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Perubahan kata kerja yang dipengaruhi oleh keterangan waktu.

E.g :

 I eat rice every day

 Tommorow, I will eat rice
 Now, I am eating rice
 I ate rice yesterday

Verb (Kata Kerja) : Kata yang menyatakan keadaan/aktivitas.

Berdasarkan kedudukan:
1. Ordinari ;
 Kata kerja utama
 Harus ada
 Paling kanan / belakang
2. Auxiliary ;
 Kata kerja bantu
 Tidak harus ada
 Kalaupun ada, minimal 1, maximal 3
Auxiliary terbagi menjadi dua:
1. Primary:
 Be ;
 is/am/are (V1)
 was/were (V2)
 Been (V3)
 Being (Ving)
 Modal ;
Can, could, should, shall, must, will, etc
E.g :
They will be in your room
S V Adv
Will (auxiliary)
Be (primary)
 Verb : S .............. adjective, noun adverb
 E.g: Ari is reading his book

Jenis Kalimat
 Verbal : Ordinarinya bukan anggota “Be”
 Nominal : Ordinarinya berupa anggota “Be”
E.g :

 Andi was here (Nominal)


 They did not sleep at all last night

S V(aux) adv V(ord) adv adv

I } (am, was, do, have)

They (are, were, do, have)

She (is, was, does, has) / disebut verbnya suka “s”
It & Benda yang satu
E.g :

 They develop/develops their invention

 She walk/walks around
 You have/has dug a deep hole
 My brothers was/were singing
 The girl with he/him always fliht/fights
 Any was/were so proud

*Jawaban yang berwarna hijau adalah benar

 The girl with he/him always fliht/fights

1. “Him” dipilih karena menandakan object ( setelah preposisi / “with” tidak
boleh diikuti subject / “He”).
2. “Flights” dipilih karena subject yang terhitung hanya dibelakang preposisi
(the girl) / kalimat yang ada setelah preposisi tidak dianggap subject.

Ciri-ciri tenses

 Present : V1 / Vai / additional infinitive (Verb yg ditambah “s/es”)

 Past : V2
 Perfect : Have V3
 Future : Will Vbi (Bare infinitive/murni)
 Continous : Be Ving
 Nominal : Be Cs (Complement of subject)
 Pasive : Be V3

Tabel 16 Tenses

(Simple) Present (Simple) Past (Simple) Future Past future

 Continuous  continuous  continuous  continuous
 Perfect  Perfect  Perfect  Perfect
 Perfect  Perfect  Perfect  Perfect
continuous continuous continuous continuous

Note: nama “simple” yang ada di dalam kurung akan hilang jika sudah bergabung
dengan nama tenses di bawahnya.

E.g : Present continuous, past continuous, future continuous, dst.

Contoh dalam merubah bentuk kalimat:

1. The girl taught english in my school (simple past)


 Present perfect continuous

V1 s/es Have V3 Be Ving

Have/has been Ving (*rumus paling belakang tidak berubah)

= The girl has been teaching English in my school

 Simple present
V1 s/es
= The girl teach / teaches English in my school
*Karena “the girl” adalah benda yang satu (suka “s”)

 Future continuous
Will Be

Will be

= The girl will be teaching in my school

2. Joan is cooking in the kitchen (Present continuous)
aux ord
 Simple past
= Joan cooked in the kitchen

 Simple future
Will Vbi
= Joan will cook in the kitchen

 Future perfect continuous

Will Vbi have V3 be Ving
= Joan will have been cooking in the kitchen

 Past future perfect

V2 will Vbi have V3
= Joan would have cooked in the kitchen

 Past perfect
V2 have V3
= Joan had cooked in the kitchen

3. Jhon is a doctor (Simple Present) = Kalimat nominal

***Tidak ada continuous dalam kalimat nominal

 Present continuous
V1 s/es
= Jhon is a doctor

 Present perfect
V1 s/es have V3
= Jhon have/has been a docter

 Future continuous
= Jhon will be a doctor


 Have/has (V1) – Had (V2)

 Will/shall (V1) – whould/should (V2)
*Will (bisa digunakan pada subject apapun)
*Shall (hanya bisa digunakan pada subject “ I & We”)

Pola Kalimat

(+) Sesuai ciri-ciri tenses

(-) Harus ada “NOT”
Letakkan NOT setelah auxiliary pertama pada kalimat Verbal, dan
setelah verb ordinari pada kalimat nominal.

 S. Present : Do/does Not

Kalimat verbal
 S. Past : Did Not

(?) * Auxiliary (pertama) dulu, baru kemudian subject

* Jangan lupa “?” (question word)

 S. Present : Do/does S ________

 S. Past : Did S ________

(-?) Dalam aturan formal, NOT diletakkan setelah subject.

 Do you not remember me?
Aux s (-) ord o
 Don’t you remember me?
Aux s ord o

E.g :

(+) Her classmates sweep the schoolyard.

(-) Her classmates not sweep the schoolyard.

(?) Do her classmates sweep the schoolyard?

(-?) Do her classmates not sweep the schoolyard?

Contoh pembuatan kalimat tanya dalam perubahan tenses:

 They are reading grammar book

 Future perfect continuous (+)

Will have V3 be
= They will have been reading grammar book

 Past Future Perfect

V2 will have V3
= They would have read grammar book

 Simple present (-)
= They do not read grammar book
S aux (-) ord O

 Past perfect (-?)

V2 have V3
= Had they not read grammar book?
= Hadn’t they read grammar book?


 Would + not = Wouldn’t

 Will + not = Won’t
 Has + not = Hadn’t
 Was + not = Tidak boleh disingkat jadi wasn’t

Passive Voice: Be + V3 by ____

Syarat-sayarat kalimat yang bisa dipasifkan:

1. Verb harus transitive (verb yang membutuhkan object)

2. S O
Active Passive
3. Tidak ada continuous dalam passive kecuali Present Cont. dan Past Cont.
4. Kalimat nominal tidak bisa di pasifkan = Nominal (X)

E.g :

 She is calling me (Present Continuous) Passive

V s/es Be Be V3
= I is/am/are being called by her

 George had been closing his mom’s door (Past Perfect Cont.) Passive
V2 have V3 Be V3
= His mom’s door had been closed by George

 They need you ( Simple Present) Passive

V1 s/es Be V3
= You is/am/are needed by them

 Active passive
 I me
 We us
 They Them
 She Her 6
 He Him
Passive Voice Tanpa “By_____ (Agent)”


1. Pelakunya sudah jelas

E.g: The letter was sent by the POS yesterday
*By the POS boleh dihilangkan

2. Pelakunya banyak (people/persons)

E.g: Suramadu Bridge was built by many people several years ago.

