Technology Review

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Technology Review
This is a summary of Wärtsiläs approach to design and technology in the Wärtsilä Vasa 32 engine.

Introduction Design Chemical Characteristics of the Fuel High-Temperature Corrosion Low-Temperature Corrosion Low NOx Combustion Fuel Injection Piston Piston Ring Set Cylinder Liner and Anti-polishing Ring Connecting Rod and Big End Bearings Cylinder Head Crankshaft and Main Bearings Engine Block and Foundation Camshaft Turbocharging System Cooling Systems Lubricating Oil System Automation System Easy Maintenance

4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 19 20 21 22

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Introduction
In the 1970s, the rapid increase in crude oil prices made it highly economical to use heavy fuel in medium-speed diesel engines. Consequently, in 1979 the first new-generation engine was launched - the Wärtsilä Vasa 32 – the real heavy fuel engine. For the first time in history, heavy fuel operation was as safe and simple as diesel oil operation. The Wärtsilä Vasa 32 was the real initiator of the unifuel concept, i.e. the concept of running an engine entirely on heavy fuel from start to stop. Operators quickly understood the financial advantages of choosing the most economical fuel available, and within a decade more than 1,000 Wärtsilä Vasa 32 engines were sold – truly a world record for an engine of this size. Ever since launching the heavy fuel era, the Wärtsilä Vasa 32 has maintained its lead through sustained development. Product development and vast experience have been the keys to the Wärtsilä Vasa 32’s success as the real heavy fuel engine. The latest achievement in this development is the low NOx combustion, which has been applied to all new Vasa 32 engines. In addition, the Vasa 32 is now a true multi-fuel engine as well; gas oil, marine diesel fuel, intermediate fuel, heavy fuel, crude oil and gas – the Vasa 32 allows you total freedom to select the most economical fuel for your specific application.

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Design
Designing a modern diesel engine requires a vast amount of information on the combustion behaviour and chemical characteristics of various fuels. In terms of combustion and component performance, heavy fuel is the most difficult of all fuels. Therefore, the Vasa 32 has been designed to operate smoothly with the toughest fuel types available: those with poor inginition and combustion qualities combined with “aggressive” chemical constituents such as vanadium, sodium and sulphur. The Wärtsilä Vasa 32 engine offers customers the following core values:
n n n n n

The experience of a heavy fuel pioneer Low NOx emission Low operating costs State-of-the-art technology Fuel versatility

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Chemical Characteristics of the Fuel
Vanadium, sodium and sulphur are common chemical constituents of many fuels. When such fuel types are to be used, component temperatures should be optimised in order to avoid excessive wear. This has been a central principle in designing the Vasa 32.

High temperature corrosion

Correct material temperature

Low temperature corrosion

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High-Temperature Corrosion
Metals such as vanadium and sodium are extremely “aggressive” at high temperatures. This phenomenon is called high-temperature corrosion. Fortunately, this can be completely avoided by ensuring that the surface temperatures of engine components remain below a critical level, which is dependent on the melting point of the metals involved (generally less than 430°C/810°F). In the Vasa 32, this means controlling the exhaust valve seat temperature through direct cooling.

Low-Temperature Corrosion
A second consideration is that if temperatures fall too low, the sulphur present may induce low-temperature corrosion, thus damaging the components. Low-temperature corrosion is known to be caused by condensation of sulphuric acid and the presence of acidity on component surfaces. One component typically affected is the cylinder liner, where temperatures must be significantly higher than normal if low-temperature corrosion is to be avoided.

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Low NOx Combustion
To achieve complete combustion three main requirements must be fulfilled: sufficient oxygen supply in the combustion chamber, sufficiently high temperatures and sufficiently small fuel droplets. The higher the temperature and the smaller the fuel droplet, the quicker the fuel will ignite and burn. However, the way it is burnt has a great effect on thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions, particularly NOx formation. Wärtsilä has developed a low NOx combustion process which reduces the NOx level up to 50% without compromising on thermal efficiency. The standard version of the low NOx Vasa 32 can already meet the requirement for NOx level proposed by IMO for ships operating globally. Regional requirements in marine as well and land-based applications might require further reductions and for that purpose Wärtsilä has developed optional NOx control techniques as follows:
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Direct water injection into the combustion space. This method can be used on any kind of fuel and has a potential of 50% NOx reduction. SCR techniques are used on all fuels when 80-90% NOx cleaning is required. Thanks to the low NOx combustion the SCR can be designed very compact and requires a space smaller than a conventional silencer.
Low NOX combustion
Conventional design
Engine maximum firing pressure
Pressure rise induced from combustion

