the number of Modes to 20 whenever you are going to calculate Sparameters. The solver will then calculate these number of modes starting from the lowest resonance frequency. Please check your settings in the dialog box before pressing the Start button. matrix calculation. you should increase this number by entering 5 in the Iterations field for S-parameter calculations. The next important setting is the maximum number of iterations for the eigenmode solver. .g. Now a few progress bars will appear. The first important setting which commonly needs to be specified here is the number of Modes to be calculated. keeping you informed about the current status of your calculation (e. You then need to activate the modal S-parameter calculation by selecting the Calculate modal coefficients option.

In order to review the solver time required to achieve these results. This dialog box can be dismissed by pressing the Ok button. A mode with an accuracy of less than 1e-3 can usually be considered as being sufficiently accurate. a dialog box will be shown displaying the resonance frequencies of the first 20 modes: The accuracy for the mode solution is excellent for all these modes. Please scroll down the text to obtain the following timing information (the actual values may vary depending on the speed of your computer): ----------------------------------------------------------------Solver Statistics: Mesh generation time Solver time Total time : : : 3 s 5 s 11 s ----------------------------------------------------------------- The computation time required for the modal analysis S-parameter calculation once the eigenmodes have been obtained is only a few seconds and is also shown in the log-file: ----------------------------------------------------------------Total time needed for modal analysis: 0 hours 00 mins 12 secs ----------------------------------------------------------------- .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 189 After the solver has finished. you can display the solver log-file by selecting Results # View Logfiles # Solver Logfile from the main menu.

501 In order to demonstrate how this information could be used for improving the solver’s speed. if you are going to make parametric studies it may be advantageous to speed up the solver for subsequent runs. In this dialog box just press the Specials button in order to open a dialog box for more advanced settings: . Please enter the eigenmode solver control dialog box once or selecting Solve # Eigenmode again by pressing the corresponding toolbar icon Solver from the main menu. you should now recalculate the eigenmodes once again to compare the time required for the simulation. you have successfully calculated the eigenmodes for this device in a reasonable amount of time. A good choice for this guess is automatically obtained from the previous eigenmode results and shown in the log-file: Optimum guess for the highest eigenfrequency would be: 3.190 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial ! Optimizing the Performance for Subsequent Calculations So far. However. This performance tuning step actually turns out to be quite simple: The eigenmode solver can make use of a guess for the highest eigenmode frequency you are looking for.

The accuracy of the solution will also be excellent by using the fully automatic procedure without this additional setting. The solver will finish after a short time giving the same results as before for the eigenfrequencies. a progress bar will appear informing you about the status of your calculation. After pressing the Ok button in this dialog box you can restart the eigenmode solver by pressing the Start button. If you don’t know this value. . Please note that there is no need to recalculate the matrix since the structure has not been changed. make sense. of course. this performance tuning step does not. you can enter this value in the Guess field. Please remember that these steps are only made here in order to illustrate how to speed up the solver for parametric sweeps or optimizations. For a single analysis of a particular device.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 191 Once you know a guess for the highest eigenfrequency of interest (here 3. The timing information in the log-file should look similar to the data below: -----------------------------------------------------------------Solver Statistics: Mesh generation time Solver time Total time : : : 0 s 2 s 2 s ------------------------------------------------------------------ If you now compare the solver time only.501 GHz). Again. just enter zero in order to let the solver estimate this value automatically. you can see that specifying the guess for the highest eigenfrequency could speed up the solution process by more than a factor of three.

1D Results (S-Parameters) The S-Parameter magnitude in dB scaling can be plotted by clicking on the 1D Results # SdB folder. .192 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Results Congratulations. You should first inspect the port modes. To visualize the electric field of the fundamental port mode you should click on the e1 folder. 2D and 3D Results (Port Modes and Three Dimensional Modes) After inspecting the S-parameters you can have a look at the 2D and 3D field results. As expected. you have simulated the Narrow Band Filter. Let’s have a look at the results. It is also obvious that this filter is somehow detuned.1 is quite small. the bandwidth of the transmission S2. which can be easily displayed by opening the 2D/3D Results # Port Modes # Port1 folder from the navigation tree.

. propagation constant and line impedance. The port modes at the second port can be visualized in the same way.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 193 The plot also shows some important properties of the mode such as mode type. The three dimensional eigenmode results can be accessed by selecting the corresponding item in the navigation tree from the 2D/3D Results # Modes folder. The field patterns for each mode will be collected in subfolders named Mode N where N stands for the mode number.