3. Pelakunya berupa indifinite pronoun

Someone Somebody Something
No one Nobody Nothing
Everyone Everybody Everything
Anyone Anybody Everything
E.g: Ani’s purse was stolen by someone


1. Yes/No Question
2. Question Tag
3. Information Question (WH-Question)
1. Is she cute?
= Yes/No

(+) She lives in Pare

(-) She doesn’t live in Pare
(?) Does she live in Pare?
= Yes/No
2. She is cute, isn’t she?
aux S (pronooun)
 My father has not talked to you, has he?
(-) (+)
 Rista’s brothers have money balls, don’t they?
 Frank can smile happily now, can’t he?
modal modal
 You must not go home, must you?
 She seldom calls yo, does she?
 Nothing is imposible, isn’t it?
*”Is it” dipakai untuk indefinite pronoun yang berakhiran “thing” dan
“Nothing” sudah bermakna (-) walaupun verbnya (+)

 Nobody is perfect, are they?
*”are” digunakan untuk indefinite pronoun yang berakhiran “body”
 That book is miner, isn’t it?
 Those girls have not come to class, have they?
 Close the door, will you? Modal
 Let’s read it aloud, shall we?
*Aphostrop (‘s) berkmana “Us” karena didahului verb
 Let me know your problem, will you? modal
 He is arrogant, isn’t he?
 I am yours, amn’t/aren’t I?
*Walaupun subject I, dalam question tag (+) digunakan “are + (-/not)”
 I am not drinking soome coffe, am I?
*Subject I dalam question tag (-) maka tetap menggunakan “am”
 She used to speak english, didn’t she?
*Khusus modal ”used to”, menggunakan “did” karena bermakna
 She washed her hands two minutes ago, didn’t she?
V2 aux (past)
 You have to know about it, don’t you?
 They have had dinner, haven’t they?
*”have” adalah auxiliary dari “had” (present perfect)
 He has two sisters, doesn’t he?
 We had joyful tim, we?
 We had written the letters, hadn’t we?
(past perfect)
 Sit down, will u?


 Arti aphostrop (‘s) dalam beberapa penggunaan:

 Menjadi “is” jika bertemu
 Menjadi “is” (passive voice) jika bertemu dengan V3
 Menjadi “has” jika bertemu dengan V3
 Menjadi “is” jika bertemu dengan A.N.A (Adjective, noun, adverb)
 Arti aphostrop (‘d) dalam beberapa penggunaan:
 Menjadi “had” jika bertemu V3
 Menjadi “would” jika bertemu
 To infinitive = To


 Be + CS/Complement of subject (A.N.A)

 Be + CA (Certain Adjective)
 She is here
Adverb as CS
 My brother is kind
Adjective as CS
 My mother is a doctor
Noun Phrase as CS

Non Progresive (Verb yang tidak bisa dicontinuous-kan)

I am studying now (cont.)

Studying is my hobby (Gerund)

I am knowing you know (X) = Salah, *Know adalah Non Progresive

I know you know () = Benar

I have may bikes = Those bikes belong to me

Jenis-jenis kata pertanyaan

 What/who = Subject
 What/whom = Object
 Where = Adv of place
 When = Adv of time
 Why = Adv of reason
 How = Adv of manner
 How long = Adv of duration
 How often/how many time = Adv of frequency
 How many + countable noun plural
How much + uncountable noun
 Whose + noun = possession (kepemilikan)
 Which + noun = adjective

What/who + verb (s) + obj/adv?

*Kalau menanyakan subject langsung lanjut kalimat tanya dengan verbnya.

*Kalau menanyakan subject Pasti menggunakan yang suka “s” kecuali

S.Past maka kita gunakan V2


 Chris and Lena are studying English in the class now.

1 2 3 4
1. Who is studying English in the class no?
2. What are chris and Lena studying in the class now?
3. Where are Chris and Lena studying English now?
4. When are Chris and Lena studying English in the class?

 They went to Malang yesterday

1. Who went to Malang yesterday?
2. When did they go to Malang?

 Two beautiful women water some flowers.

1. Who waters some flowers?
2. What do two beautiful women water?
3. How many (beautiful) women water some flowers?
4. How many flowers do two beautiful women water?
5. Which (two) women water some flowers?
* Man (1) – Men (lbh dari 1)
* Woman (1) – Women (lbh dari 1)

 Andi’s wise father met Jona’s three smart sisters two weeks ago.
1. Who met Jona’s three smart sisters two weeks ago?
2. Whose (wise) father met Jona’s three smart sisters two weeks ago?
3. Which andy’s father met Jona’s three smart sisters two weeks ago?
4. Whom did Andy’s wise father meet two weeks ago?
5. Whose (three smart) sisters did Andy’s wise father meet two weeks
6. Which Jona’s sisters did Andy’s wise father meet two weeks ago?
7. How many Jona’s sisters did Andy’s wise father meet two weeks ago?
8. When did Andy’s wise father meet Jona’s three smart sister
9. How many weeks ago did Andy’s wise father meet Jona’s three smart

Menanyakan Verb

 What are u doing? = Present continuous

 What do you do? = Simple Present
 What did you do? = Simple Past
 What were you doing? = Past Continuous
 What will you do? = Simple Future
 What will you be doing? = Future Continuous
 What would you do? = Past Future
 What have you done? = Present Perfect
 What you have been doing? = Pres. Perf. Con.
 What had you done? = Past Perfect

*Kalau tidak menanyakan subject maka auxiliary (will, do, does, dll) selalu di
depan. E.g: How long will you stay here?

Conditional Sentence (Kalimat Pengandaian)

 Type 1: If S.Present, S. Future (True/Untrue in the future)

 Type 2: If S.Past, Past Future (Untrue in the present)
 Type 3: If Past Perfect, Past future perfect (Untrue in the past)
 Type 0: If S. Present, S. Present (General Truth, Habitual Action)


 If S.Present, S. Future
= If it rains tommorow, I will bring an umberella.
*Fact: Besok belum tentu hujan.
* “It” adl subject bantuan untuk yang belum jelas subjectnya.

 If S.Past, Past Future

= If I was/were Iwan Fals, I would have a lot of fans.
* Fact: Saya bukan Iwan Fals, sehingga saya tidak punya banyak fans.
* Boleh memakai “was”, tapi dalam konteks “informal”. Sedangkan dalam
conditional sentesnce, harus menggunakan “were”.
* Boleh mengganti “would” dengan “could” jika menyatakan kepastian.

 If Past Perfect, Past future perfect

= If you had chosen me, we would have been happy.
* Fact: Kamu tidak pernah memilih aku, sehingga kita tidak bahagia.
* Boleh mengganti “would” dengan “could” jika menyatakan kepastian.

 If S. Present, S. Present
= If it rains, the road get wet. (General Truth)
= If I do not take a nap, I usually get headache. (Habitual Action)

Direct – Indirect Speech

 Direct speech: Mengutip pembicaraan diri sendiri atau orang lain dengan
sama persis, biasanya di tandai dengan tanda petik (“_____”).
 Indirect speech: Mengutip pembicaraan diri sendiri atau orang laindengan
menambahka/mengurangi beberapa kata dari kalimat aslinya.

