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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

The youth of today is the hope of the future. What future holds for a nation depends

on how its citizens conduct their affairs. Good health is essential in preparing the fated

young generation in the Philippines. It becomes increasingly alarming that what was

imagined to be the role models and leaders of the future will have a short life expectancy

due to smoking habits (National Environmental Health Association, 2008).

In the Philippines, even though cigarettes are already sold in a double price manner,

still many retailers are actually selling cigarettes to minors. Or if not, another cause of

smoking was some aged were seen by the children and teenagers doing the said vice.

According to a certain news article of the Manila Times issued on February 11, 2015,

Philippines is the second largest tobacco consumer in the ASEAN region next to Indonesia

with 17.3 million Filipino adults smoking. It is believed that majority of them have starts

at a young age.

The government believed that the causes of smoking in the Philippines were its

easy and affordable accessibility of cigarette at all. That is why the Philippine government

implements laws to adhere the cigarette smoking among Filipinos. Republic Act No. 9211

otherwise as the Tobacco regulation Act of 2013 makes it unlawful for any person under

18 years to purchase, sell or smoke tobacco products (Buncombe, 2013).

Cigarette smoking is actually a main issue among the Filipino youth. According to

the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) more than one in four Filipino children aged

13-15 are smokers among those in this age group who smoke 17.5 percent are girls
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and 28.3 percent are boys. This is according to the news article of the Manila Times issue,

(February 11, 2015). Because of this the Philippine Government approved the graphic

Health warning law through the Republic Act No. 10643. This law requires graphic health

warnings depicting the effect in the physical outlook of a person damaged by smoking. By

this hopefully the youth were able to realize that smoking is very dangerous.

The National and local government of the Philippines agree that cigarettes smoking

is actually a problem that needs to be resolve. Cigarette smoking has no any positive results

in the development of a certain individual. More over the effect of cigarette smoking in the

life of a smoker was that it leads to hospital treatments, court cases, crimes and sometimes

results to a psychological and health hazards (Promoff, et al., 2015).

Department of Health (2012) revealed that children as young as five years old are

already starting to smoke. Smoking has been found to harm nearly every bodily organ and

organ systems in the body and diminishes a person’s smoke because it is so addictive.

According to Inlander (1999), the effect of smoking to the lungs of a smoker was that it

dries the tissues of the lungs and damages little helpful hairs called cilia. In healthy lungs

these hairs perform the essential function of carrying debris out of our lungs as if on a

conveyors belt means stuff builds up, causing an individual to catch more colds and lung

infections.

The reasons that influence the young people to smoke were the media advertising,

exposure to smoke in public places and one or more parents are smoker. Many people do

not think to question something they see each day. It is often easy for children of smokers

to assume they will smoke also. But sometimes the children of parents who do not smoke

try to prove their independence by smoking, three fourths of the people who started before
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they were 21 years old, the average age at which people become a regular smoker is16.

This means that the decision to acquire a smoking habit is usually may not be clearly

understood.

Smoking addiction is one of the most common forms of recreational drug abuse.

Cigarette smoking is today the most over one billion people in the majority of all human

societies (Hames, 2008).Despite the known hazards of smoking, almost 3,000 adolescents

became new smokers every day. It can be gleaned from different aspects that the reason

which influence the youth to engage in cigarette smoking are the family, the school,

economic status, and inadequate guidance of the community (Thakur, et al.,2003).

Cigarette smoking does not only endanger smokers, it is also harmful to those around the

users. Each time the smoker blows out a cloud of smoke, or holds the cigarette without

puffing, the chemicals enter the air. People nearby are exposed to the same chemicals as

the smoker.

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) indicates other influences

that affect cigarette smoking among the youth such as; lower socio-economic states

including lower income or education; lack of skills to resist influences to tobacco use; lack

of support or involvement from parents; accessibility, availability, and price of tobacco

products; low levels of academic achievement; low self-image or self esteem and exposure

to tobacco advertising. The Philippines Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003 bans cigarette

advertisements on television, radio, cable, print and billboards except within “point of sale

retail establishments”. The cheap price brings cigarettes closer to the youth’s grasp, so they

often get introduced to smoking at early ages. The youngest child that the Framework
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Convention on Tobacco Control Alliance Philippines (FCAP) has a record was only 6 years

old when he started smoking.

This paper will provide the readers information about the young people’s concepts,

individual’s ideas, beliefs and understanding about smoking addiction.

Theoretical Framework

Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura focuses on the learning that occurs

within a social context. The cause of cigarette smoking among the youth have said to be

learn by observing, its either by the people around them or by the influence of the social

media and by what have they seen in some scenes in the movies they watched

(Alechnowicz& Chapman 2004).

Smoking decision process starts very early for many children and appears only to

be narrow time for a period of two to three months where teenager can be converted to

regular smokers. Most adult smokers begin sometimes between ages 13 to 17 years old and

are addictive before the age of 20 (Hanson, 1999).

People start smoking because their friends, parents and relative smoke and their

heroes/movie idols smoke. Advertisements, films, magazines, TV programs and poster

show smoking as being cool, smart, tough and adult thing to do. Moreover, smoking is

allowed in many public places everywhere.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

1. Survey
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1.Personal Profile
1.1 age
1.2 sex
1.3 daily allowance
1.4 social status
2.Kinds of Smoker
3. Reasons of Smoking
4. Brands of Cigarettes
5. Extent of Cigarette
Smoking
6. Worst Thing about
Smoking
7. Reason on Smoking
Addiction
8. Worst thing about
Smoking Addiction

Figure1. The Paradigm of theStudy

The INPUT variables include the personal profile of the young people respondents,

how may the respondents be classified as smoker, reasons why kids smoke, brands of

cigarette use in smoking, the extent of cigarette smoking, the perceive worst thing about

smoking, the reason why people get addicted to smoking, and the worst thing about

smoking addiction.