In addition to the graphical field visualization. Therefore. You may need to increase the number of arrows in the plot properties to obtain the picture above. please switch to the 2D field visualization mode by pressing the icon or by selecting Results # 3D Fields on 2D Plane. Please refer to the Getting Started manual or press the F1 key for online help to obtain more information on field visualization options. some information text containing maximum field strength values and resonance frequencies will be also shown in the main window. . Please note that the field amplitudes of the modes will always be normalized such that each mode contains a total energy of 1 joule. you will need to increase the number of arrows to obtain this plot. Again. The result data will then be visualized in a three dimensional vector plot as shown in the picture above. it is more important to visualize the fields in a cross-section of the device. In many cases. The field data should then be displayed as in the picture below.194 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial To visualize the electric field of the first mode you can simply select the corresponding item from the navigation bar: 2D/3D Results # Modes # Mode 1 # e. Please refer to the Getting Started manual for more information on how to adjust the plot options.

eigenmode frequencies) do not significantly no longer change by increasing the mesh density. 2. The only way to ensure the accuracy of the solution is to increase the mesh resolution and recalculate the eigenmodes. Inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution. ! Effect of the Mesh Resolution on the Eigenmode Accuracy The inaccuracies arising from the finite mesh resolution are usually more difficult to estimate. then convergence has been achieved. you have used the default mesh which has been automatically generated by an expert system. The modes can usually be considered sufficiently accurate for most practical applications if the mode accuracy is below 1e-3. In the following sections we will give you some hints how to handle these errors and how to ensure to achieve highly accurate results.g. In many cases it may be advantageous to calculate more modes than you are actually looking for in order to improve the accuracy of the desired (lower) ones. Numerical errors introduced by the iterative eigenmode solver. If the desired results (e. The results can be improved by specifying a proper guess for the highest eigenmode frequency of interest and by increasing the number of iterations for the eigenmode solver. ! Accuracy of the Numerical Eigenmode Solver The first type of error is always quantified as Accuracy for each mode after the calculation has finished. Sometimes higher modes are calculated with a lower accuracy than lower ones. The easiest way to prove the accuracy of the results is to use the fully automatic mesh adaptation which can be switched on by checking the Adaptive mesh refinement option in the solver control dialog box (Solve # Eigenmode Solver): . In the example above. Setting the number of modes to calculate to 20 should yield sufficiently accurate modal analysis S-parameter results in most cases.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 195 Accuracy Considerations The eigenmode calculation and thus the modal analysis is mainly affected by two sources of numerical inaccuracies: 1.

. parameter sweeps or optimizations). the following dialog box will appear: This dialog box tells you that the desired accuracy limit on the eigenmode’s frequencies (1% by default) could be met by the adaptive mesh refinement. you should now start the solver again by pressing the Start button. you may switch off the adaptation procedure for subsequent calculations (e.g. Since the expert system’s settings have now been adjusted such that this accuracy is achieved. After a couple of minutes during which the solver is running through mesh adaptation passes.196 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial After activating the Adaptive mesh refinement tool.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 197 You should now confirm the deactivation of the mesh adaptation by pressing the Yes button. This indicates that it is necessary to run the mesh adaptation for this example in order to achieve highly accurate results. . The converged results for the eigenmode frequencies will then be shown in the dialog box that appears: After the mesh adaptation procedure is complete. you can visualize the maximum relative difference of the eigenmode frequencies for two subsequent passes by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Error from the navigation tree: As you can see. the automatic mesh adaptation procedure requires four passes to achieve convergence for this challenging filter structure.

Finally. you can visualize the convergence process of the mode frequencies by clicking at 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Mode Frequencies: .198 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial The eigenmode solver accuracies achieved for the modes during the mesh adaptation can be visualized by selecting 1D Results # Adaptive Meshing # Mode Accuracies from the navigation tree: The plot shows that all mode accuracies for all four passes are fine (even better than 2e12).

Afterwards there is no need for time consuming mesh adaptation cycles during parameter sweeps or optimizations. as demonstrated here. The huge advantage of this expert system based mesh refinement procedure over traditional adaptive schemes is that the mesh adaptation needs to be carried out only once for each device in order to determine the optimum settings for the expert system. These studies can be carried out either by manually changing the settings of the expert system or.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 199 Finally. the most interesting results are the converged S-parameters shown below: The final S-parameters changed quite significantly from the first results obtained by using the initial mesh created by the expert system. by running the automatic mesh adaptation tool. . it can be stated that accurate Sparameter results for filter structures can only be obtained by mesh convergence studies. In general.