Cara mengubah kalimat direct menjadi indirect:

 Lihat MC (Main Clause)/kalimat utama. Jika MC;

 Jika S. Past maka akan mengalami perubahan pada tenses (kecuali
kalimat imperative), pronoun, dan adverb (jika ada).
 Jika S. Present, Present Pf, dll Berubah pronoun.
 Perubahan adverb bisa dilihat di modul hal 5.
 Perubahan tenses.
 S. Present S. Past Past Perfect
 Present Continuous Past cont. Past Perfect Continuous
 S. Past Past Perfect
 S. Future Past Perfect Past Future Perfect
 Conjunction
 That : Kalimat +/-
 If/Wheter : Yes/No Question
 Question Word : Information Question (WH – Question)
 To Infinitive/Not To Infinitive : Imperative
 Pola ID :
MC Conj. S V

 Jika ada :
 I, me, my, mine, myself lihat Subject dari MC
 You, you, your, yours, yourself lihat Object dari MC


1. Dani said to me, “your father will not take you home”.
MC (S. Past) S. Future Past Future
ID = Dani said to me that my father would not take me home.
MC Conj. S Verb (Past Future)

2. She told Andy, “I have known the girl in white shirt”.

MC (S. Past) Pres. Perfect Past Perfect
ID = She told Andy that she had known the girl in white shirt.
MC Conj. S Verb (Past Perfect)

3. My mother asked, “Do you review your lesson?

MC (S. Past) S. Pres S. Past

ID = My mother asked me if/whether I reviewed my lesson.
*Kalau tidak ada subject, maka I dkk yang menjadi sbject

4. Tom has asked me, “Will you come to my party tonight?

MC (Pres. Perfect) S. Future
ID = Tom has aked me if/whether I will come to his party tonight.

5. “Frank’s brother have just arrived here”, said Jenifer.

Pres. Pf. Past. Pf. S. Past
ID = Jenifer said that Frank’s brother had just arrived there.

6. Doni says, “We must study hard from now”.

S. Pres. S. Pres.
ID = Doni says that we must study hard from now.

7. My grandfather told, “ Put the table biside my room”

MC (S. Past) Imperative
ID = My grandfather told me to put the table beside his room.

8. Sherly told Tom, “How many brothers and sisters do you have?
MC (S. Past) S. Pres S. Past
ID = Sherly told tom how many brothers and sisters he had.

9. George, can you get your box out of my way?” said Jonna
S. Pres S. Past S. Past
ID = Jonna said if he/George could get his box out of her way.

10. Did you understand about prof. Martin’s lecture yesterday? Jhon has
asked. S. Past Pres. Pf
ID =Jhon asked me if I understand about prof. Martin’s lecture yesterday

11. My parents often tell me, “Don’t judge the book by its cover”
S. Present imperative
ID = My parents often tell me not to judge the book by its cover.
{imperative (-)}


 Kalau sentence setelah MC itu imperative, maka tidak perlu merubah

tensesnya walaupun MC tersebut bertenses S. Past. Lihat contoh soal nomor
7 dan 11.
 Kalau kalimat tanya, maka MC akan berubah pada ID.
Seperti: Said asked
 To Infinitive = To (rumus mutlak)

Time Duration (TD)

 (Perfect) Time Duration:

 Proses (P)
 Result (R)
 Jika tidak ada TD, maka:
 Verbal (R)
 Nominal (P)


 She has eaten meatball. (R)

Pres. Perfect
 She has been eating meatball. (R)
Pres. Pf. Cont.
 They have studied in the class for two hours. (P)
Pres. Pf Time signal
 He has been studying in the class (R)
Pres. Pf. Cont.
 Donita has been sweeping the floor for 5 minutes. (P)
Pres. Pf. Cont. Time signal
 Mr. Jhon taught English in my school for ten years. (R)
S. Past
* “For” menandakan (R) dlm S. Past, dan menandakan (P) dlm Pres. Pf.


 Kalau tidak ada penyeebutan waktu yang jelas maka gunakan Present Pf.
 Kalau ada penyebutan waktu yang jelas maka gunakan S. Past.
 Kalau ada keterangan melakukan sekarang dengan jelas maka kita gunakan
Present Cont.
 He studied in the class 5 minutes ago
S. Past adv of time
 Donita is still sweeping now
Pres. Cont. Adv of time

 Simple Present = Sifatnya kekal. Digunakan pada general truth, habittual

E.g: She is kind = Dia baik
 Present Cont. = Sementara
E.g: She is being kind = Dia pura-pura baik
* Dalam penulisan formal, “present continuous” pada kalimat “nominal” seperti
di atas tidak perlu menambahkan “being”

Teori Tusuk Sate

Past Present Future

Pf Simple Pf Simple Pf Simple

Pf.Cont. Cont. Pf.Cont. Cont. Pf.Cont. Cont.


 Garis setengah menandakan terkadang bisa bermakna sama.

 Garis full menandakan tensisnya tidak bisa bermakna sama.
 Dalam merangkai, urutan perfect selalu lebih dulu daripada simple (dilihat dari
urutan kejadian).


 Kemarin saya mendaftar di Elfast setelah mendapat info dari temanku.

1. Perhatikan waktu
2. Perhatikan urutan kejadian
 Yesterday
Register (2) S.Past
Get info (1) Past. Pf
 Yesterday, I registered at Elfast after I had gotten information from my
 Sebelum saya berangkat kesekolah. Saya biasanya membantu Ibu saya.
1. Waktu
2. Urutan kejadian
 Help my mother (1), Go to school (2)
 Before I go to school, I have helped my mother
I have usually helped my mother
I have been helping
 Sebelum nenek saya akan datang. Saya membelikannya beberapa pisang.
1. Waktu
2. Urutan kejadian
 Before my grandmother will come. I will have bought her some bananas.
(Salah) S. Future Future Pf
*Tidak boleh ketemu dua future di dalam 1 kalimat
 Before my grandmother comes, I will bought her some bananas. (Benar)


 Modal + = Rumus wajib

 Rumus “since”
1. Present Pf since S.Past
2. Since S.Past, Present Pf

Seven Sumaries

 Berurutan
... Perferct (R) – ... simple ... 1
... Simple – ... simple... 2
 Berpotongan
... Perfect (P) – ... simple ... 2
... Cont. – ... simple ... 1 ........
 Bersamaan
... Cont. – ... cont. 1


 “...” diisi dengan tenses sesuai dengan cerita.

 Conjunction yang boleh digunakan:
 After
 Before
 When
 While Cont. = Rumus
 Berurutan:
1. Yerterday, I went to market after I had played football with my new
friend. S.Past Past Pf
2. I went to market after I played football with my new friend.
S. Past S. Past
* after boleh diganti dengan when (selama berada di tengah)

 Berpotongan
1. When I came to Andy’s home, he was eating yesterday.
S. Past Past Cont.
2. When I came to Andy’s house, he had been eating for amost an
hour. S. Past had eaten
Past Pf. (P)

 Bersamaan
1. I am cleaning my house while I am listening to music now
* I am stelah while boleh dihilangkan krna sama
2. My mother was cooking while my brother was cutting the grass in
the yard.


 Kalau ada “by” diikuti future time signal maka sentence

selajutnya harus future pf
E.g: By the time next week she will have finished her work.
 Semua present : tidak wajib menggunakan seven sumaries (kata
 S. Past dan S. Future : Tidak wajib
 Selain dari yang di atas : Wajib menggunakan seven sumaries.