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The low NOx combustion technology is based on the following:
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Cylinder pressure

Low NOx design
Engine maximum firing pressure
Pressure rise induced from combustion

Pressure rise induced from compression

Cylinder pressure

A higher combustion air temperature at injection start that drastically reduces the ignition delay A retarded injection start and shorter injection period that makes combustion take place at the optimal point with respect to efficiency Improved fuel atomization Modified combustion space for improved mixing

Pressure rise induced from compression

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-90 -60 -30

0 30 TDC

60

90

120

-90 -60 -30

0 30 TDC

60

90

120

IMO global marine NOX legislation
NO X emissions, weighted (g/kWh)
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Vasa 32 Low NOx combustion

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Rated engine speed (rpm)

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Fuel Injection
Wärtsilä has developed a special monoblock injection pump to withstand the high pressures involved in fuel injection. This assures good atomization of the fuel and allows for the short injection period necessary in the low NOx combustion concept. The pump is equipped with a constant-pressure relief valve system, which makes it possible to avoid cavitation at low load and secondary injection at higher loads. The plunger also has an anti-cavitation helix geometry. The fuel injection nozzle has rounded inner edges on the nozzle holes. This optimal hydraulic shape counteracts the erosion/cavitation phenomena seen in conventional nozzles. This design has resulted in outstanding nozzle performance. The plunger is equipped with wear-resistant coating and a teflon ring to minimize lacquer build up.

Conventional injection
Injection pressure Injection pressure

Low NOx injection

-20

-10

0 TDC

10

20

30 °CA

-20

-10

0 TDC

10

20

30 °CA

Needle lift

-20

-10

0 TDC

10

20

30 °CA

Needle lift
-20

-10

0 TDC

10

20

30 °CA

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Piston
Pistons are of the low-friction, composite type with steel top and nodular cast iron skirt. Based on a track record of more than ten years, this is the superior concept for highly rated heavy fuel engines. The design itself is of course tailored for an engine of this size and includes a number of innovative solutions. Experience has shown that nodular cast iron is the best piston material for modern diesel engines which operate with high pressures and temperatures in the combustion chamber. Low friction is obtained by Wärtsilä’s patented skirt lubrication system.

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Piston Ring Set
The two compression rings and the oil control rings are located in the crown. This three-ring concept has proved its efficiency in the Wärtsilä 20 and Wärtsilä 46 engines. In a three-pack every ring is dimensioned and profiled for the task it has to perform. It is also well-known that most of the frictional loss in a reciprocating combustion engine originates from the piston rings. Thus a three-ring pack is considered optimal with respect to both function and efficiency. For maximum wear resistance the top ring features a special wear-resistant coating.

Spec. Cr

Cr Cr

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Cylinder Liner and Anti-polishing Ring
The cylinder liner is designed for minimum deformation thanks to its own stiffness and support from the engine block. It is equally important to adjust the inner wall temperature to a level just above the sulphuric acid dew point. This is obtained by optimized location of 36 vertical cooling water bores in the liner collar. The liner is made of wear-resistant material developed through a dedicated R&D programme lasting several years. To eliminate the risk of bore polishing, the liner is provided with an anti-polishing ring at the upper part. The purpose of this ring is to limit the carbon deposits built up on the piston top land to a thickness small enough to prevent contact between the inner liner wall and the deposits at any position of the piston. This mechanism is the source of the “bore-polishing” which causes local liner wear and increased lube oil consumption.

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Connecting Rod and Big End Bearings
The connecting rod is designed for optimum bearing performance. It’s a three-piece design, where combustion forces are distributed over a maximum bearing area and where the relative movements between mating surfaces are minimized. Piston overhauling is possible without touching the big end bearing and the big end bearing can be inspected without removing the piston. The three-piece design also reduces the piston overhauling height. The big end bearing housing is hydraulically tightened, resulting in a distortion-free bore for the corrosion-resistant precision bearing.

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Cylinder Head
Four-screw cylinder head technology was introduced by Wärtsilä Diesel more than 20 years ago. Especially at cylinder pressures of 200 bar it has proved its superiority when it comes to liner roundness and dynamic behaviour. In addition to easier maintenance and reliability, it provides a lot of freedom in employing the most efficient channel configuration. A distributed water flow pattern is used for proper cooling of the exhaust valves and cylinder head flame plate. This minimizes the thermal stress levels and guarantees a sufficiently low exhaust valve temperature. Exhaust as well as inlet valves are fitted with rotators for even thermal and mechanical load.