In the PROCESS as revealed in the second frame suggests procedures that the

researchers used in order to gather information such as survey questionnaire the statistical

treatment for descriptive statistics.

The OUTPUT is awareness on the smoking addiction among the young people of

NTRA Phase 1,Brgy. Taugtog, Botolan, Zambales.

Statement of the Problem


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The primary objective of the study was to systematically explore young people’s

conceptualization of smoking addiction (the sum of individual’s ideas, beliefs, and

understanding). These young people are smokers and occasionally smoking. This was

conducted specifically in the NTRA Phase 1, Barangay Taugtog, Botolan, Zambales.

The research study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age;

1.2 Sex;

1.3 Daily allowance; and

1.4 Social status?

2. How may the respondent be classified as smoker?

3. What are the reasons why the respondents smoke?

4. What is the brand of cigarette the respondents smoke?

5. To what extent the respondents smoke cigarettes?

6. How may the respondents perceive the worst thing about smoking cigarettes?

7. How may the respondents perceive the reason why people get addicted to smoking?

8. What could be the worst thing about being addicted to smoking?

9. Is there a significant difference on the perceived worst thing about smoking when

attributed to profile variables?

10. Is there a significant difference on the perceived reason why people get addicted to

smoking when attributed to profile variables?

11. Is there a significant difference on the perceived worst thing about being addicted

to smoking when attributed to profile variables?


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Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference on the perceived worst thing about smoking when

attributed to profile variables.

2. There is no significant difference on the perceived reason why people get addicted

to smoking when attributed to profile variables.

3. There is no significant difference on the perceived worst thing about being addicted

to smoking when attributed to profile variables.

Scope and Limitations

The primary purpose of this study was to explore young people’s conceptualization

of smoking and smoking addiction. The respondents are the young smokers of NTRA

Phase 1, Taugtog, Botolan, Zambales.

The research study also identified what kind of smoker they are, the reasons why

they smoke, the brand of cigarette they preferred to smoke, the extent of their cigarette

smoking, how they perceive the worst thing about smoking, how they perceive the reason

why people get addicted to smoking and their understanding about the worst thing of being

addicted to smoking.

The researchers used a survey questionnaire adopted in the standardized survey

questionnaire used by Sir Calvin Wang (2006).

Significance of the Study

The Community.This study will remind them about their role as persons that needs

to be responsible, not only to their family but to all individuals who belongs to one
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community. A strong and serious campaign against smoking should be evident enough so

that smokers will not take it for granted. No man is an island, therefore we should

consistently say no to drugs and smoking because this is too dangerous to our future and

to our health that needs no try out or attempt to taste.

The Barangay Officials.They would continue implement ordinances that will

prohibit the young people to smoke and the retailers in the barangay not to sell cigarette

among minors. Strictly implement the provision of the Republic Act 9211 be done

particularly on the aspect of merchandising of the product which is one hundred meters

from any point of the perimeter of the school. Barangay officials themselves would have

to be a role model to their constituents. If possible, they should stop smoking too and focus

their resources to help young individuals to go away from this inappropriate habit.

The Parents.This study would help them analyze the proper way how to rear,

educate, to discipline and shape their sons and daughters to be a better persons in the years

to come. They would be more aware that social support is particularly important to protect

their children from the influence of different kinds of vices like cigarette smoking. That

they can also participate in personal counseling and other services of the community or

barangay and could possibly counter the problem. Parents would realize that they need not

only to provide the basic necessities of their children but rather to help them understand

the things they need to avoid in order to be successful in life.

The Young Smokers.Young people are important because they are the hope of the

nation. They are to be guided to be responsible citizen of the country. These young smokers

would be more knowledgeable that cigarette smoking should be avoided because it will not
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help them to achieve their dreams. This would make them realize the effect of cigarette

smoking and would come to value that health is wealth.

The Researchers.They would be more aware about the conceptualization of the

young people about cigarette smoking. Future studies may consider interventions to stop

or lessen smoking and smoking addiction.

Definition of Terms

In order to understand the study, different terms were defined operationally and

conceptually:

Addiction - This refers to a persistent compulsive use of a substance known by the

user to be harmful.

Brands of cigarettes- This refers to the name of cigarettes manufactured by the

tobacco companies that was sold by the retailers to the smoker.

Cigarettes – This refers to a slender roll of cut tobacco enclosed in paper and meant

to be smoked.

Extent of cigarette smoking- This refers to the level of smoking habits of the

respondents.

Habitual Smoker- This refers to a smoker who cannot start the day without a

cigarette and is not at peace unless cigarettes are available. This person must make a strong

effort to quit.

Heavy Smoker- This refers to a smoker that may sleep poorly and have to get up

at night to smoke because of nicotine withdrawal.

Perception – This refers to the awareness or understanding of one person to

something.
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Pleasure Smoker- This refers to a person who likes the taste, the lift, and the

relaxation provided by cigarettes. This kind of smoker has not yet taken enough nicotine

to cause dependence.

Smoking Addiction- This refers to the extreme nicotine dependence and cigarette

consumption.

Smoking – This refers to the inhalation and exhalation of fumes from burning

tobacco in cigarettes.

Understanding – This refers to the capacity to apprehend general relations of

particulars.

Youth – This refers to the considerable sector of the population of the Philippines

from the age of fifteen (15) to thirty (30) years in accordance to the definition of the youth

by the R.A 8044 also known as the Youth in Nation Building Act of 1994.