S. Present Present Cont. S. Past Past Cont. Pf/Future

K1 Modal Vbi Can could Tenses
Would/used to Must had to +
Dare dared Vbi SEOM
Be used to Ving Would/used to
K2 Modal Vbi Tenses Tenses
Would K2.5 + +
Would (you) like to inf
/ mind Ving May K2.7
May K2.7 *tdk SEOM
*tdk SEOM Ada Ada
K3 Modal Vbi Tenses
Would rather Ving Modal have V3 Would rather +
have been Ving
Could K3
*tdk SEOM Ada
Modal Vbi Modal be Ving Modal have V3 Modal have
been Ving


You swim

1. Can K2.5 S. Present Can you swim?

2. Would rather past cont. You would rather have been swimming
3. Should K3 present pefect be suppossed to You have been supposed to
swim. have/has V3
4. Must K1 present cont. You must swim
5. Can K4 S. Future (karena ndak ada SEOM)
6. May K2.7 S. Present may you swim
7. Could K3 S. Past You could have swum
8. Would K1 Present Cont. You are used to swimming
9. Used to S. Past You used to swim
10. Need S. Past You need have swum
11. Dare future perfect Dare to : you will have dared to swim
Will have V3
12. Would rather past perfect Prefer to : You had prefered to swim
Had V3

You run

1. Must K4. (Past cont.) You must have been running.

2. Will K2.8. S. (Future) Be willing to : you will be willing to run.
3. Can K4. (Past future)
4. Should K3. (Past future Pf.) Be supposed to : you would have been
supposed to run.
5. May K2.7 (S. Past)
6. Would K2.5 S. (Past) Would you like to run?
7. Need (S. Future) Need : you will need to run
8. Would rather (past perfect) prefer to : you had prefered to run.
9. Must K1 (Fiture Pf.) Be to : you will have been to run.
10. Can K1 (Past Cont.) You could run.
11. Will K2.5 (S. Past) Be allowed to : Were you allowed to run?
12. Could K2.5 (Pres. Cont.) Could you run?
13. Would K3 (Past Cont.) you would to run.
14. Would K1 (Past Pf.) be used to + Ving : you had been used to running
15. Must K1 (S. Past) you had to run.

Mr. Wika

Part of Sentence

Form: adverb Subject adverb Verb Object/adverb/complement

Complement: bisa berupa adjective/noun/adverb (time/place).

 Subject/Object: Noun, proonoun, noun phrase, noun clause, gerund dan to

 Verb:
o Kind;
 Stative
 Dynamic
o Function
 Auxiliary
 Ordinary;
 Nominal
 Verbal;
o Transitive;
 Mono
 Ditran
o Intransitive;
 Complete
 Complete (linking verb)
 Adverb:
o Primary
o Prhase ;
 Adverbial
 Prepositional
 To. Infinitive
o Clause; Adverbial Clause



1. Letter:
 Alphabet
 Phonetic symbol
2. Word
Kind: (part of speech)
3. Phrase
Definition: Rangkaian 2 kata/lebih yang berpola Head dan Modifier

4. Noun prhase
Definition: Rangkaian kata yang Headnya/intinya ada pada noun
Form: Adjective + Noun
Modifier Head
(Penjelas) (Inti)
E.g: New partner, our new partner, the new partner.
Adj/m noun/h\H

Kind of Modifier

1. Adjective murni
2. Adj tidak murni
 Article : A, an, the
 Possesive : My, our, your, my parent, etc.
E.g: Sandy’s book = Bukunya Sandi
My parents’ home = Rumahnya orang tua saya
Note: Jika kalimat yang diakhiri huruf “s” maka tidak boleh
ditambahkan “s” lagi, cukup dengan menambahkan aphostrop
(‘) di akhir kalimatnya.
 Demonstrative: This, that, thes, those
 Quality : Many, much, etc.
Our/the new partner
Adj/M adj/M Noun/H
3. Noun adjective
Definition: Noun as adj (penjelas noun)
E.g: Book store, love story, tooth brush.

Try to translate
1. Sebuah pabrik tas dibangun pada tahun 2007 di kota kecil.
A bag factory was built in 2007 in (the small city)
Adj/m adj/m N/H be V3 prep adj/m adj/m N/H= NP as obj of
2. Teman baruku yang cantik selalu membawa banyak kebahagiaan di kelas
My beautiful new friend always brings much happiness in my new class.

Function of NP

 Subject / object
 Object of preposisi
 Complement of subject
 Dwi and Novi are my friends
S M H = NP as CS (Complement of subject
 Knowing them is my happiness
Gerund V M H = NP as CS
* Gerund adalah Ving yang difungsikan sebagai Noun.

Adjective Phrase

Defiinition : Rangkaian kata yang intinya ada pada adjective.

Function : CS (Complement of subject) dan modifier of noun.

Form : adv of degree + adjective

Modifier Head
Note: adv. of degree: So, very, rather, fairly, pretty, too, enough, etc.

 Mr. Ari is very handsome

adv/m adj/H = adj as CS
 Seorang laki-laki yang sangat baik memberiku sebuah buku yang
cukup bagus beberapa hari yang lalu.
A very kind man give/gives/gave me good enough book several days

Adverbial Phrase
Def : Rangkaian kata yang intinya ada pd adv.
Function : as adverb
Form : adv of fegree + adv of manner
Adv. of manner:

 Word : well, hard, express, etc

 Adj + ly : easy easily, slow slowly


 The footballer can run very fast/fastly

adv/m adv/H = adv phrase as adverb
 I miss you so bad/badly
adv/m adv/H = adv. ph
Note!!! enough bisa menjadi adjective dan adverb (letak harus di belakang)

 Enough money / money enough

Adj Noun
 Enough goog / goof enough
adj/H adv/m

Prepositional Phrase
Definition : Rangkaian kata yang intinya ada pada prep.
Function : as adv
Form : Prep. + Object (kecuali to infinitive)
Head Modifier
Prep : in, at, on, by, with, for, to, about, etc

 I will go to Bali with her by her car after eating

s verb p/H n/M p n/m p n.p/m p G/m
pp pp pp pp

 Sebaiknya kita belajar lebih intensif agar kita bisa lulus ujian dengan
sangat mudah.
We should study more intensive/intensively so that we can pass
adv adv = adv. ph.
the exam very fast.
adv adv = adv. ph
 Kemarin kita belajar tentang phrase
yesterday, we studied about phrase
Adv s v prep/H N/M = PP as adv
 In the class, (my friends and I) also talked about what we will plan
H np/m sbj adv v prep conj. s v = N.clause
in this weekend.
Prep/H adj n = np/M


Verb Phrase
Definition : Rangkaian kata yang intinya ada pada verb.
Form : V.aux + V.ord + (Object/adverb/CS)

 (He) will have been daydreaming in the room

aux/m aux/m aux/m Vord/H p.p as adv/m
 (The girl) looks serious in doing her duty
S Vord/H adj/CS/m prep gerund = PP as adv/m
 (Tria) has just finished reading
Aux/m adv/m Ord/H Gerund as Obj/m
 (We) love you
* Subject yang di dalam kurung tidak dianggap ada kalau dalam bentuk
Dalam sebuah kalimat, boleh terdapat 2/lbh V.ord asalkan ada conjunction
(kata sambung), kalau 2 Vord maka ada 1 conj.


