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com ISSN: 2394 - 6636


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
VOL : 13, January, 2016

IMPACT OF GREEN MARKETING ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR


MS. NEHAMAHAJAN
Assistant Professor in Management, S.D.P College For Women, Ludhiana
ABSTRACT
Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental
benefits. Green marketing activities are increasing globally, and have had an important influence on
increasing consumer knowledge and in shifting consumers’ attitude towards purchasing green products.
In recent years, Green marketing has concentrated on various eco labeling, eco branding and
environmental advertising strategies. The main objective of this study was to measure the impact of
these marketing tools on consumer buying behaviour. A survey was undertaken and questionnaire was
used to collect the data from 100 respondents of Chandigarh UT. Linear Regression Technique depicted
the results using SPSS. Results showed that consumers easily recognized the eco labels and they trusted
on eco brands when they made a purchase. Further no significant impact on environmental
advertisements was found on the consumer buying behaviour.
Keywords: Green marketing, consumer buying behaviour, eco labeling, eco branding, environmental
advertising.
INTRODUCTION
Environmental marketing, more popularly known as green marketing or sustainable marketing can be
defined as the effort by a company to design, promote, price and distribute products in a manner which
promotes environmental protection (Polonsky, 2011). Green marketing has been defined as 'all activities
designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants such that the
satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural
environment' by Polonsky (2011).
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Green marketing, also alternatively known as environmental marketing and sustainable marketing, refers
to an organization’s efforts at designing, promoting, pricing and distributing products that will not harm
the environment (Pride and Ferrell 1993). Polonsky (1994) defined green marketing as all activities
designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that
the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural
environment.
Stanton and Futrell (1987) defined green or environmental marketing as actions intended to replace
current needs and wants with minimal harmful impact on our environment. Ginsberg and Bloom (2004)
claimed that there was not any single marketing tool that would be appropriate for all firms. Rather,
strategies should be different based on different markets and the degree of consumer concern on the
environment. Three green marketing tools are considered in this study as enhancements to a consumer’s
knowledge about environmental friendly products. Currently, these tools are also used to help
consumers distinguish between green products and conventional products. These tools include eco-
brand, eco-label and environmental advertisement.
ECO LABEL
Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC) introduced electricity eco labeling in 1996, suggested
that companies could create competitive advantage if they use innovations related to environmental
sustainability rather than simply comply with the government regulations (D’Souza et.al. 2006).
Environmental labels make ease consumer to identify the product is environmentally friendly eco-label

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www.eminencejournal.com ISSN: 2394 - 6636
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
VOL : 13, January, 2016

is positively correlated with consumer willingness to purchase. Leire and Thidel (2005) indicated that
eco-label did not motivate consume to purchase green product Significant influence of eco-labeled
information on recycling behavior. Sammer and Wustenhagen (2006) communicated brand image
between buyer and sellers and consumer made purchase decision with less effort and time. Bleda and
Valente (2008) investigated eco-labelling as a green marketing tool was not effective under certain
conditions.
ECO BRANDS
Eco-brand is a name, symbol or design of products that are harmless to the environment. Utilizing eco-
brands features can help to consumers differentiate them in some way from other non-green products.
The significant factor motivating consumers to change actual purchase behavior to buy eco-
friendlyproducts is emotional brand benefits. Hartmann et al, (2005) listed different types of emotional
brandbenefits as: a feeling of well-being, auto-expression benefits through the socially visible
consumptionand nature-related benefits.
Knowing about consumers’ brand purchase decisions is very important for marketers and market
researchers. This effect is known as brand equity. Brand equity can be defined as data that has different
effects on consumer response to the marketing. Green brands that generally focus on the environment
should be used to highlight the status of green products, in a similar way to non-green products (Aker,
1992).
ENVIRONMENTAL ADVERTISEMENT
Green advertisements influence consumers’ purchase behavior by encouraging them to buy products that
do not harm the environment and to direct their attention to the positive consequences of their purchase
behavior, for themselves as well as the environment. Now a day’s most organizations have chosen
environmental advertisements through media or newspapers as green techniques for introducing their
products to environmentally responsible consumers. According to Baldwin (1993), environmental
advertisements helped to form a consumer’s values and translate these values into the purchase of green
products.
CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR
The field of consumer behavior covers a lot of different areas. Antonieset. al. (1998) defined consumer
behavior as studies concerning attitudes, intentions and decision processes in order to explain and
predict behavior. They defined attitude as an individual particular trait. Individual behaved and saw the
world according to his own preset favorable or unfavorable manner? Ottman (1993) defined green
consumer as those actively seek and support those products satisfy their needs that were having less
impact on environment. When a consumer has choice to buy from two identical products, the consumer
will prefer to buy environmentally friendly product. Kreidler et.al. (2009) suggested that there was no
‘significant relation between gender and green behavior .However in turn research of Mainieri et.al.
(1997) founded that women were generally more environmentally conscious and willing to buy green
products.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study was to measure the impact of green marketing on consumer buying
behaviour. For this purpose, three green marketing tools such as eco-brand, eco-label and environmental
advertisement were considered in this study as enhancements to a consumer’s knowledge about
environmental friendly products (Rahbar and Wahid, 2011).

