Example

Permutation and Combination

How many ways can Abigale, Bob and Charlie go through the door, given that one can go through at a time?
Abigale then Bob and then Charlie Abigale then Charlie and then Bob Bob then Abigale and then Charlie Bob then Charlie and then Abigale Charlie then Abigale and then Bob Charlie then Bob and then Abigale

Example
How many ways can Abigale, Bob and Charlie go into the room, given that one can go through at a time and only two can be in the room? Abigale then Bob, Charlie cannot get in. Bob then Abigale, Charlie has to be outside. And ?

Permutation
A permutation of a set of distinct objects is an ordered arrangement of these objects. We are also interested in ordered arrangements of some of the elements of a set. An ordered arrangement of r elements of a set, which contain n elements, is called an r-permutation.

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xn} A permutations of X is an ordered arrangement of x1.a) (c. For example. they are (a. 3) The number of 3-permutation of a set with 3 elements That is.b) (c. b. 2) The number of 2-permutation of a set with 3 elements That is.b) Example What is P(3. c} There are 6 ordered pair we can arrange. Charlie Bob v.c.b) (b. c} There are 6 ordered 3-tuple we can arrange.c) (b. b. how many different can we arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements. a set X = {a. a set X = {a. Bob Abigale v. Charlie 2 .b. they are (a. given that only two can play at the same time? Abigale v. …. Bob and Charlie play Need for Speed on PS3.a.a.Permutation Let X = {x1. ….c) (a.a) (c. x3.a) (c. x2. r) Example What is P(3.b) (a. The number of r-permutation of a set with n elements is denoted by P(n.a) Exercise How many ways can Abigale.c.c) (b. x2. xn An r-permutation of X where r ≤ n is an ordered arrangement of a subset of X which has r elements. how many different ordered pair can we arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements.b. x3.c) (b. For example.

3) P(7. a silver and a bronze medal. 3) = 1. P(10. Similarly. What are the possible outcomes if there are no ties? There are 3 ordered positions for 10 athletes Hence there are P(10. since there are n – 1 elements left. There are n – 1 ways to choose the second element of the permutation. 5) = 30. since there are n elements in the set. 4) = 840 P(10.240 P(12. and so on until … There are n – r – 1 ways to choose the rth element. 4). there n – 2 ways to choose the third element. 5) and P(12. The number of r-permutations By the product rule there are n(n – 1)(n – 2)⋅⋅⋅(n – r + 1) r-permutation of the set. It follows that P(n. 3) = 720 possible outcomes 3 . r) = n(n – 1)(n – 2)⋅⋅⋅(n – r + 1) = n! ( n − r )! Example Find P(7.320 Example There are 10 athletes competing for a gold.The number of r-permutations The first element of the permutation can be chosen in n ways.

F and that the letters D. D. r) or ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜r⎟ n ⎝ ⎠ Example What is C(3.c) 4 .b) (a. C. F as one block The permutation with the rest of the letters. 4) = 24 ways Combination An r-combination of elements of a set is an unordered selection of r elements from the set. The number of r-combinations Let X = {x1. E. Permutation of D.Example How many ways to arrange the letters A. Thus. E. xn} A combination of r elements of X is the selection of r elements from X where r ≤ n The number of r-combinations of a set with n distinct element is denoted by C(n. F within the group. F in which D. E. …. C. There are P(3. B.c) (b. x3. E. F are adjacent. an r-combination is simply a subset of the set with r elements. there are P(4. b. how many different sets of 2 can we arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements For example. they are (a. 3) = 3! = 6 ways Hence there are 24⋅6 = 144 ways to arrange A. B. x2. E. F are adjacent. a set X = {a. 2) The number of 2-combination of a set with 3 elements That is. D. E. c} There are 3 sets of 2 we can arrange. We can treat D.

r) ⋅ P(r. Combination Hence P(n. that is (a. 5) = 252 C(12. 3) = 220 5 . r)/r! C(n.b. r) = P(n.Example What is C(3.c) Combination The r-permutations of a set with n elements can be obtained by: forming the r-combination of the set. then ordering the elements in each r-combination. which can be done in P(n. c} There are 1 sets of 3 we can arrange. a set X = {a. 3) The number of 3-combination of a set with 3 elements That is. 5) and C(12. 3) C(7. 1. 4). how many different sets of 3 can we arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements For example. r) = C(n. which can be done in P(r. b. r) ways. r) = C(n. r) = n! (n − r )!r! Example Find the value of C(7. C(10. r) ways. r) ⋅ r! C(n. 4) = 35 C(10. 2.

1) + … + C(n. n – r) = C(n. n – r) = n!/((n – (n – r))! (n – r)!) = n!/(r! (n – r)!) = C(n. Then Proof There are C(n.0) + C(n.n) counts the number of subsets of a set with n elements. n ∈ Í and r ≤ n. k ) = 2 k =0 n n C(n.Example Let r. (x + y)3 = (x + y) (x + y) (x + y) = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 Why? 6 .0) C(n. r) C(n. Binomial Coefficient C(n.1) C(n.n) subsets with zero elements subsets with one elements subsets with two elements subsets with n elements ∑ C ( n. A set of n elements has a total of 2n subsets. Show that C(n. r) also occur as coefficient in the expansion of powers of binomial expression such as (a + b)n Example The expansion of (x + y)3 can be found using combinatorial reasoning. r) Theorem Let n be a positive integer.2) … C(n.

C(0.0) C(2. and n be a positive integer.0) x + C ( 4.2) C(3. j ) x 4− j y j j =0 4 = C ( 4.3) x 4 −1 y 3 + c (4.0) x n + C (n. n − 1) xy n −1 + c(n..1) C(2.4) y 4 4 y j = x 4 + 4 x 3 y + 6 x 2 y 2 + 4 xy 3 + y 4 = C ( n. Let x and y be variables.0) C(1.0) C(1. k – 1) + C(n. Then C(n + 1.3) … … … … C(3. j ) x n j =0 n n− j Example What is the expansion of (x + y)4 ( x + y ) 4 = ∑ C (4.2) C(3.1) C(3. + C ( n..1) C(2. n) y n Pascal’s Identity Let n and k be positive integers with n ≥ k. Then ( x + y ) = ∑ C ( n.The Binomial Theorem A binomial expression is the sum of two terms such as (x + y). k) Pascal’s Triangle Pascal’s Identity is the basis for a geometric arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle.2) x 4 − 2 y 2 + C (4.1) x 4−1 y + C (4.2) x n − 2 y 2 + .1) x n −1 y + C (n. k) = C(n.0) … 7 .

Pascal’s Triangle 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 6 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 Example What is the coefficient of x12y13 in the expansion of (x + y)25 C(25.13) = 25!/(13! 12!) = 5.200.300 8 .

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