Definition : Rangkaian kata yang berpola minimal (S V) dan diakhiri dengan end
mark. Seperti (.!?)

Form : adv S adv (V.aux) adv V.ord (Obj/adv/CS)


 Anak laki-laki dengan orang tuanya itu selalu mengunjungi tempat ini setiap
akhir pekan.
The boy with his parents always visit/visits this place every weekend.
S prep O
 (You should) study hard!
 (You must) be mature.
 Please, have a seat.

Reviewing about
1. Verb position:
 Auxiliary; Primary, Modal, Emphasis
 Ordinary
2. Kind: Stative dan Dynamic

3. Emphasis: Jenis kata ganti berfungsi memberikan penekanan makna.
 S. Present: S + do/does +
E.g: I do believe in you
She does love me
 S. Past: S + did +
E.g: I did finish the project at the home

4. Stative Verb: memiliki makna kondisi/keadaan, tidak bisa dirubah ke dalam

continuous ( Kalaupun maka akan Berubah makna, Berupa
gerund. Seperti: understand, know, have, look, envy, hear. Etc
* Gerund: as Noun

E.g of gerund:
 Sekalipun memahamimu itu sulit bagiku, tapi aku tetap mencoba
untuk kebahagiaanmu. Karena membahagiakanmu adalah salah
satu satu tujuan hidupku.
Although understanding you is hard for me, but I still try to make you
happy. Because making you happy is one of my life purposes.
 Studying english is my hobby
Gerund as Subj
 My hobby is studying English
Gerund as CS
* Nominal tidak pernah memiliki object
 I went to home after eating
Gerund as obj of prep
* after di sini adalah preposisi. Karena tidak di ikuti subject.
 I went home after I ate the food
* after di sini adalah conjunction. Karena setelahnya di ikuti subject.

Posisi dan Penggunaan Verb

1. V1:
 (additional infinitive)
 (bare infinitive)

Di gunakan dalam S. Present dan S. Future

 S. Present;
 General truth
 Habitual action (+ adv of frequency)
 Immortal / keabadian

 S. Future; Rencan masa depan.
* Will = Be going to


 S. Future : I will cook (*belum persiapan)

I am going to cook (*sudah persiapan)

 Present cont. : I am cooking tonight (*meskipun tensesnya pres. Cont.

Tapi maknanya menyatakan future karena ada time signal tonight yang
belum terjadi).
2. V2
Digunakan pada past tenses (pt)
 Past tenses:
 Sudah terjadi / sudah selesai
 Time signal (yesterday, last,.....ago, etc)
3. V3 (Past Participle)
 Have (ketika maknanya aktif)
 Be (Ketika maknanya pasif)
Digunakan pada perfect.
 Perfect:
 Sudah terjadi
 Time duration;
 Prosess: This..., since..., for
 Risult: Just, already, just now, yet.


 Process : I have eaten for 5 minutes.

 Risult : I have already eaten.
4. (present participle)
Digunakan pada Continuouse.
 At the moment of speaking
 Sementara / temporary
 Rencana / akan datang (Future time signal)
 Bertemu dengan “Be”


 I am cooking tonight
Saya akan memasak malam ini
 I am going to Surabaya tomorrow
Saya akan pergi ke Surabaya besok

5. To infinitive
Dapat berfungsi sebagai subject, object, adverb
 Aku ingin belajar Al Qur’an lagi dan lagi di sisa akhir hidup lagi.
I want to study Al Qur’an more and more in the rest of my life
Ord Obj
 Belajar Al-Qur’an adalah kebahagiaanku
Studying / to study Al-Qur’an is my happiness
G as Subj To Inf. As Subj


Definition : Jenis kata yang digunakan untuk menyatakan sebuah benda yang
terwujud dan tidak.

 Kind:
1. Based on shape
 Concrete Common: Chair, part of body (umum)
Proper*: Yamaha, Ari, Indonesia (sudah memiliki)
 Abstract: Wind, ghost, loyalty, happiness, togetherness, etc.
2. Based on quantity
 Countable Singular: Student, person, etc
Plural: Students, people, etc
 Uncountable* (tidak bisa dihitung)
 Mixed noun

 Penggunaan subject Three (Common)

It (proper)
In the colonial priode ....... America, the contry that made the real
revolution stop.
a. It was b. Thre was c. It was d. There was e. Which it was

 Membedakan antara Countable (C) dan Uncountable (U)

 Countable:
1. Bisa diawali semua article: A, An, The
2. Bisa diawali semua quantity Definite
*Definite: Jumlah yang sifatnya sudah jelas. E.g: 1,2,3, etc.
*Indefinite: Jumlah yg sifatnya belum jelas.
3. Bisa ditambah “s/es” (plural)
 Uncountable:
1. Bisa diawali oleh article “The” saja
2. Hanya indefinite
3. Tidak pernah plural


1. .......... not a single hard surface road during the colonial

a. It was b. There was c. That it was d. That there was

2. ........ 300 people killed by the virus was true

a. It is b. There is c. There was d. It was

e. That there were


 Which Conj. untuk benda

Bisa berarti “yang” atau bahwa
 Kalau dan V3 berdiri sendiri (tidak mengikuti aturan tenses) maka
tidak lagi berfungsi sebagai verb.
E.g: The man killing himself is my friend
The man killed last night is my friend
Kind (C) (U) Kind (C) (U)
A lot of   Several 
Many  A (great) number of 
Much  The (great) number of 
A few  (An) amount of 
A little  A great amount of 
Some   A great deal of 
Any   All  

1. A (great) number of + noun pl. + verb pl. (Plural)

E.g: A great number of studends come late
2. The (great) number of + noun pl. + Verb Sing (Singular)
E.g: The great number of studens is very smart
3. All + noun / all + of + the (Determiner) + noun
E.g: All students / All/most of the students

 Partitive
Definition: Takaran yang digunakan dlm (U)
E.g: - Secangkir teh A cup of tea
- Sepotong kue A piece of cake
- Dua iris roti Two slice of bread (U)
- Tiga tetes air Three drops of water
* Benda padat tidak bisa dihitung

 Kind of (U) noun
4. Benda abstract : Brave, education, etc
5. Benda keras : Paper, money, gold, etc
6. Benda kecil : Rice, sand, dust, sugar, etc
7. Benda cair : Water, oil, bload, etc
8. Benda gas : Pollution, smoke, fog, cloud, etc
9. Kumpulan : Time, jewelry, furniture, etc
10. Gerund : Studying, walking, etc
 Mixed noun
Definition: Kata benda yang bisa kita kategorikan (C) maupun (U)
1. Based on meaning
E.g: Paper, data, etc
- Mr. Ari’s photo is in the front page of many papers.
- Ms. Wirda wrote the note on the paper.
2. Based on modifier
E.g: Cheese, food, etc
- Mr. Areng ccan eat much food (U)
- Mr. Ari can cook many salty foods. (C)


11. A lot of stone has/have been bought by him

(U) V.singular
* Walaupun stone (U) tapi verb harus singular.