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www.eminencejournal.com ISSN: 2394 - 6636
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
VOL : 13, January, 2016

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Scope of the Study
The theoretical scope of the study is limited to green marketing tools such as eco labels, eco brands and
environmental advertisements and consumer buying behaviour. The geographical scope of the study is
limited to Chandigarh (UT).
Research design
For the purpose of the present study, descriptive research design is used.
Sampling technique and sample size
For the purpose of data collection, convenience sampling technique was used to collect the data from
100 respondents of Chandigarh (UT) but only 82 responses came out to be relevant to the study.
Research instruments
Structured questionnaire is used to get the responses of the respondents regarding eco labels, eco brands
and environmental advertisements.
Reliability of scale
Reliability of each scale was checked using Cronbach’s alpha. Value of Cronbach’s alpha showed
reliability at 0.90, 0.91, 0.90 and 0.85.
Statistical tools for analysis
Descriptive and inferential tools were applied to analyze the data to comply with the objective.
Descriptive statistics like percentage and frequencies were used and inferential statistics like regression
analysis technique using SPSS 16.0 was used.
EMPIRICAL FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
The targeted participants for the study were those consumers who had purchased environment friendly
products. To conduct the study 100 questionnaires were distributed to the people of different gender,
education and occupational status.
Frequency Analysis of Demographic information
Frequency table on the basis of gender

Gender
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid male 40 40.0 40.0 40.0
female 60 60.0 60.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0
Frequency table on the basis of education
Education
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid undergraduate 38 38.0 38.0 38.0
graduate 25 25.0 25.0 63.0
postgraduate 23 23.0 23.0 86.0
doctorate 12 12.0 12.0 98.0
others 2 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

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www.eminencejournal.com ISSN: 2394 - 6636
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
VOL : 13, January, 2016

Frequency table on the basis of occupation


Occupation
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid student 51 51.0 51.0 51.0
working 21 21.0 21.0 72.0
self employed 14 14.0 14.0 86.0
housewife 10 10.0 10.0 96.0
others 4 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0
HYPOTHESES TESTING AND RESULTS
H01: A significant and positive relationship exists between eco labels and customer’s actual buying
behaviour.
To check this hypothesis Linear Regression method was used. Regression analysis was performed on
three factors of eco labels viz. awareness of eco labels, eco labels are recognizable and trust on eco
labels. Tables below show the results after regression:
Model Summary
Std. Error of the
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Estimate
a
1 .552 .304 .283 .666
a. Predictors: (Constant), trust on eco labels, eco lables are recognizable, aware of eco labels

ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 18.617 3 6.206 14.003 .000a
Residual 42.543 96 .443
Total 61.160 99
a. Predictors: (Constant), trust on eco labels, eco lables are recognizable, aware of eco labels
b. Dependent Variable: eco lables help in identification

Coefficientsa
Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients
Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 (Constant) 2.484 .231 10.763 .000
aware of eco labels -.042 .119 -.058 -.350 .727
eco labels are recognizable .377 .111 .545 3.412 .001
trust on eco labels .052 .093 .074 .559 .577
a. Dependent Variable: eco lables help in identification
Results showed that the values are significant at 0.05 values for only one factors viz. eco labels are
recognizable (.001). Hence, the hypothesis (H01) is partially accepted for this factor and rejected for
other two factors viz. awareness of eco labels and trust on eco labels.
H02: A significant and positive relationship exists between eco brands and customer’s actual
buying behaviour.