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Crankshaft and Main Bearings
The crankshaft is forged in one piece and equipped with separately mounted counterweights on every crankweb providing high balancing level. The main bearings are of precision type with corrosion resistant bearing materials, which withstand the corrosive environment existing in heavy fuel engines.

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Engine Block and Foundation
The engine block is cast in one piece with an integrated air receiver; it features increased rigidity, simplicity and cleanness. The engine has an underslung crankshaft. This design renders the engine block very stiff, providing excellent conditions for main bearing performance. For special applications, the engine block can be installed directly on resilient mountings. A stiff engine block is a prerequisite for this type of installation.

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Camshaft
The camshaft is built of single cylinder sections with integrated cams. The cam lobes are of a harmonic design, featuring soft acceleration changes and vibration-free performance of the tappet roller.

Turbocharging System
The output range of the Vasa 32 is attractive for a wide range of application types, each having their specific requirements for load response, low load or high load operational capability and thermal efficiency. For this reason the Vasa 32 is fitted with an application-optimized turbocharging system. This means pulse charging for most marine applications and emergency gensets. SPEX is suitable for base load power plant applications operating on high load. For increased waste heat recovery from the charge air there is a two-stage cooler fitted. The turbocharger is equipped with water cleaning devices for in-operation cleaning of both the turbine and the compressor side.
3-PULSE

SPEX

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Cooling Systems
Correct cylinder temperatures are as important for complete combustion as good fuel atomization. Low compression temperatures are critical, especially at low loads. For this reason Wärtsilä Vasa 32 engines operating over a wide load range are equipped with a load-dependent cooling water system. The charge air is heated at low loads for optimal combustion and cooled at high loads for the highest fuel efficiency. The system is totally automatic, with a dual-setting thermostatic valve which controls the cooling of the charge air and lubricating oil at high loads. At low loads, the cooling water is recirculated so that the charge air is preheated with the waste heat from the lube oil cooling system. The engine can be equipped with mounted-on pumps for both low temperature and high temperature cooling systems.

Engine

62–70 °C 73–80 °C

Charge air cooler

Lube oil cooler

35–45 °C 65–70 °C

Exp. 0.7–1.5 bar

LTC central cooler

93–97 °C

Exp. 0.7–1.5 bar

HTC central cooler

Engine Preheater

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Lubricating Oil System
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The Vasa 32 can be equipped with either a dry or wet oil sump. The oil pump can be either engine-driven or electrically driven The oil is filtered through a full flow paper cartridge filter which can be mounted on the in-line engines. Automatic luboil filter is available as an option. A centrifugal filter is mounted in by-pass, thereby acting as an indicator for excessive dirt in the lube oil. For the purpose of running in, provision has been made for mounting special running-in filters in front of each main bearing.

n n

n

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Automation System
The Vasa 32 is normally equipped with a conventional control system for start, stop, alarm, shutdown speed control and monitoring. For customers who want to make use of the latest automation technology the advanced automation system WECS with provision for direct bus connection can be supplied. WECS has been exclusively developed for use with diesel engines. The hardware is designed for extreme operating environments and the system consists entirely of engine mounted computers. The principal features of WECS are as follows:
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Instrumentation for local reading of engine and turbocharger speed, exhaust gas temperatures and other temperatures and pressures. A distributed computer system for signal processing of all monitoring and alarm sensors. A safety system for start, stop, automatic shutdown and start-up interruption. Data communication with external monitoring/alarm system.

n

n

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Sensors
Connected to SMU or DCU

Control Cabinet
MCU - Main Control Unit RM - Relay Module

Modbus RTU
To external systems

SMU
Sensor Multiplexing Unit

CAN bus
For internal communication

DCU
Distributed Control Unit

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Easy Maintenance
For ease of maintenance, the engine block has large openings to the crank case and to the camshaft. All bolts requiring high tension are hydraulically tightened, and hydraulics are extensively used for many other operations as well. Since the main bearing caps are relatively heavy, each bearing cap is equipped with a permanently fitted hydraulic jack for easy manoeuvring of the cap. The complete assembly is built around the lube oil feed pipe. During delivery test runs, a running-in filter is installed to prevent the bearings from being scratched by any particles left in the piping system. To facilitate servicing, all fuel pipes are left free of insulating material. Instead, all fuel-carrying equipment is placed in an insulated, covered space known as a “hot box”. This drained space is an excellent fire protection precaution.
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The exhaust system is surrounded by an insulating box resiliently mounted to prevent any harmful vibration that might affect the insulating material. Easy access to the piping system is obtained by removing the insulating panels. The camshaft is built of identical cylinder segments bolted to intermediate bearing pieces. The segments are removed sideways, thus simplifying camshaft overhauls and eliminating the usual need for axial space for camshaft overhaul. A wide range of special tools and measuring equipment specifically designed to facilitate service work are also available.