Perubuhan Noun

 Irregular noun
E.g: Child, foot
 Berakhiran “ch, sh, x, z, o, s”
E.g: Watch, wish, box, buzz
 Potato, tomato, radio radios, piano pianos
 Berakhiran huruf “F”
E.g: - Leaf Leaves
- Wife Wives
 Berakhiran “Y”
12. Diawali consonant - Diawali vowel
Candy Candies - Toy Toys


Definition : Jenis kata yang berfungsi untuk menjelaskan dan membatasi kata benda
baik dari segi makna/jumlah.

Kind :

1. Descriptive Menjelaskan makna kata benda

2. Limiting Membatasi makna kata benda
 Descriptive
Kinds :
1. Character ; Kind, smart, humble
2. Quality ; Good, bad, beautiful
3. Size ; Small, M, L, XL, huge, etc
4. Age ; Old, young, now, modern, tradisional
5. Temperature ; Hot, cold, warm
6. Participle V3 ; Broken Broken heart, closed person
Ving ; Intresting Interesting girl (gadis yang menarik)
7. Shape ; Square, ellips, circle
8. Color ; Purple, black, white
 Limitine Adjective
Kinds :
9. Article : a Utk mengawali kata yg cara bacanya conosonan
An Utk mengawali kata yg cara bacanya vocal
Penggunaan article “The”
Benda satu2nya : The sun, the sky, etc
Mengawali Benda yg paling/ter- : The most, the best, etc
Benda yang mewakili secara keseluruhan
E.g: The dolphin is an intelligent animal
Noun yang dijelaskan sebelumnya
E.g: Ari has a wife. The wife is from Jakarta.
Noun yang situasi / kondisinya sudah jelas
E.g: Ari is a secretary. Now is in the office

Article “the” tidak digunakan untuk mengawali

1. Restaurant, hotel, institusi (bernama)
E.g: Elfast, Ari’s Book Store, etc
2. Tempat Ibadah
E.g: Istqlal, etc
3. Waktu makan
E.g: Lunch, Breakfast, etc
4. Tempat yang sesuai fungsinya
E.g: At class X in the class
* “at” sesuai fungsinya X “in the” tidak sesuai fungsinya

5. Kata : By, home, work
6. Bidang studi / bahasa
E.g: Matematika, Arabic, etc
7. Nama benua, *Negara, Kota, Desa, Jalan, Gunung, Danau
* Negara Kalau ada kata united, union, republik. Maka harus
diawali “the”.
E.g: The UK, The USA, The soviet, The republik of Indonesia.


Definition : Jenis kata digunakan untuk mengawali Obj.

Kinds : Bound dan Free

1. Bound Prep.

Phrasal Verb Phrasal Noun

In, out, after In

Look At, up Pity At

On, down On

In To

Believe At Supply For

On To

To Attention For

Wait For In

In Influence At

Defen At On


* Tanda silang menandakan tidak bolehnya preposisi tersebut mengikuti verb

atau noun yang mengawalinya.

Phrasal adj.


Proud Of

To + (To Inf.)


Intrested At



Worry To



Angry In


* Tanda silang menandakan tidak bolehnya preposisi tersebut mengikuti

adjective yang mengawalinya.

2. Free Prep.


* At


10. To
11. For Untuk
Selama (Spesific time). E.g: 2 day, an hour, etc
12. During : Selama (Block if time).
E.g: During Ramadhan/holiday, etc
13. Since : Sejak (lampau)
14. By : Oleh, melewati, dengan cara, melalu, di dekat
15. From
16. Without
17. Within : Di dalam (memenuhi)
18. Under
19. Below
20. Above

21. Beside - Cross : Melewati
22. Next to - Pass
23. Behind - Into
24. In front of - Out of
25. Beneath : Di bawah - Up
26. Near - Down
27. Around - Inside
28. Round - Outside
29. Against - Through
30. Apposite - As : Seperti
31. Toward : Menuju - Like : Seperti
32. Beyond : Di ambang - About
33. But : Kecuali (conj.) / Tapi - Along with
34. After - Together with
35. Sebelum : Sebelum
36. Due to : Karena
37. Owing : Karena
38. Because of: Karena
39. Despite : Walaupun
40. Inspite of : Meskipun
41. Regardless of: Meskipun
42. Among : Di antara lbh dari 2
43. Between : Di antara 2

Easy exercise (error analiysis)

1. Ir. Soekarno, who is proclamed the independence of Indonesia was intrested

in the peace negotiation.
2. The goverment agree with the fact that the suspect can be seen by
photographs which was/is released by the police.
Conj. D
Yang benar: Photographs released by the police
V3 (Karena dia jatuh setelah adv)

Penggunaan In, at, on

In : Century, decade, year, month, season, part of the day
On : Day, date
At : Time, age, public holiday, part of day

In : Continent, country, city, village, inside
On : Street, surface, floor
At : Public area, address

Gambar 1 Gambar 2
A. Above
B.on K. Over
i. Up A. Pass/by
D. E. Next to B. Through
C. in C. D. Out of
J. Down Into
F. Beneath

G. H. Under
Below In front of the bus

x x x x x

In the front of the bus

At the back
In the back / beside

Mr. Anas


Kata yang menyatakan keadaan/aktivitas.

E.g: Love, miss, sweep ... etc

A. Macam-macam verb
1. Verb bare infinitive (Vbi). E.g: Go, visit
2. Verb additional infinitive (Vai). E.g: Goes, visits
3. To infinitive. E.g: To go, to visit
4. Present participle. E.g: Going, visiting
5. Past tense. E.g: Went, visited
6. Past pasticiple. E.g: Gone, visitied

B. Perubahan Vbi – Vai

1. Jika Vbi berakhiran “ch, sh, o, z, x, s”
- Watch Watches
- Do Does
- Fix Fixes
2. Jika verb berakhiran “y”
a. Didahului vocal
- Play Plays
b. Didahului konsonan
- Study Studies

C. Kedudukan Verb
V. auxiliary (Kata kerja bantu)
V. Ordinary (Kata kerja utama)
- Vbi, Vai, To infinitive, Present, Past, Past tense,
Past pasrticiple.
 V. auxiliary:
 Primary auxiliary: - Do: do/does, did
- Have: have/has, had
- Be: is/am/are, was/were, been, being.
 Modal auxiliary:
- Can – could
- Will – would
- Shall – should
 Menentukan aux dan ord
- Verb ordinary harus ada hanya 1 dalam setiap ordinary
- Jika ada verb >2, vord menempati posisi paling kanan
- Verb aux tidak ada dalam setiap kalimat
- Vaux bisa lebih dari 1 tapi maximal 3

D. Perubahan Vbi – Ving dan V2/V3
1. Jika verb berakhiran “e”
Vbi Ving V2 V3
Move Moving Moved Moved
Love Loving Loved Loved
Take Taking Took Taken

2. Jika verb berakhiran “ee”

Vbi Ving V2 V3
See Seeing Saw Seen
Agree Agreeing Agreed Agreed

3. Jika Verb berakhiran consonant + vocal + consonan (c+v+c)

E.g: - Sit cvc
- Feel cvvc
a. Terdiri dari suku kata
Vbi Ving V2 V3
Stop Stopping Stopped Stopped
Beg Begging Begged Begged
Cut Cutting Cut Cut

b. Terdiri dari dua suku kata / lebih

1. Penekana di awal
Vbi Ving V2 V3
‘Answer answering Answered Answered
‘Visit Visiting Visited Visited

2. Penekanan di akhir
Vbi Ving V2 V3
Be’gin Beginning Began Bega
Permit Permitting Permitted Permitted
Admit Admit Admitting Admitting

