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Permutation and go through the door, given that one can go

through at a time?

Combination

Abigale then Bob and then Charlie

Abigale then Charlie and then Bob

Bob then Abigale and then Charlie

Bob then Charlie and then Abigale

Charlie then Abigale and then Bob

Charlie then Bob and then Abigale

Example Permutation

How many ways can Abigale, Bob and Charlie A permutation of a set of distinct objects is an

go into the room, given that one can go ordered arrangement of these objects.

through at a time and only two can be in the We are also interested in ordered arrangements

room? of some of the elements of a set.

An ordered arrangement of r elements of a set,

Abigale then Bob, Charlie cannot get in. which contain n elements, is called an

Bob then Abigale, Charlie has to be outside. r-permutation.

And ?

1

Permutation Example

Let X = {x1, x2, x3, …, xn} What is P(3, 2)

A permutations of X is an ordered arrangement The number of 2-permutation of a set with 3

of x1, x2, x3, …, xn elements

That is, how many different ordered pair can we

An r-permutation of X where r ≤ n is an ordered arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements.

arrangement of a subset of X which has r For example, a set X = {a, b, c}

elements.

There are 6 ordered pair we can arrange, they are

The number of r-permutation of a set with n (a,b) (a,c) (b,c) (b,a) (c,a) (c,b)

elements is denoted by P(n, r)

Example Exercise

What is P(3, 3) How many ways can Abigale, Bob and Charlie

The number of 3-permutation of a set with 3 play Need for Speed on PS3, given that only

elements two can play at the same time?

That is, how many different can we arrange if the

set has 3 distinct elements.

For example, a set X = {a, b, c}

Abigale v. Bob

There are 6 ordered 3-tuple we can arrange, they Abigale v. Charlie

are Bob v. Charlie

(a,b,c) (a,c,b) (b,a,c) (b,c,a) (c,a,b) (c,b,a)

2

The number of r-permutations The number of r-permutations

The first element of the permutation can be By the product rule there are

chosen in n ways, since there are n elements in n(n – 1)(n – 2)⋅⋅⋅(n – r + 1) r-permutation of the set.

the set.

It follows that

There are n – 1 ways to choose the second n!

P(n, r) = n(n – 1)(n – 2)⋅⋅⋅(n – r + 1) =

element of the permutation, since there are n – ( n − r )!

1 elements left.

Similarly, there n – 2 ways to choose the third

element, and so on until …

There are n – r – 1 ways to choose the rth

element.

Example Example

Find P(7, 4), P(10, 5) and P(12, 3) There are 10 athletes competing for a gold, a

P(7, 4) = 840 silver and a bronze medal. What are the

P(10, 5) = 30,240 possible outcomes if there are no ties?

P(12, 3) = 1,320

There are 3 ordered positions for 10 athletes

Hence there are P(10, 3) = 720 possible outcomes

3

Example Combination

How many ways to arrange the letters A, B, C, D, E, F An r-combination of elements of a set is an

and that the letters D, E, F are adjacent. unordered selection of r elements from the set.

Thus, an r-combination is simply a subset of the

We can treat D, E, F as one block

set with r elements.

The permutation with the rest of the letters, there are

P(4, 4) = 24 ways

Permutation of D, E, F within the group. There are

P(3, 3) = 3! = 6 ways

Hence there are 24⋅6 = 144 ways to arrange A, B, C, D,

E, F in which D, E, F are adjacent.

Let X = {x1, x2, x3, …, xn} What is C(3, 2)

A combination of r elements of X is the The number of 2-combination of a set with 3

selection of r elements from X where r ≤ n elements

That is, how many different sets of 2 can we

The number of r-combinations of a set with n arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements

distinct element is denoted by For example, a set X = {a, b, c}

C(n, r) or ⎛⎜⎜ ⎞⎟⎟

n

⎝ ⎠

r There are 3 sets of 2 we can arrange, they are

(a,b) (a,c) (b,c)

4

Example Combination

What is C(3, 3) The r-permutations of a set with n elements

The number of 3-combination of a set with 3 can be obtained by:

elements 1. forming the r-combination of the set, which can

That is, how many different sets of 3 can we be done in

arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements

P(n, r) ways.

For example, a set X = {a, b, c}

There are 1 sets of 3 we can arrange, that is

2. then ordering the elements in each

(a,b,c) r-combination, which can be done in

P(r, r) ways.

Combination Example

Hence Find the value of C(7, 4), C(10, 5) and C(12, 3)

P(n, r) = C(n, r) ⋅ P(r, r) C(7, 4) = 35

= C(n, r) ⋅ r! C(10, 5) = 252

C(12, 3) = 220

C(n, r) = P(n, r)/r!

n!

C(n, r) =

(n − r )!r!

5

Example Theorem

Let r, n ∈ Í and r ≤ n. Show that n

C(n, n – r) = C(n, r)

Let n be a positive integer. Then ∑ C ( n, k ) = 2

k =0

n

Proof

There are

C(n, n – r) = n!/((n – (n – r))! (n – r)!) C(n,0) subsets with zero elements

C(n,1) subsets with one elements

= n!/(r! (n – r)!) C(n,2) subsets with two elements

…

= C(n, r)

C(n,n) subsets with n elements

C(n,0) + C(n,1) + … + C(n,n) counts the number of subsets of a

set with n elements.

A set of n elements has a total of 2n subsets.

C(n, r) also occur as coefficient in the The expansion of (x + y)3 can be found using

expansion of powers of binomial expression combinatorial reasoning.

such as

(a + b)n (x + y)3 = (x + y) (x + y) (x + y)

= x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3

Why?

6

The Binomial Theorem Example

A binomial expression is the sum of two terms What is the expansion of (x + y)4

such as (x + y).

Let x and y be variables, and n be a positive

4

( x + y ) 4 = ∑ C (4, j ) x 4− j y j

integer, Then j =0

4

n

( x + y ) = ∑ C ( n, j ) x

n n− j

y j

j =0 = x 4 + 4 x 3 y + 6 x 2 y 2 + 4 xy 3 + y 4

= C ( n,0) x n + C (n,1) x n −1 y + C (n,2) x n − 2 y 2 + ... + C ( n, n − 1) xy n −1 + c(n, n) y n

Let n and k be positive integers with n ≥ k. Pascal’s Identity is the basis for a geometric

Then arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a

triangle.

C(n + 1, k) = C(n, k – 1) + C(n, k)

C(0,0)

C(1,0) C(1,1)

C(2,0) C(2,1) C(2,2)

C(3,0) C(3,1) C(3,2) C(3,3)

… … … … …

7

Pascal’s Triangle Example

What is the coefficient of x12y13 in the

1 expansion of (x + y)25

1 1

1 2 1 C(25,13) = 25!/(13! 12!) = 5,200,300

1 3 3 1

1 4 6 4 1

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