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www.eminencejournal.com ISSN: 2394 - 6636
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
VOL : 13, January, 2016

To check this hypothesis Linear Regression method was used. Regression analysis was performed on
three factors of eco brands viz. awareness of eco brands, eco brand is symbol of product reliability and
trust on eco brands. Tables below show the results after regression:

Model Summary
Std. Error of the
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Estimate
1 .690a .476 .460 .592
a. Predictors: (Constant), trust on eco brands, aware of eco brands, eco brand
is symbol of product reliability

ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 30.576 3 10.192 29.109 .000a
Residual 33.614 96 .350
Total 64.190 99
a. Predictors: (Constant), trust on eco brands, aware of eco brands, eco brand is symbol of product
reliability
b. Dependent Variable: eco brands help in defferentaition

Coefficientsa
Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients
Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 (Constant) 1.681 .236 7.128 .000
aware of eco brands .157 .094 .181 1.667 .099
eco brand is symbol of product
.060 .126 .081 .474 .637
reliability
trust on eco brands .340 .128 .473 2.664 .009
a. Dependent Variable: eco brands help in defferentaition
Results showed that the values are significant at 0.05 values for only one factors viz. trust on eco brands
(.009). Hence, the hypothesis (H02) is partially accepted for this factor and rejected for other two factors
viz. awareness of eco brands and eco brand is a symbol of product reliability.
H03: A significant and positive relationship exists between environmental advertisement and
customer’s actual buying behaviour.
To check this hypothesis Linear Regression method was used. Regression analysis was performed on
three factors of environmental advertisement viz. eco advertisement enhance my knowledge; enjoy
watching eco advertisement and eco advertisement guide in purchase decision. Tables below show the
results after regression:
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .573a .329 .308 .625
a. Predictors: (Constant), eco adv guides in purchase decision, enjoy watching eco adv, adv enhance my
knowledge

ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 18.343 3 6.114 15.674 .000a

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www.eminencejournal.com ISSN: 2394 - 6636
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
VOL : 13, January, 2016

Residual 37.447 96 .390


Total 55.790 99
a. Predictors: (Constant), eco adv guides in purchase decision, enjoy watching eco adv, adv enhance my
knowledge
b. Dependent Variable: eco adv help in purchase decision

Coefficientsa
Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients
Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 (Constant) .994 .427 2.329 .022
adv enhance my knowledge .209 .152 .191 1.373 .173
enjoy watching eco adv .233 .118 .218 1.968 .052
eco adv guides in purchase
.269 .141 .245 1.901 .060
decision
a. Dependent Variable: eco adv help in purchase decision
Results showed that no value was significant at 0.05 values. Hence H03 is rejected.
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
This study was conducted to find the impact of green marketing on consumer buying behaviour. For this
green marketing tools such as eco labels, eco brand and environmental advertisement were taken to
measure the impact. Results had shown that the consumers were aware of the eco friendly products and
nearly half of the responses agreed on the fact that eco friendly products are important in order to
safeguard the environment. Moreover, one third of the consumers considered eco friendly products
while purchasing.
An investigation on the coefficients of each dimensions of green marketing tool showed eco-labels and
trust in eco-label as the positively significant variable related to actual purchase behavior. It showed that
eco-branded products had been commercially successful due to its positive public image, which led
consumers to purchase and causing the growth to brand loyalty. Result findings showed that eco labels
on green products were recognizable to the consumers and they could easily identified green products
when they made a purchase but they doubted the trustworthiness of those labels. Further, while making
purchase, consumers had trusted on eco brands that helped them in differentiation with other non eco
friendly products. Environmental advertisement was also another dimension of green marketing tool that
was not significant with purchase behavior. The environmental advertisements demonstrated that a
majority of the respondents believed environmental advertisement enhanced their knowledge on green
products and they also considered green advertisement guided consumers into making an informed
purchasing decision. However their belief had no influence on their purchase behavior concerning
buying green products.
LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
While conducting this research, certain limitations were identified, with some suggestions for future
studies; it may provide helpful insight to be considered in generating a new framework. First, this
study was limited to consumers of Chandigarh UT and did not cover other geographical setting. In
future studies, it would be ideal to consider large geographical area. Secondly, this study is conducted on
general eco-brands. As such, future studies could focus on a specific eco-brand for a better
understanding by respondents. Additionally, choosing a specific eco-brand can provide respondents with

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www.eminencejournal.com ISSN: 2394 - 6636
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
VOL : 13, January, 2016

the opportunity to compare eco-branded and the non eco-branded products thus generating a more
reliable response.
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