Aturan no. 3 tidak berlaku jika konsonan akhir berupa x, y, w.
Vbi Ving V2 V3
Borrow Borrowing Borrowed Borrowed
Fix Fixing Fixed Fixed

4. Jika Verb berakhiran “ie”
Vbi Ving V2 V3
Tie Tying Tied Tied
Lie Lying Lied Lied
Die Dying Died Died

5. Jika Verb berakhiran “y”

a. Didahului vocal
- Play Playing
- Pray Praying

b. Didahului konsonan
- Fry Frying Fried
- Cry Crying Criew


V1 V2 V3 Arti
Lie Lied Lied Berbohong
Lie Lay Lain Berbaring
Lay Laid Laid Meletakkan

- He is laying his baby on the bad

- He lay on the beach

E. Verb ditinjau dari object

1. Transitive verb (butuh object): terdapat pertanyaan “apa” dan “siapa”
Pola: S + T.V + O
E.g: Rihana bought some mangos
S Vt O
2. Intransitive verb (Tidak butuh object): terdapat pertanyaan kecuali “apa”
dan “siapa”.
Pola: S + I.V + (adv)
E.g: Tie is sitting beside Rahmah
S Vord/i adv

- He had been dayreaming Verbal, Intransitive (V.I)
- Randika did not do his duty Verbal Transitive (V.T)
- Ratna will be arranging the books V.T
V.ord O

 Macam-macam transitive verb
1. Monotransitive verb
Definition : Transitive verb yang memiliki satu object.
Pola : S + T.V + O
E.g: : He has just borrowed a pen V.MT

2. Ditransitive
Def : Transitive verb (T.V) yang memiliki dua object.
Pola : - S + T.V + I.O + D.O
- S + T.V + D.O + for/to + I.O
* I.O = Indirect Object. D.O = Direct Object
E.g: - Lia gave Ratna the red bike
- He bought the book for me
 Macam-macam intransitive verb
1. Complete intransitive
Def : Intransitive verb (I.V) yang tidak membutuhkan complement
of subject.
Pola : S + I.V + (adv)
E.g: : He was teacing in ordinary class.
2. Incomplete intransitive (linking verb)
Def : Intransitive verb yang membutuhkan complement of
Pola : S + I.V + Comlement of subject
E.g: : - He looks cold
LV CS ( Complement of Subject)
- She is my sister
- Her mother remains young
Linking Verb
Be + A N A (adjective, noun, adverb)
I.V (menjadi) + Adjective, noun, adverb


Def : Kata ganti

A. Personal pronoun (individu)

Subject Object
I Me
You You
We Us
They Them
She Her
He Him
It It

 Posisi subject
a. Sebelum verb dalam kalimat (+) dan (-), dan setelah V.aux jika dalam
kalimat tanya / introgative sentence.
E.g: - He was here
- I do not believe in you
- Have you hold lunch?
b. Setelah “Than” dan “as” dalam comparative
E.g: - Arum studies harder than he/him
* dalam dunia speaking biasa memakai “Him”. Tapi secara
grammatical harus menggunakan “He”.
-They are more diligent than I/me
* Alasan sama dengan yang di atas.
- We are as kind as they/them
* Alasan sama degan yang di atas.
c. Setelah “Be”
E.g: - It is he that come late
- It is we that go to Gumul

 Posisi object
- Setelah intransitive verb, dan setelah preposisi.
E.g: Lusi will invite we/us to watch the movie

B. Possesive Pronoun (Kepemilikan)

Possesive adj. Possesive Pronoun

My Mine
Your Yours
Our Ours
Their + Noun Theirs Tanpa noun
Her Hers
His His
Its Its
Poss. adj. selalu diikuti oleh noun dan poss. pronoun tdk boleh diikuti
oleh noun.
 My / mine car is being repaired.
 Your watch is diffrent from their / theirs.
 May I borrow yours / your car?
 My / Mine is being painted.
 Our teacher will invite his / her daughter to visit sani.
 Lisa called me last night when she did not understand my / mine

C. Reflexive Pronoun
- Adalah kata ganti yang kembali ke subjective.
I Myself
You Yourself / Yourselves
We Ourselves
They Themselves
She Herself
He Himself
It Itself

- Fungsi
1. Sebagai object of T.V
“The crazy men killed himself yesterday”
“Can you see yourself in mirror?”
2. Sebagai adverb Penekanan subject
“Lira and Lani themselves made the delicious fried rice”
3. Sebagai adverb / (alone)
“Lina is staying in that simple house by herself

D. Demonstrative Pronoun (Kata tunjuk)
Dem. Adj. Dem. Pro.
This This
That + Noun That Tanpa noun
These These
Those Those
- This car belong to him
- This is good story

E. Reciprocal pronoun
Kata ganti yang menggantikan hubungan keterkaitan subject.
 Each other = Saling antara 2 orang
 One another = Saling antara banyak orang
 My father and my mother loved each other
= Ayah dan Ibu saya sudah saling mencintai
 The student of Darul Kamal have recognised one another.
= Siswa Darul Kamal sudah saling mengenal satu sama lain.

F. Indefinite Pronoun
Every + one / Thing
Any Body
 Penulisan digabung kecuali No one
 Some dan kawan-kawan (dkk) jika diikuti oleh selain one / thing. Maka
some dkk menjadi adj. E.g:
- Some books
- Any car
- Etc
 Some dkk jika penulisan dipisah one / thing, maka
- Someone Some ones
- Something Some things
 Jika indefinite di subject
Ind. Pronoun + Singular Verb
- Someone has gone
- No one knows you = tidak seorang mengetahui kamu.

“No” digunakan untuk kalimat (+), tetapi memiliki arti (-)
- I will invite no one = Saya tidak akan mengundang siapa-siapa
- I can answer no question = Saya tidak dapat menjawab
 Jika “any” digunakan dalam kalimat (-) maka artinya akan sama dengan
“No” pada kalimat (+).
- I don’t have anymoney = I have no money
- She can not invite anyone = she can invite no one
- Anyone doesn’t know you = No one know you
 Any akan memiliki arti
- Anything = Apapun
- Anyone = Siapapun, jika digunakan di dalam kalimat (+)
- I will buy any book in that book store.
- She will invite anyone to have dinner.

