ADJECTIVUL Gradele de comparatie 1) pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba 2) comparativ - de inferioritate (2.1.) - de egalitate (2.2.) - de superioritate (2.3.) - relativ (3.1.) - absolut (3.2.


3) superlativ

2.1. Comparativ de inferioritate pt adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din: not so/not as + adj + as Ex: This room is not so big as the bedroom. sau This room is not as big as the bedroom. pt adj lungi se formeaza: less + adj + than Ex: The chair is less comfortable than the bed. 2.2. Comparativ de egalitate Atat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi: as + adj + as Ex: The bed is as good as the chair. Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia: the same + subst + as ! as si nu like !!! Ex: This room is the same size as the other one. Schimbare de valoare gramaticala Adjectiv big, small long, short broad, narrow wide, narrow high, low deep, shallow heavy, light strong, weak Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate: Substantiv size (masura) length (lungime) breadth (largime pt ceva concret) width (largime pt ceva abstract) height (inaltime) depth (adancime) weight (greutate) strength (putere)……..etc.

as brave as a lion as blind as a bat as black as coal as busy as a bee as cool as a cucumber as clear as daylight as dry as a bone as easy as ABC as fresh as a daisy as hairy as a gorilla as mad as a hatter (palarier) as poor as a church-mouse as silent as a grave as wise as Solomon as soft as silk as smooth as grass as gentle as a lamb…….etc. 2.3. Comparativul de superioritate - pt adj scurte adj + er + than Modificari ortografice: 1) daca adj se termina in “e”, se adauga doar “r” Ex: nice – nicer 2) daca adj se termina in “y” precedat de consoana, se transforma “y” in “ier” Ex: pretty – prettier Exceptii: shy – shyer sly – slyer wry – wryer (stramb) 3) daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finala Ex: big – bigger - pt adj lungi more + adj + than Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie. Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de “to” si nu de “than” Ex: He is superior to me. 3.1. Superlativul relativ the + adj +est Ex: large – the largest silly – the silliest Modificarile ortografice sunt la fel. Pentru adj lungi:

the most+ adj Ex: This is the most expensive thing. ! dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile “of” sau “in” Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group. ! daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul: the + comparativ Ex: Between you and me, I am the older. 3.2. Superlativul absolut very + adj very poate fi inlocuit cu:

extremely exceptionally tremendously awfully

! nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete, proper, perfect, marvelous, maximum, minimum). Altele au sufixe si prefixe: extra – large over – crowded super – fine ultra – short priceless Comparatia neregulata good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst ill – worse – the worst many – more – the most much – more – the most little – less – the least near – nearer – the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul) far – farther – the farthest (in spatiu) far – further – the furthest (in timp) late – later – the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2) Dintre 2, primul este “the former”, nu “the first”. up – upper – the upmost in – inner – the inmost out – outer – the outmost fore – former – the foremost old – older – the oldest old – elder – the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii) Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare) Constructii adjectivale 1) cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ

Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today 2) de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year. 3) din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp Ex: It is warmer and warmer ! pt adj lungi se repeta doar “more” Ex: It is more and more interesting. 4) cu cat mai,… cu atat mai… (the + comparativ …the + comparativ) ! Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul “to be” lipseste: Ex: The more, the better (cu cat mai mare, cu atat mai bine) ! Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. Daca nu apare virgula intre ele atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb. ! Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele expuse) si de cele obiective (imediat langa substantiv). ! Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. Verbul va fi obligatoriu “to be” sau orice alt verb de perceptie care poate fi inlocuit cu “to be”. Ex: I am intelligent He looks happy sau He is happy.

Adjectivul demonstrativ anuleza articolul substantivului invariabil ca forma (M/F) se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ

“this” – aceasta, acesta (singular apropiere) “these” – acestea, acestia (plural apropiere) ambele merg cu “here”. “that” – acela, aceea (singular departare) “those” – acelea, aceia (plural departare) ambele merg cu “there”. ! Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. Deci “that” si “those” se vor cupla cu trecutul. Ex: This book is good. (this = adjectiv, book = substantiv) This is a good book. (this = pronume)

Adjectivul posesiv invariabil ca forma si numar anuleaza articolul substantivului se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina - forme: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their Ex: My book. Adjectivul interogativ -

pozitie initiala in propozitie invariabil ca forma anuleaza articolul determina un substantiv forme: what, which, whose, how much, how many.

Diferenta: what./which Which presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat. Ex: Which boy is your best friend? What nu presupune selectie. Ex: What days of the week do you know? Diferenta how much / how many How much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile. Ex: How much money do you want? How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile. Ex: How many books do you want? Adjectivul relativ pozitie mediana introduce o propozitie secundara invariabil determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul forme: whatever (fara selectie), whichever (selectie din numar limitat), whose (a, al, ai, ale cui).

Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/. Adjectivul nehotarat SOME = unii, niste, vreo, cativa

Utilizare: 1. In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. Ex: I have some money / friends. 2. In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie. Ex: Would you like some coffee? 3. In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv. Ex: Mother, can you give me some money? Aici “some” pp o certitudine comparativ cu “any”. In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la “some”. Ex: Why are there so many people in some restaurants? Aici, cu sau fara “some” propozitia are aceeasi logica, ea nu se refera la “some”, important este “so many”

5. In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ. Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate. Sensul real este: I always buy chocolate when I go home. Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui “certain”. Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best.

ANY Este inlocuitorul lui “some” in: 1. Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi. Ex: Is there any milk left? In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice. Ex: Any book is good for you.

In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly, barely, scarcely (de abia, cu greu, deloc). Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc)

4. In propozitia care contine “if”. (if = incertitudine) Ex: If you find any books, buy them. In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe, perhaps. Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town.

6. In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat. Ex: I haven’t any friends here. NO Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ. Ex: I have no friends here.

EVERY (fara particularizare) Ex: Every day I go to my office. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi) EACH – (cu particularizare) Ex: Each person has a name. (fiecare, particularizare) EITHER – (fiecare din doi) NEITHER – (nici unul din doi) ! Dupa each, every, either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la singular iar acordul cu verbul se face la singular. Expresii cu every si each Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate) Every bit/inch = fiecare bucatica Every right = tot dreptul Every now and than = din cand in cand Every other day = alternativ Every so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand. SUCH (astfel) Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. Ex: I have such friends/information. SUCH A Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. Ex: This is such a man of honor. ALL Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. Ex: All books/information must be used. WHOLE Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. Ex: I like the whole book. ! Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si “whole” si “all” Ex: I’m home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai puternic) THE OTHER Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural. Ex: The other child/children can swim.

Expresia “The other day” = some days ago, cere obligatoriu trecutul. Ex: I was there the other day. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile) OTHER Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural. Ex: Give me other examples. Daca e precedat de “no” poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular. Ex: No other man is as good as you are. ANOTHER + substantiv la singular (different, in addition) Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)? BOTH + substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. doi) Ex: I like both kids -> acordul in plural Both are intelligent. SEVERAL Mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit. + substantiv numarabil la plural. Ex: We spent several days there. MOST = majoritatea + substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. Ex: Most books/information can be read easily. ENOUGH ! Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie mobila. Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy. ! Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el. Ex: He is man enough to understand me.

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