For S-parameter calculations using the modal analysis method you should open the or eigenmode solver control dialog box by pressing the corresponding toolbar icon selecting Solve # Eigenmode Solver from the main menu. please press the Specials button and make sure that the option Choose number of modes automatically is switched on. the JD (lossfree) eigenmode solver can also be applied. . i. The values for Lines per wavelength and Lower mesh limit should be 25: ® The JD (lossfree) Eigenmode Solver If you apply the modal analysis. The advantage of this solver lies in the automatic determination of significant eigenmodes.200 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Alternative Solvers CST MICROWAVE STUDIO offers two other solvers for the calculation of highly resonant structures. Then activate the modal S-parameter calculation by selecting the Calculate modal coefficients option. it is advisable to keep the mesh settings as they are determined by the expert based mesh adaptation. First choose from the drop down menu Method the “JD (lossfree)” method. the eigenmode computation is as long as the last resonant frequency is larger than Fmax. You may check the mesh settings in the “Mesh Properties” dialog box by selecting Mesh # Mesh Properties. Alternatively. the AKS eigenmode solver can be used as described above. In order to compare the different methods using the converged Sparameters. In addition.e.

.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 201 Finally close the dialog box by pressing Ok and then start the modal analysis by pressing the Start button.

eigenmode analysis). displaying the resonance frequencies of the first five modes: This dialog box can be dismissed by pressing the Ok button. After the solver has finished.202 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Now a few progress bars will appear. The computation time required for the modal analysis S-parameter calculation once the eigenmodes have been obtained is only a few seconds and is also shown in the log-file: ----------------------------------------------------------------Total time needed for modal analysis: 0 hours 01 mins 15 secs ----------------------------------------------------------------- . keeping you informed about the current status of your calculation (e. a dialog box will be shown. matrix calculation.g.

The Frequency Domain Solver The third possibility for S-parameter calculations is the frequency domain solver. Additionally the S-parameters are interpolated if the button Use broadband frequency sweep is activated. By the default setting the frequency points are determined automatically in the desired frequency range. The S-parameters are practically equal to the ones obtained with the AKS eigenmode solver. The frequency domain solver control dialog box is opened by pressing the corresponding toolbar icon or selecting Solve # Frequency Domain Solver from the main menu. However. . since we are only interested in the Sparameters of the structure. please start the frequency domain solver by pressing the Start button right away.CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 203 The S-Parameter magnitude in dB scaling can be plotted by clicking on the 1D Results # SdB folder. The visualization of modes and the mesh adaptation can be done as demonstrated for the AKS eigenmode solver.

keeping you informed about the current status of your calculation (e. . matrix calculation. The solver will finish after a short time delivering the same results as the modal analysis.204 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Again a few progress bars will appear. port mode calculation. …).g.

10 s) ===================================================================== .CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial 205 The S-Parameter magnitude in dB scaling can be plotted by clicking on the 1D Results # SdB folder. --------------------------------------------------------------------Total Solver Time : 70 s (= 0 h. you can display the solver log-file by selecting Results # View Logfiles # Solver Logfile from the main menu.01) has been reached after calculating 7 frequency samples. In order to review the solver time and the number of frequency samples required to achieve these results. 01 m. Please scroll down the text to obtain the following information (the actual solver times may vary depending on the speed of your computer): --------------------------------------------------------------------The S-parameter convergence threshold (0.

Thank you for using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO ! . In some cases we have referred to the Getting Started manual. And last but not least: Please also visit one of the training classes which are regularly  held at a location near you. Finally. Ensure to obtain accurate and converged results by using the automatic expert system based mesh adaptation. you can find some more eigenmode and modal analysis solver examples in the examples folder in your installation directory. Define basic structure elements such as bricks and cylinders. Run the modal analysis solver and display S-parameters. Use of the modal analysis tool with JD (lossfree) solver. 8. 9. using templates. 2. usage of macros to automate common tasks. 5. You can obtain more information for each particular step by using the online help system which can be activated either by pressing the Help button in each dialog box or by pressing the F1 key at any time to obtain context sensitive information. etc. General modeling considerations. Each of these examples contains a Readme item in the navigation tree which will give you some more information about the particular device. mesh generation. Create copies of existing shapes by using transformations. 3. In addition to this tutorial. 10. eigenmode frequencies and field patterns. 4. The following topics have been covered so far: 1. 6.206 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® – Narrow Band Filter Tutorial Getting More Information Congratulations! You have just completed the Narrow Band Filter tutorial which should have provided you with a good working knowledge on how to use the modal analysis solver to calculate S-parameters of filter structures. Use of the frequency domain solver. you should refer to the Advanced Topics manual for more in depth information on issues such as the fundamental principles of the simulation method. You should also consider using the transient solver to calculate the S-parameters for filter structures. which is also a good source of information for general topics. 7. etc. Check and if necessary improve the accuracy of the modal analysis solver. boundary conditions and symmetries. Use the working coordinate system to simplify the shape creation. Please check out the other tutorials and the transient solver examples in the examples folder for more information. Define the frequency range. 11. Optimize the performance of the eigenmode solver for subsequent runs.

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