1. Adverb
Adalah kata yang bisa menjelaskan:
a. Adj / Adv
- So glad
- Very quickly
b. Verb
I will meet you on Sunday
c. Sentence
Finally, I can get much money

 Macam-macam adverb
1. Adverb of manner (Keterangan cara)
- Adj + ly, seperti:
 Serious + ly = Seriously
 Neat + ly = Neatly
- Adv of manner tanpa ly
Adj Adv
Good Well
Fast Fast
Hard Hard
Late Late
Soon Soon
Alone Alone
Long Long
Etc Etc

Hardly = Seldom = Jarang
Lately = Akhir-akhir ini
Lonely = Adjective bisa diikuti noun. Seperti: Lonely girl
Berakhiran ly, tapi bukan adverb
- Costly = Mahal
- Lovely
- Curly
- Daily
- Weekly

- Posisi Adverb
1. Di akhir
 He will arrange has room neatly
2. Di tengah
 She was badly treated

2. Adverb of place
1. Word = Here, there, outside, etc
2. Phrase = in the car, in the class, etc


1. Di akhir (wajar)
He was sitting under the big tree
2. Di tengah (digunakan di cont.)
He was on the bad sleeping
3. Di awal
In the canda Birawa, we played football

3. Adverb of time
- Word : Now, yesterday, last night
- Phrase : at this moment, this night

1. Di akhir
 He is playing fotball now
2. Di awal
 This morning, she called me


Jika dalam kalimat terdapat adverb lbh dari satu. Maka:

- Yesterday the danced beatifully on the luxurious stage

adv. of manner adv. of place
- I will do the exam seriously in this class tomorrow
adv. of manner adv. of time
- S + V.t (O) + adv. M + adv. P + adv. T

* adv. M dan adv. P bisa ditukar posisinya

- Adv. T, S + V.t (O) + Adv. M + Adv. P

4. Adverb of frequency
- Always - Often - Rarely
- Seldom - Usually - Barely
- Sometime - Never - Hardly


1. Di awal
- Often, she forgets to do the homework.
2. Di tengah
- She always gets up late

Note!!! Jika negative adverb di awal, maka kalimat akan berpola:

Negative adv, aux + S + V

- Seldom
- Never
- Rarely
- Hardly
- Barely


- She seldom greets me = seldom does she greet me

5. Adv of degree (keterangan tingkatan)

- So - Quite - Some what (agak) + adj / adv
- Very - Enough
- Too - Rather (agak)
- Very high
- Rather fat

6. Adv. of emphasis
“Do, does, did, very much, so much, really”
“S + do / did / does +”
“S + Very much + V
So much
“S + really + V”
- Mereka sangat mengharapkan kedatanganmu
They do hope your coming /
They very much hope your coming / They really hope your coming
So much
- Ratna sangat merindukan ayahnya
Ratna really misses her father / Ratna does miss her father

7. Interogative adverb
Adalah kata tanya yang digunakan untuk menanyakan adverb. Di antaranya:
How, when, where, how often.
- How did you ride your bike?
- When will you go home?


- Adjective Vs Adverb
 Adj : Berposisi sebelum noun dan setelah anggota be / Linking Verb.
 Adv : Menempati posisi-posisi selain posisi dari adjective.


- Hard Vs Hardly
“He is hard to study”
“He studis hard
adv. manner
“He hardly studies”
adv. of frequency

- Late Vs Lately
“She was late to call me”
“She is coming late”
Lately, she has not called me”

 Conjunction
Kata penghubung

 Kalimat / Sentence
1. Simple sentence : Tidak mengandung conjunction.
E.g: She is digging the hole
2. Compound sentence
E.g: She or he has been helping me
Compound conjunction
3. Complex sentence
E.g: I will come if you come
Complex: Conj. yg bisa membentuk sub. Clause
When I am thirsty, I drink
Sub clause Main Clause

Compound Conjunction

A. Coordinate conj.
Conjunction yang menghubungkan elemen yang sama.
Pola: - Adj. Conj. Adj.
- N Conj N
- Sentence Conj. Sentence
1. For : Karena
E.g: Tie is crying for he has been beaten by his friend
Tidak bisa membentuk sub. Clause
2. And
E.g: He will invite Ria and Tiara
3. Or : Atau
E.g: He bought a red or blue book
4. Nor : Atau tidak
E.g: Yuli nor Yuni will call Heni = Yuli ataupun Yuni tidak akan menelpon
5. But : Tetapi
E.g: He is clever but he is arrogant
* But bisa berarti kecuali, He is boleh dihilangkan
6. Yet : Tetapi
E.g: He is clever yet he is arrogant
* He is tidak boleh dihilangkan / harus lengkap
7. So : Sehingga
E.g: He is sick so he is absent


- Yet, for, dan so menghubungkan sentence + v + conj. + s + v

- Jika dalam kalimat terdapat coordinate conjunction maka kalimat tersebut
berasal dari dua kalimat yang digabung.
 Indiana didn’t recognize Indah
 Risma didn’t recognize Indah
(-) Indiana nor risma did recognize Indah

 She can drive the car fast

 She can ride the motorcycle fast
She can drive the car and ride the motorcycle fast

B. Correlative conj.
Conjunction yang berpasangan

Both and
Not Only V, adj, adv, but also V. Adj.
Neither sentence Nor Sentence
Either Or

 She will repair not only her mother’s bike but also her father’s bike
 He usually studies both on the bad and on the cair
 Neither Fani nor Farah watered the corn yesterday


Jika correlative conj. di subject

- Both... and... +

- Neither... Nor... +
- Either... Or... + Verb ditentukan oleh subject yg ke 2.
- Not only... But also...+

* Both... and... / Not only... but also...

Digunakan untuk menggabungkan 2 kalimat positive (+)
E.g: Not only my mother but also my sisters are sleeping
* Neither... Nor
Digunakan untuk menggabungkan 2 kalimat Negative (-)
* Either... or
Untuk pilihan

Contoh penggabungan kalimat menggunakan correlative conj.

 Roni did not iron his t-shirts

 Roni did not iron his shirts
Roni ironed neither his t-shirts nor his shirts

 Ari is wearing the hat

 Riyan is wearing the hat
Both Ari and Riyan are wearing the hat

 Anang is swimming in Surowono

 Anik is swimming in Surowono
Not only Anang but also Anik is swimming in Surowono

 Rosita will not like to eat sate

 Rosita will not like to drink juice
Rosita will not like to neither eat sate nor drink juice

 Kemarin, saya tidak hanya berteman dengan Sudin akan tetapi saya
juga berteman dengan wanita.
Yesterday, I was friend with not only Sudin but also Wanita.

 Nia maupun Dhea tidak akan mengunjungi Yuli.

Neither Nia nor Dhea will visit Yuli.

Elliptical Structure

Adalah penggabungan dua kalimat yang hanya memiliki perbedaan di subject.

A. Penggabungan dua kalimat positif (+)

 So + auxiliary + Subject
 Subject + auxiliary + too
 Firman was coming
 Rida was coming
Firman was coming and so was Rida / Rida was too

 He swept the large yard

 She swept the large yard
He swept the large yard, so did she / She did too

B. Penggabungan dua kalimat negatif (-)
 Neither + aux + S
 S + aux + not + either
 Yuna was not tidying up Rozi’s room
 Lia was not tidying up Rozi’s room
Yuna was not tidying up Rozi’s room and Lia was not either / Neither
was Lia

Jika kalimat positive menggunakan auxiliary negative maka correlative
conj. yang digunakan adalah yang bermakna negative.
 Ria seldom calls Rani (+)
Aux (-)
 Rama seldom calls Rani (+)
Ria seldom calls Rani neither does rama

C. Penggabungan dua kalimat yang berlawanan

 But + S + aux + not
 Yuli get her salary
 Fajar did not get his salary
Yuli get her salary but fajar did not.