n

n

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Main Technical Data
Cylinder bore Piston stroke Speed Mean effective pressure Piston speed Fuel specification: Fuel oil 7 200 sRI/100°F ISO 8217, category ISO-F-RMK 55 Natural gas 320 mm 350 mm 720 - 750 rpm 24.0 - 21.3 bar 8.4 - 8.75 m/s 730 cSt/50°C

Rated power: Propulsion engines
Engine type 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32 12V32 16V32 18V32 *D rating at 720 rpm 750 rpm kW BHP kW BHP 2 040 1 500 2 010 1 480 3 060 2 250 3 020 2 220 4 080 3 000 4 030 2 960 4 590 3 375 4 530 3 330 6 120 4 500 6 040 4 440 8 160 6 000 8 050 5 920 9 180 6 750 9 060 6 660 E rating at 720 rpm 750 rpm kW BHP kW BHP 2 230 1 640 2 200 1 620 3 350 2 460 3 300 2 430 4 460 3 280 4 410 3 240 5 020 3 690 4 960 3 645 6 690 4 920 6 610 4 860 8 920 6 560 8 810 6 480 10 040 7 380 9 910 7 290

*Available for Gas-Diesel

Principal engine dimensions (mm) and weights (tonnes)
Engine type 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32 12V32 16V32 18V32 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32 12V32 16V32 18V32 A* 4 788 5 919 6 612 6 941 6 323 7 518 8 070 H 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 A 3 945 5 083 6 113 6 603 5 686 6 860 7 420 I 950 950 950 950 1 200 1 200 1 200 B 2 259 2 345 2 712 2 736 2 571 2 851 2 881 K 1 350 1 350 1 350 1 350 1 600 1 600 1 600 C 1 981 1 993 2 034 2 034 2 310 2 585 2 585 M 1 089 1 050 1 142 1 142 1 206 1 257 1 257 D 2 550 2 550 2 550 2 550 2 330 2 330 2 330 N 1 312 1 340 1 053 1 031 1 475 1 545 1 545 E 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 O 900 900 900 G 2 570 3 550 4 530 5 020 3 970 5 090 5 650 Weight 20.3 29.2 40.5 44.4 42.5 58.0 61.4

*Turbocharger at flywheel end Weights with liquids (wet sump) but without flywheel.

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Rated power: Auxiliary engines
Engine type 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32 12V32 16V32 18V32 E rating (max.) at 720 rpm/60 Hz 750 rpm/50 Hz Eng. kW Gen. kW Eng. kW Gen. kW 1 570 1 640 1 560 1 620 2 360 2 460 2 330 2 430 3 150 3 280 3 110 3 240 3 540 3 690 3 500 3 645 4 720 4 920 4 670 4 860 6 300 6 560 6 220 6 480 7 090 7 380 7 000 7 290

Principal genset dimensions (mm) and weights (tonnes)
Engine type 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32 12V32 16V32 18V32 Length 6 833 8 602 10 479 10 625 10 041 10 893 11 593 Width 2 140 2 290 2 890 2 890 3 060 3 060 3 060 Height 3 679 3 765 4 332 4 356 4 263 4 543 4 573 Weight 36 49 67 75 82 100 105

The alternator outputs are calculated for an efficiency of 96 %.

A* N

C M N

A* O

C M

D

B

D

B

E F H G A I K H G A

E I K

F

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Wärtsilä Corporation is the leading global ship power supplier and a major provider of solutions for decentralized power generation and of supporting services.

In addition Wärtsilä operates a Nordic engineering steel company and manages substantial share holdings to support the development of its core business.

Wärtsilä Finland Oy P.O.Box 252, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland

Tel. +358 10 709 0000 Fax Marine Engines +358 6 356 7188 Fax Power Plants +358 6 356 9133

W0106E / Bock´s Office / Fram

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