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# Example

##  How many ways can Abigale, Bob and Charlie

Permutation and go through the door, given that one can go
through at a time?
Combination
 Abigale then Bob and then Charlie
 Abigale then Charlie and then Bob
 Bob then Abigale and then Charlie
 Bob then Charlie and then Abigale
 Charlie then Abigale and then Bob
 Charlie then Bob and then Abigale

Example Permutation
 How many ways can Abigale, Bob and Charlie  A permutation of a set of distinct objects is an
go into the room, given that one can go ordered arrangement of these objects.
through at a time and only two can be in the  We are also interested in ordered arrangements
room? of some of the elements of a set.
 An ordered arrangement of r elements of a set,
 Abigale then Bob, Charlie cannot get in. which contain n elements, is called an
 Bob then Abigale, Charlie has to be outside.  r-permutation.
 And ?

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Permutation Example
 Let X = {x1, x2, x3, …, xn}  What is P(3, 2)
 A permutations of X is an ordered arrangement  The number of 2-permutation of a set with 3
of x1, x2, x3, …, xn elements
 That is, how many different ordered pair can we
 An r-permutation of X where r ≤ n is an ordered arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements.
arrangement of a subset of X which has r  For example, a set X = {a, b, c}
elements.
 There are 6 ordered pair we can arrange, they are
 The number of r-permutation of a set with n  (a,b) (a,c) (b,c) (b,a) (c,a) (c,b)
elements is denoted by P(n, r)

Example Exercise
 What is P(3, 3)  How many ways can Abigale, Bob and Charlie
 The number of 3-permutation of a set with 3 play Need for Speed on PS3, given that only
elements two can play at the same time?
 That is, how many different can we arrange if the
set has 3 distinct elements.
 For example, a set X = {a, b, c}
 Abigale v. Bob
 There are 6 ordered 3-tuple we can arrange, they  Abigale v. Charlie
are  Bob v. Charlie
 (a,b,c) (a,c,b) (b,a,c) (b,c,a) (c,a,b) (c,b,a)

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The number of r-permutations The number of r-permutations
 The first element of the permutation can be  By the product rule there are
chosen in n ways, since there are n elements in  n(n – 1)(n – 2)⋅⋅⋅(n – r + 1) r-permutation of the set.
the set.
 It follows that
 There are n – 1 ways to choose the second n!
 P(n, r) = n(n – 1)(n – 2)⋅⋅⋅(n – r + 1) =
element of the permutation, since there are n – ( n − r )!
1 elements left.
 Similarly, there n – 2 ways to choose the third
element, and so on until …
 There are n – r – 1 ways to choose the rth
element.

Example Example
 Find P(7, 4), P(10, 5) and P(12, 3)  There are 10 athletes competing for a gold, a
 P(7, 4) = 840 silver and a bronze medal. What are the
 P(10, 5) = 30,240 possible outcomes if there are no ties?
 P(12, 3) = 1,320
 There are 3 ordered positions for 10 athletes
 Hence there are P(10, 3) = 720 possible outcomes

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Example Combination
 How many ways to arrange the letters A, B, C, D, E, F  An r-combination of elements of a set is an
and that the letters D, E, F are adjacent. unordered selection of r elements from the set.
 Thus, an r-combination is simply a subset of the
 We can treat D, E, F as one block
set with r elements.
 The permutation with the rest of the letters, there are
 P(4, 4) = 24 ways
 Permutation of D, E, F within the group. There are
 P(3, 3) = 3! = 6 ways
 Hence there are 24⋅6 = 144 ways to arrange A, B, C, D,
E, F in which D, E, F are adjacent.

## The number of r-combinations Example

 Let X = {x1, x2, x3, …, xn}  What is C(3, 2)
 A combination of r elements of X is the  The number of 2-combination of a set with 3
selection of r elements from X where r ≤ n elements
 That is, how many different sets of 2 can we
 The number of r-combinations of a set with n arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements
distinct element is denoted by  For example, a set X = {a, b, c}
C(n, r) or ⎛⎜⎜ ⎞⎟⎟
n

⎝ ⎠
r  There are 3 sets of 2 we can arrange, they are
 (a,b) (a,c) (b,c)

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Example Combination
 What is C(3, 3)  The r-permutations of a set with n elements
 The number of 3-combination of a set with 3 can be obtained by:
elements 1. forming the r-combination of the set, which can
 That is, how many different sets of 3 can we be done in
arrange if the set has 3 distinct elements
 P(n, r) ways.
 For example, a set X = {a, b, c}
 There are 1 sets of 3 we can arrange, that is
2. then ordering the elements in each
 (a,b,c) r-combination, which can be done in
 P(r, r) ways.

Combination Example
Hence  Find the value of C(7, 4), C(10, 5) and C(12, 3)
 P(n, r) = C(n, r) ⋅ P(r, r)  C(7, 4) = 35
= C(n, r) ⋅ r!  C(10, 5) = 252
 C(12, 3) = 220
 C(n, r) = P(n, r)/r!

n!
 C(n, r) =
(n − r )!r!

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Example Theorem
 Let r, n ∈ Í and r ≤ n. Show that n

C(n, n – r) = C(n, r)
 Let n be a positive integer. Then ∑ C ( n, k ) = 2
k =0
n

Proof
There are
 C(n, n – r) = n!/((n – (n – r))! (n – r)!)  C(n,0) subsets with zero elements
 C(n,1) subsets with one elements
= n!/(r! (n – r)!)  C(n,2) subsets with two elements

= C(n, r) 
 C(n,n) subsets with n elements
 C(n,0) + C(n,1) + … + C(n,n) counts the number of subsets of a
set with n elements.
 A set of n elements has a total of 2n subsets.

## Binomial Coefficient Example

 C(n, r) also occur as coefficient in the  The expansion of (x + y)3 can be found using
expansion of powers of binomial expression combinatorial reasoning.
such as
 (a + b)n (x + y)3 = (x + y) (x + y) (x + y)
= x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3

 Why?

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The Binomial Theorem Example
 A binomial expression is the sum of two terms  What is the expansion of (x + y)4
such as (x + y).
Let x and y be variables, and n be a positive
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 ( x + y ) 4 = ∑ C (4, j ) x 4− j y j
integer, Then j =0

## = C ( 4,0) x + C ( 4,1) x 4−1 y + C (4,2) x 4 − 2 y 2 + C (4,3) x 4 −1 y 3 + c (4,4) y 4

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n
( x + y ) = ∑ C ( n, j ) x
n n− j
y j

j =0 = x 4 + 4 x 3 y + 6 x 2 y 2 + 4 xy 3 + y 4
= C ( n,0) x n + C (n,1) x n −1 y + C (n,2) x n − 2 y 2 + ... + C ( n, n − 1) xy n −1 + c(n, n) y n

## Pascal’s Identity Pascal’s Triangle

 Let n and k be positive integers with n ≥ k.  Pascal’s Identity is the basis for a geometric
 Then arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a
triangle.
C(n + 1, k) = C(n, k – 1) + C(n, k)
C(0,0)
C(1,0) C(1,1)
C(2,0) C(2,1) C(2,2)
C(3,0) C(3,1) C(3,2) C(3,3)
… … … … …

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Pascal’s Triangle Example
 What is the coefficient of x12y13 in the
1 expansion of (x + y)25
1 1
1 2 1  C(25,13) = 25!/(13! 12!) = 5,200,300
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1